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A short Japanese throwing dart made of wood with a metal head. The shaft was sometimes fitted with feathers to stabilise it in flight.

Israel Science and Technology Directory

After the revolt of Bar Kokhba against the Roman Empire (132-135 C.E.), the Judea province was renamed Syria Palaestina by the Roman Emperor Hadrian to detach the Judean province from Jewish identity.

In recent history, the area called Palestine includes the territories of the present-day Israel and Jordan (see the map). From 1517 to 1917 most of this area remained under the rule of the Ottoman Empire.

During World War I, in 1917, the British army occupied Jerusalem. On November 2, 1917, the British foreign secretary Arthur James Balfour issued the Balfour Declaration for "the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people".

The Ottoman Empire was dissolved at the end of World War I in 1918. On April 19, 1920, the San Remo conference convened by four World War I Allied Powers - Britain, France, Italy and Japan - adopted a resolution noting that the Mandate for Palestine will be responsible for carrying out the Balfour Declaration, for the establishment of the Jewish national home.

In 1922 Britain allocated nearly 80% of Palestine to Transjordan. Thus, Jordan covers the majority of the land of Palestine under British Mandate. Jordan also includes the majority of the Arabs who lived there. In other words, Jordan is the Arab portion of Palestine.

In 1923, the modern Republic of Turkey (that is the successor of the Ottoman Empire), signed the Lausanne Treaty agreeing to transfer territories (including Palestine) to the control of the British Empire.

Under the British rule, the residents of Palestine were called "Palestinians". Since Palestine included both modern day Israel and Jordan, both Arab and Jewish residents of this area were referred to as "Palestinians".

It was only after the Jews re-inhabited their historic homeland of Judea and Samaria, after the Six-Day War, that the myth of an Arab Palestinian nation was created and marketed worldwide.

  • Jews come from Judea, not Palestinians.
  • To deny the historical tie of the Jewish People to the Land of Israel, Arabs started using the name "West Bank" for the territories that were known as Judea and Samaria. See historical maps of Palestine and Palestina that show the Biblical names of the so-called West Bank.
  • There is no language known as Palestinian. In Arabic even the letter "p" does not exist.
  • There has never been a land known as Palestine governed by Palestinians.
  • The great majority of Arabs in greater Palestine and Israel share the same culture, language and religion.
  • Much of the Arab population in this area migrated into Israel and Judea and Samaria from the surrounding Arab countries in the past 100 years.
  • The rebirth of Israel was accompanied by economic prosperity for the region. Arabs migrated to this area to find employment and enjoy a higher standard of living.
  • Even the Chairman of the Palestinian Authority, Arafat himself, was not a "Palestinian". He was born in Egypt.
  • The famous "Palestinian covenant" states that Palestinians are "an integral part of the Arab nation" -- a nation which is blessed with a sparsely populated land mass 660 times the size of tiny Israel (Judea, Samaria and Gaza included).
  • The founder of the Israeli Arab Balad Party, Mr. Azmi Bishara noted that there is no Palestinian nation and that the Arabs in Israel is part of the Arab Nation. (See video of interview with Azmi Bishara).

In documents not more than hundred years, the area is described as a scarcely populated region. Jews by far were the majority in Jerusalem over the small Arab minority. Until the Oslo agreement, the major source of income for Arab residents was employment in the Israeli sector. To this day, many Arabs try to migrate into Israel with various deceptions to become a citizen of Israel.

All attempts to claim Arab sovereignty over Israel of today, should be seen with their real intention: The destruction of Israel as a Jewish state and the only bulwark of the Judeo-Christian Western civilization in the Middle East.

Additional Resources:



    By Wild Bill The best, short and most accurate description of the meaning of Palestine. (Hebrew with English subtitles).

Oslo accords and "Peace Process"

The Oslo "Peace" accords have not brought peace. The number of terror attacks against Israel and the number of Israelis killed by Arab terror bombings greatly escalated after Oslo to a level that has not been seen since 1948 (see statistics). The Palestinian Authority has repeatedly violated all aspects of the agreement (see full report of violations).

Armed violence by the army of Arafat confirm the predictions that this agreement would escalate the conflict rather than subdue it (see article). In the history there are many examples of international "peace agreements" that were rapidly followed by major wars. A well known relevant case is the Munich agreement signed by Chamberlain from Great Britain and Hitler from Germany in 1938, which was rapidly revoked by Hitler as German armies invaded Czechoslovakia in 1939 (see article).

Uchi-Ne - History

Atlatl Literature Resources To report errors on this page or to add additional information, please contact: Ted Bailey Many thanx for all the Atlatl Reference Material submitted by: Melvyn Marlo Brown Dean Pritchard Pascal Chauvaux Cathryn A. Hoyt An Informal Collection of Atlatl References

By: Melvyn Marlo Brown
Reference Librarian, Branson Library
New Mexico State University

Date: Wed, 12 Jun 1996 17:40:16 -0600 (MDT)
From: Marlo Brown ([email protected])
To: [email protected]
Subject: books with atlatl/spear/dart information

There have been some recent questions on atlatl and dart design. I've found
some interesting information in some books and thought I'd mention it here.

Kurt Saxon's _The Waeponeer_ included a short article on throwing sticks to
be used with *arrows*. These throwing sticks used a peg to engage the nock
on the back of the arrow. The article was taken from an old _Popular
Mechanics_ or some similar magazine, if I remember right.

_Outdoor Survival Skills_ is an excellent book by Larry Dean Olsen which
tells how to survive in the wilds with Stone Age technology. This includes
the atlatl. He tells how to make one and use it. Photos show a student
launching a dart that's about 6' in length. The book also tells how to knap
flint for the points and how to make a primitive bow and arrows.

_Waepon s_, by The Diagram Group, shows examples of many types of devices,
including two atlatls. One is a woomera from Australia, and the other is
made from one piece of carved bone and is from prehistoric France. Another
cool artifact shown is the Japanese uchi-ne, a feathered fighting dart that's
between 30 and 40cm. in length. There is a whole chapter on hand-thrown
missles, including slings, clubs, boomerangs, edged devices and
spears. Although the treatment is fairly simple, this book will probably be
fascinating to anyone interested in "primitive" arms. Many public libraries
have it.

_Warfare in the Classical World: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of Waepon s,
Warriors and Warfare in the Ancient Civilizations of Greece and Rome_ is a
wonderful book which includes many full-color illustrations of "grunts" in
the ancient world. It also deals with battles, campaigns, strategies and
tactics. One of the most interesting entries shows the likely outcome of a
phalanx vs. a Roman unit using the pilum, or throwing spear to break up the
phalanx. Another illo shows the evolution of the Roman throwing spear, from
the heavy pilum to the plumbata, a throwing dart with an egg- shaped weight
to aid its penetration. One contemporary source credits the plumbata with
having the best range of all hand-thrown spears of its day. John Warry is
the author, and it was pubished by the University of Oklahoma Press. Dean Pritchard of Boise, ID found the following reference book containing atlatl information: "Stone Age in the Great Basin" by Emory Strong published by Binford & Mort out of Portland, Oregon. This is an excellent source of historical information for Stone Age artifacts within the Great Basin. It Should be available in any book store or library. Pascal Chauvaux of Cerfontaine, Belgium provided the following atlatl references: Bellier, C., and Cattelain, P., 1990, La Chasse dans la Préhistoire du Paléolithique au
Néolithique en Europe. CEDARC, Treignes, Belgium.
Cattelain, P., 1986, Traces Macroscopiques d,Utilisation sur les Propulseurs Paléolithiques. Helinium XXVI:193-205.Cattelain, P., 1988, Fiches Typologiques de l,Industrie de l,Os
Préhistorique. Cahier II: Propulseurs. Université de Provence, Aix-en-Provence

Cattelain, P., 1989, Un Crochet de Propulseur Solutréen de la Grotte de Combe-Saunière I
(Dordogne). Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française 86:213-216.

Cattelain, P., 1991, Les Propulseurs Paléolithiques: Utilisation et Traces d,Utilisation.
Archéologie Expérimentale, Tome 2 - La Terre. Actes du Colloque International
"Expérimentation en Archéologie: Bilan et Perspectives, pp. 74-81. Archéodrome de
Beaune, 1988. Errance, Paris.

Cattelain, P., and Perpère, M., 1993a, Quand les Préhistoriens Vont à la Chasse. Musée-
Homme, 1er trimestre 1993:51-54.

Cattelain, P., and Perpère, M., 1993b, Tir Expérimental de Sagaies et de Flèches
Emmanchées de Pointes de la Gravette. Archéo-Situla 17-20:3-25.

Cattelain, P., and Perpère, M., 1994, Tir Expérimental de Sagaies et de Flèches
Emmanchées de Pointes de la Gravette. Actes du Colloque International "Les sites de
Reconstitutions Archéologiques, Archéosite d,Aubechies-Beloeil, September 1993:94-100.

Cattelain, P., and Stodiek, U., 1996, Propulseurs Paléolithiques Inédits ou Mal Connus. La
Vie Préhistorique, pp. 76-79. Editions Faton, Dijon.

Cundy, B. J., 1989, Formal Variation in Australian Spear and Spearthrower Technology. BAR
International Series 546. British Archaeological Reports, Oxford.

Davidson, D. S., 1934, Australian Spear-traits and Their Derivations. Journal of the
Polynesian Society 43:41-72, 143-162.

Davidson, D. S., 1936, The Spearthrower in Australia. Proceedings of the American
Philosophical Society 76:445-483.

Geneste, J.-M., and Plisson, H., 1986, Le Solutréen de la Grotte Combe-Saunière, Première
Approche Palethnologique. Gallia Préhistoire 29:9-27.

Geneste, J.-M., and Plisson, H., 1990, Technologie Fonctionnelle des Pointes à Cran
Solutréennes: L,apport des Nouvelles Données de la Grotte de Combe-Saunière (Dordogne).
Feuilles de Pierre. Les Industries à Pointes Foliacées du Paléolithique Supérieur Européen
Feuilles de pierre. Les Industries à Pointes Foliacées du Paléolithique. Actes du Colloque de
Cracovie, 1989. ERAUL 42:293-320.

Morel, P., 1993, Impacts de Projectiles sur le Gibier: Quelques Eléments d,une Approche
Expérimentale. Traces et Fonction: Les Gestes Retrouvés. Colloque international de Liège,
1990. ERAUL 50:55-57.

Nelson, E. W., 1899, The Eskimo about the Bering Strait. Eighteenth Annual Report of the
Bureau of American Ethnology to the secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1896-1897.
Washington, D.C.

Petersen, H. C., 1986, Skinboats of Greenland: Ships and Boats of the North, Volume 1, pp.
69-97. National Museum of Denmark, Roskilde.

Plisson,H., and Geneste, J.-M., 1989, Analyse Technologique des Pointes à Cran
Solutréennes du Placard (Charente), du Fourneau de Diable, du Pech de la Boissière et de
Combe-Saunière (Dordogne). Paléo 1:65-106.Roth, R., 1992, Histoire de l,Archerie. Arc et
Arbalète. Max Chaleil, Montpellier.

Roth, W. E., 1909, North Queensland Ethnography, Bulletin 13. Fighting waepon s. Records
of the South Australian Museum VII:189-211, p. LVIII-LXI.

Rozoy, J.-G., 1978, Les Derniers Chasseurs. L,Epipaléolithique en France et en Belgique.
Essai de Synthèse. Bulletin de la Société Archéologique Champenoise, no. spécial.

Rozoy, J.-G., 1992, Le Propulseur et l,Arc. Chez les Chasseurs Préhistoriques. Techniques
et Démographie Comparées. Paléo 4:175-192.

Spencer, B., 1914, Native Tribes of the Northern Territory of Australia. Macmillan and
Company, London.

Stodiek, U., 1990, Jungpaläolithische Speerschleudern und Speere - ein Rekonstrucktionsversuch. Experimentelle Archäologie in Deutschland. Archäologische
Mitteilungen aus Nordwestdeutschland 4:287-297.

Stodiek, U., 1992, A Propos de l,Emmanchement des Propulseurs au Paléolithique
Supérieur. Le Peuplement Magdalénien, Paléogéographie Physique et Humaine. Colloque
de Chancelade, octobre 1988, pp. 317-331.

His aide and secretary, as well as right-hand man, was Zukimoto Chikitada. Α] Β]

In the summer of Wa Year� (1357 DR), Hiro was sent by the shogun to attend the Ceremony of the Three Thousand Steps in Aru, ostensibly to honor the daimyo of Aru Province, Benju Matsutomo, and secretly observe how he handled matters and whether the province was running as smoothly as reported. ΐ] Β]

He arrived in town without warning only a day or two before the ceremony and with a company of twenty samurai of the shogun's personal guard, led by Zukimoto. Hiro himself rode in a palanquin carried by four bearers. ΐ] Β] Hiro stayed at the daimyo's donjon in the Castle District. Δ] Finally, the Ceremony of the Three Thousand Steps went ahead, with Hiro, Benju, and their advisors and family in attendance. It was interrupted when the Yamaguchi ninja—who were meant to attack and disrupt the procession, so Eichiro Tanaka, mastermind behind them could step in with his forces and defeat them, thus discrediting Benju—instead surprised and betrayed Eichiro and his samurai, revealing the scheme to Hiro. Although surprised by all this, Hiro reviewed the evidence and convicted Eichiro on the spot. Desperate, Eichiro attacked Hiro Matsu, and was defeated by adventurers in Benju's service. Γ]


has long been a major part of the JAPANESE MARTIAL

As a general WEAPONRY TYPE. (click)

This LONG-POLE or STICK upgrade is also an invaluable

asset to your ARTS OF SELF-DEFENCE.

YARI …=…

The SPEAR is a (oft long) stick or pole with a sharp point

or edge. This gives it an advantage in close combat even

over THE SWORD. During many of the pre-gunnery battles,

after the ARCHERS have darkened the heavens.

Swordsmen were oft dominated and decimated

at the end of a SPEAR. A well practiced team

of such Warriors become formidable opponents

on the field. A defensive yet offensive spiky hedgehog

WALL OF SPEARS effect. effective indeed.


The modern MOVIE version of such ANCIENT Battles

is very dramatically epitomised in THE 300 series of films.

(a Shiro fav.btw ) for those interested in seeing over-dramatic

and cinematic MARTIAL MAYHEM melodramatica,

even pointed SPARTAN SPEAR Techniques. Indeed.


The SPEAR has length, more than sufficient to scatter

opponents, deflect and parry other weapons as well

as the applicable thrusting, snaring, striking,

cutting and slashing type capabilities.

The nature of this ANCIENT Weaponry Form,

when combined with Tempered Blade Steel

and relatively overall lightweight construction

ensures extreme maneuverability and versatility

for the proficient and practiced (click).

Creating space and open distance which allows

SELF-DEFENCE essentials, easier and further applied.

MALE SAMURAI… SPEAR OF THE WAY WARRIOR… TARGETING ARROWS INDEED. Woodcut Print of “Ronin (Masterless Samurai) Fending Off Arrows” – 1869 Artist- Yoshitoshi Taiso.


worked on SPEARS with the same renowned care and precision

they put into the iconic SAMURAI SWORD

and other BLADED WEAPONRY (click).

The SPEAR SHAFT was in no way disregarded,

being constructed from sound + solid wood,

of appropriate hardness, thickness and type.

Japanese EVERGREEN OAK ( akagashi 赤樫 )

was predominantly used, valued for it’s natural

uniform tight grain structure.


This was then prepped, seasoned and treated

before being reinforced with binding, strips,


Usually at all the strategic areas, of contact and impact

as well as the joins and stress absorption sections too. These

could in turn, be finely and ornately decorated, to add

to the overall awesome aesthetic quality also.

Several methods were also developed of securely

attaching SHAFT + SPEAR-HEAD dependent on such

as BLADE-TANG length, width and type.

No point… in losing the point here.


The YARI/SPEAR SHAFT, in general.

comes in one of three cross-section/profile shapes.


The rapid growth of the tourism industry left its mark on the labour market, which saw a dramatic shift away from agriculture and toward services. In part because of lack of training among the general population, a number of foreign workers from South Asia provide skills needed to help develop businesses. As businesses on resort islands away from the general populace demanded an increasing share of the total labour force, the participation rate of women, who are discouraged by the culture from living away from their families, fell substantially. About three-fifths of women participated in the labour force in the 1970s, but the rate dipped as low as one-fifth of women in the mid-1990s. By the 2010s, however, the participation rate had recovered to about half of women.

Beginning in 2011, the Maldives collected taxes primarily on the profits of businesses and financial institutions and on goods and services within the tourism sector. An income tax was implemented in 2020.

The Meifu Shinkage-ryū ( 明府真影流 ) is a modern school of [[Shurikenjutsu|Shuriken hi ref> Otsuka, Yasuyuki (2015). Meifu Shinkage Ryu - Fundô Kusarijutsu - Shurikenjutsu (2 ed.). p. 152. </ref> It was founded by Chikatoshi Someya ( 染谷親俊 , Someya Chikatoshi ) in the 1970s. Someya was a student of Yoshio Sugino of the Katori Shintō-ryū, although the throwing style used in Meifu Shinkage-ryū is different. Someya refined the Katori style of throwing, making it shorter, faster and more concealed.

The Meifu Shinkage-ryū is a small school of about 30 students who train in Tokyo, Japan under the instruction of the present Sōke, Yasuyuki Ôtsuka. This school is almost entirely composed of students of other martial arts schools. Ôtsuka welcomes students from any art or country. Currently around 200 international students train in Meifu Shinkage-ryū (Otsuka, personal communication October 18, 2016), divided in official Branches and Keikokai (study groups). Ôtsuka calls himself a "shuriken teacher and researcher." There is a specific kind of shuriken called a Meifu Shinkage-ryū shuriken, but Ôtsuka teaches and students will often practice throwing shuriken from many different schools, most of which are now extinct.

And Malaysian Martial Arts

The region of Indonesia and Malaysia is home to many different types of combat systems. For example, Indonesia's three thousand islands are spread across three thousand miles of ocean encompassing many different kinds of weapon systems - from the Batak of Sumatra's expertise with the blowpipe to the Sea Dayaks of Boreno use of the mandau (long knife).

The Kris

The kris is considered to be the national weapon of both Indonesia and Malaysia. It is a double-edged dagger a length of 12 to 16 inches. The blade may be either wavy or straight (with wavy blades being more common). For a full description and combat tables, see Sections 13.0 and 18.0. This weapon is associated with many myths and legends in both cultures. It is said that given the proper incantation water can be drawn from the weapon. A kris is said to be able to kill a designated victim by simply pointing at him. Stories are also told of a kris jumping out of its sheath to protect its owner or rattling within its sheath to warn of danger. The incredible feats associated with the kris are attributed to the supernatural power of the weapon. Each kris is connected to its true owner from the time of the forging of the blade. The tuju (kris sorcery) also allowed the owner to kill a man by stabbing his shadow or his footprints. It has also been said that the kris can control fire by influencing its direction of motion.

All the magical properties attributed to the kris are to be used only in true need and never for display. The selection of a kris is a time-consuming and deliberate action. The fame of the maker of the kris, the pattern of the blade, the number of times the blade has shed blood, and other marks help the prospective owner determine if the blade is right for him.

The kris occupies a central portion in the cultures of this region. In Java during the nineteenth century, criminals were executed by kris and the wearing of the kris was considered a mark of social distinction.

Similar to the myths and legends associated with the kris are also stories of the mystical power of the spear. Legends speak of a spear chasing a band of enemies for three miles and killing all but one of them. The Sea Dayak of Borneo wields the mandau, a long single-edged blade similar to the machete. The handle of this weapon was usually adorned with human hair. The scabbard of this blade is brightly colored and is usually also adorned with human or animal hair or teeth.

Missile weapons used in this region revolve around the use of the blowpipe and the bow and arrow. The blowpipe is a common weapon in Java, Sumatra, the Celebes, and Borneo.7 What made the blowpipe such adangcrous weapon was the poison on the tips of the small missiles. This poison was usually derived from a species of stingray native to the waters of this region.


The national form of defense of Indonesia is pentjak-silat. This combat system appears to have first developed in the Sumatran Minangkabau kingdom in Indonesia. Over the following centuries it spread to the rest of the island of Indonesia. Some scholars say that the inspiration for pentjak-silat is due to the Chinese martial arts that strongly mimicked animal attacks. Local legend says that a peasant woman first discovered this combat system when she watched a tiger and large bird fight to the death.

The word pentjak means "a system of self-defense" and silat as "fencing, to fend off. " Pentjak is practiced alone or with a training partner in a carefully controlled exercise, not unlike the Japanese kata forms. An unusual feature of this training exercise is that the use of percussive instruments as background music and training aids are frequently used. This can help the new student learn his timing and focus in this martial art. Silat can also be practiced separately, but it is most commonly practiced against a partner. There are over 150 recorded styles ofpentjak-silat. Almost all the pentjak-silat techniques operate on a responsive and adaptive style of fighting. The movements of this system are based on the movements of animals or people. These styles make no use of warming up or preparatory exercises because itrecognizes that in combat a person will have no time for these types of exercises.


This is a brief overview of Japanese martial arts.

The Bugei and Ryu

Like China, Japan possesses a long history of martial arts tradition. The bugei or martial arts were founded and taught by family organizations called ryu and later by non-bloodline organizations called ryu-ha. Each ryu or ryu-ha had its own unique perspective on the bugei it taught. Scholars have calculated that at one point in history over seven thousand unique ryu and ryu-ha schools existed in Japan. One of the most important ryus in Japanese history is the Tenshin Shoden Katori Shinto ryu. The founder of this ryu, Iizasa Choisai Ienao Sensei, was born in 1387 in Chiba Prefecture, forty miles from present-day Tokyo. As

■^■■■■■■■■■■■HHHHHHaBHHBl a young man he became a skilled fighter and served as a retainer to the Chiba family. He took part in many battles and saw the destruction of numerous family lines. When Chiba fell, he retreated to seclusion in the Katori Shrine at the age of 60, where he engaged in daily worship and martial arts training. After a period of one thousand days, Choisai founded the teachings that became known as Tenshin Shoden Katori Shinto Ryu. The prefix "tenshin shoden" means heavenly, true correct tradition and was used because Choisai Sensei believed he had assembled the correct and true teachings. He lived until he was 102 years old and left behind a great body of martial arts and philosophical teachings that were deeply rooted in Zen philosophy. These teachings, in turn, were avidly followed by Japanese professional warriors known as bushi. After the Muromachi period (1392-1573), these warriors were referred to by a more commonly known name: samurai.

The Influence of Zen on the Bushi/Samurai The feudal Japanese warrior presented a fierce sight. He approached battle with an immovable will and a desire for displaying his combat skills to win personal glory and prove his loyalty to his master. While traditional Buddhism is generally based on compassion and gentleness, bushi were militant warriors. Zen, however, was one of the less militant sects of Buddhism in feudal Japan that survived because most of the bushi followed its teachings? The noted Japanese scholar, D. T. Suzaki, offers this insight: In Japan, Zen was intimately related from the beginning of its history to the life of the samurai. Although it has never actively incited them to carry on their violent profession, it passively sustained them when they have for whatever reason entered into it. Zen has sustained them in two ways, morally and philosophically. Morally, because Zen is a religion that teaches us to not look backward once the course is decided upon philosophically, because it treats life and death indifferently.

Zen taught the bushi to become self-reliant, self-deny-ing, and above all, single-minded to the degree that no attachments or fears could sway them from their course. Zen also contributed to the development of the bushi with its concept of mushin no shin or "mind of no-mind." By entering into this state of meditative awareness, the bushi could react without any conscious thought to danger. The concepts of implicit trust in fate, submission to the inevitable and composure in the face of adversity were well ingrained in the bushi. Another factor that heavily influenced the acts of the bushi was the concept of bushido, the way of the warrior?


Bushido was developed after centuries of military experience and philosophical influence from other Asian countries. It was never developed as an explicit written code but rather, was communicated directly from leader to follower. Bushido incorporated Confucian ideas such as ancestor respect and filial piety. Furthermore, the rise of the military brought the idea of a bond of loyalty based on honor rather

• than kinship. A true follower of bushido was said to possess these seven virtues: justice, courage, benevolence, politeness, veracity, honor, and loyalty. It's interesting to note that amongst all this tradition, superstition managed to play a role in the life of the bushi. This was based on the nine signs or kuji no in.

KujI no in

The nine signs or kuji no in is a practice of a Buddhist sect followed by many Japanese martial artists. Each sign has a name and each corresponds to a special meaning. By making the hand gestures of the nine signs followed by a secret tenth movement, a warrior was said to gain good fortune. The sign name and the corresponding meaning follow.

Rin—Signifies physical strength

Pyo—Is associated with the channeling of energy and is though to deflect objects To—Achieves harmony and inner peace Sho—Promotes healing

Kai—Is associated with premonition or foreseeing Jin—Allows for the opening of one's awareness to the thoughts and intentions of others Retsu—Is associated with the mastery of time and space Zai—Signifies control of both will and mind Zen—Advances enlightenment

To be effective in battle, however, the Japanese warrior could not leave everything to fate. While the nine signs might have been practiced by all bushi, it was the extensive and rigorous training in martial arts or bugei that helped them attain both personal glory the handsome monetary rewards for services rendered. Before listing the bugei that bushi engaged in, it is important to distinguish the bugei, which are martial arts initiated in tenth century Japan, from the budo or martial ways that were developed in twentieth century Japan.

Bugei versus Budo

The bugei include the jutsu forms as well as other combat systems. The bugei were developed for maximal effectiveness in a combat situation. The budo, which includes the do forms, such as kendo, judo, karate-do, and iai-do, were developed from the existing bugei and are more concerned with attaining spiritual discipline through which individuals can attain self-perfection. Budo are less combat-oriented and lack the practical aspect of their predecessors. In some cases, the budo have deviated so far from their origins to have almost no value in a combat situation. Unlike budo, however, the bugei are intensely combat-driven fighting systems and include the following: Ba-jutsu—Horsemanship Bo-jutsu—Staff art

Chigiriki-jutsu—Technique of using a ball and chain on a short stick

Fuki-baki—Technique of blowing small needles by mouth

Gekigan-jutsu—Technique of using a ball and chain

Jitte-jutsu—Technique using a short metal rod

Ju-jutsu—Fighting with minimal use of weapons

Development of Martial Arts iiiiiiliiiiilililiiiliiiiiiilil^

Kusarigama-jutsu—Technique using a ball, chain, and sickle weapon Kyu-justu—Bow and arrow technique Naginata-jutsu—Halberd technique Sasumata-jutsu—Technique using a forked staff to hold a foe

Shuriken-jutsu—Technique of throwing small bladed weapons

Sodegarami-jutsu—Technique using a barbed pole to catch a foe So-jutsu—Spear technique Sumai—Armored grappling Tessen-jutsu—Technique of using a small iron fan Tetsubo-jutsu—Technique of using a long iron bar Uchi-ne—Throwing the arrow by hand

Of all the fighting systems incorporated under bugei, the two most important ones to master were ken-jutsu and iai-jutsu. The reason was the Japanese sword was the most important weapon for any warrior to master.

The Japanese Sword

The bushi carried two blades, the o-dachi or long sword and the ko-dachi or short sword. The dimensions of the swords varied over Japanese history but some generalizations are possible. The long sword had a blade a little over two feet long and was generally a foot longer than the short sword. The blades were one and a quarter inches thick and tapered to a razor edge. The back of the blades sometimes contained a blood grove to make withdrawal from an enemy's body easier and to collect the blood on the blade. The types of swords most commonly associated with the bushi are the katana and wakizasha swords. These are grouped under the tachi swords and are known for their long blades and curved single-edged shape.

A great deal of ritual and customs dealt with the care and handling of these weapons. When confronted with a person with unknown intentions, the bushi kept his long sword close at hand. When kneeling in respect, if a warrior positioned his sword to the right he signaled noble intentions. If on the other hand, the sword was positioned on the left of the kneeling warrior, he signaled hostility or lack of trust of his host. In the house of a friend, the bushi might leave his long sword in the custody of a retainer but he would continue to carry his short sword. The host would keep his swords in easy reach at all times even in his own house. If a guest placed his sword with the handle facing his host, it was considered an insult against the skill of the host. To step over the sword of another as it lay on the ground was also considered to be an insult. The Japanese warrior considered the his sword to be his "soul." To touch or dishonor another's sword in any way was to invite a duel to the death.

The armor of the bushi was equally regarded, as it reflected his worth and prowess in battle therefore, they were religiously maintained. The armor of the bushi was lightweight to provide the maximum amount of mobility and speed needed for combat. The armor was typically made of thin sheets of iron, hides, lacquered paper, cloth, and sharkskin. The armor covered the vital areas and was designed not to restrict his movement. Unlike European armor, bushi armor was not designed to withstand powerful direct strikes. Rather, it was designed to survive glancing blows and weak attacks. The breastplate was typically made of overlapping iron plates bound with metal clamps or silken cords. It was decorated with family crests and colors. The helmet of the bushi was a bowl-shaped device made of iron and secured to the head with silk cords. Notable bushi had ornate front pieces attached to their helmets signifying their clan or leadership. The shins were protected by flexible coverings, as were the arms. The body armor as a whole was usually decorated with a strong and impressive color scheme that usually had some significance to the house or clan the warrior was associated.

Korea possesses a rich history of martial tradition. The Korean combat systems have traditionally favored empty-handed techniques and missile weapons. The reasons for this development are due to the heavy influence of calvary techniques that used the bow and the relatively late introduction of metallurgy techniques to Korea. Chinese cultural influence played a strong part in the development of Korea's unarmed combat systems. Korean philosophical thought also lead to the ideas that inspired the code of Bushido in Japan.


Okinawa has always been a center for the exchange of ideas and trade between Japan and China, being situated just off the East China Sea and very close to Japan as well. In the late fifteenth century, a new king arose to power in Okinawa and banned the carrying of weapons by any one not associated with the government to quiet rebellion at the start of his reign. This ban remained in force throughout most of Okinawa's history up to the nineteenth century? These restrictions lead to the development of karate, a rich martial art technique practiced by the native Okinawans. Many new types of weapons were pioneered by Okinawan martial artists due to the restrictions placed upon them, including the nunchaku, sai, kama, and tonfa.


Traditionally European fighting systems have been less well developed than their Asian counterparts. Where an Asian fighting system may be seen as a "way of life," the European fighting system is seen as a system of mechanical movements or simple recreation. In spite of this, Europe still has some interesting martial arts that have been developed in its rich history.

Early History

The earliest martial disciplines developed in Europe were the events centered on the Greek festivals, the most famous of these being the Olympic games. Some of the events included javelin throwing, boxing, and wrestling? The pancratium was a contest that involved both wrestling and boxing and sometimes ended in the death of one of the combatants. In general these events were seen as public entertainment or a recreational sport, and were not considered to be true fighting systems.

The Middle Ages

During the Middle Ages, a specialized class of warriors called the knights rose to prominence. The knight could be considered to be the European equivalent of the Asian martial artist. Medieval knights lived by a code in which skill at arms played a central part. Mounted fighting skills formed the core of chivalry. The budding knight primarily learned his skills from within the family. Young nobles practiced their fighting skills every day. The martial skills of the knight were displayed at the tourney. These tournaments could become very dangerous affairs often resulting in deaths.

Knights formed exclusive societies like the Knights Templar and the Knights of Malta. These groups of knights blended their martial skills with religious conviction, not unlike their counterparts in Asia.

The Renaissance

A codified fighting system for European martial arts did not develop until the end of the Middle Ages and the start of the Renaissance. In the Renaissance era, armor became lighter and fighters began to rely on their skill and agility in combat. The nobles and the new middle class began to practice and learn (or be tutored) the art of self-defense and combat with the blade. The influx of the new middle class lead to the formation of fighting schools that taught them the skills needed for combat. The change from heavy armor cleaving weapons to lighter blades formulated fundamen tal changes in fighting strategy. The superiority of the point and quickness asserted itself and the art of fencing was born.

In European history there were many schools of fencing. The earliest and most famous schools came from Spain and Italy. The Italian schools of fencing attempted to simplify the cuts and thrusts of the blade. The Spanish schools of fencing mystified fencing through the inclusion of geometry and natural science. Because of their more practical bent, the Italian schools soon surpassed the Spanish schools of fencing.

The early teachers of fencing did not teach a codified method of fighting, but rather taught secret maneuvers and tricks that they had learned. Like other martial arts masters, the teachers of fencing were secretive, holding back their best tricks and maneuvers for their most worthy (or wealthy) students.

Unarmed Fighting Systems

Unlike the unarmed fighting systems of the East, the unarmed fighting systems of Europe have been viewed more as sports than actual deadly fighting systems. Unlike the Eastern fighting styles, the European unarmed fighting systems have not been closely linked to medicine.

Savate or chausson was developed in France during the 19th century. Of all the European martial arts, savate bears the closest resemblance to the Asian fighting systems. It is believed to be developed from a folk combat art in which punching, kicking, and tripping were permitted. Despite its similarities, it has been confined to recreational uses and it has never been offered as a "way of life" to its practitioners. Savate also taught the use of the walking cane in its unarmed combat techniques.

Uchiha Specialties

  • The 6th Realm is a place of higher existence. Very little knowledge is known about the 6th Realm. Uchiha has claimed to have gone there for a long period of time. He explains that the portal to the 6th Realm only opens up every 500 earth years. The only ways to enter are DMT and high-intensity sex with a Sakura-chan or a Portal Kombat tournament.
  • Mr. Chang has said he has been to the 6th Realm.
  • Uchiha Jones was suspected of murdering Deputy Tony Tiger, and was given the 9's (held until trial). Uchi referred to being in prison as the "9th realm" due to his sentencing even writing on the cafeteria wall Welcome to the 9th realm.
  • The Heck Realm is basically hell with a lot of demons planning to invade the Earth Realm.
  • The Earth Realm is where humans exist. Uchiha has to save the mortals from the incoming demon invasion from Heck Realm.
  • Ichipunch (1 , 2)
  • Prone Bone Style (1)
  • Clam Stacking
  • Car Hood Sliding
  • Self Cucking
  • Motorcycle Crashing (1 ,2 ,3 ,4, 5, 6 )
  • Sha!

Uchiha has dark inner monologues, in which his vision turns red. They happen after interacting with other civilians.

  1. [Mission Accepted] Uchiha had to search for Alabaster Slim, after multiple people told him he was missing. Apparently, Slim wasn't missing at all, and Gomer told Uchiha that he was talking to Slim on the phone. [Mission End]

The Meifu Shinkage-ryū ( 明府真影流 ) is a modern school of [[Shurikenjutsu|Shuriken hi ref> Otsuka, Yasuyuki (2015). Meifu Shinkage Ryu - Fundô Kusarijutsu - Shurikenjutsu (2 ed.). p. 152. </ref> It was founded by Chikatoshi Someya ( 染谷親俊 , Someya Chikatoshi ) in the 1970s. Someya was a student of Yoshio Sugino of the Katori Shintō-ryū, although the throwing style used in Meifu Shinkage-ryū is different. Someya refined the Katori style of throwing, making it shorter, faster and more concealed.

The Meifu Shinkage-ryū is a small school of about 30 students who train in Tokyo, Japan under the instruction of the present Sōke, Yasuyuki Ôtsuka. This school is almost entirely composed of students of other martial arts schools. Ôtsuka welcomes students from any art or country. Currently around 200 international students train in Meifu Shinkage-ryū (Otsuka, personal communication October 18, 2016), divided in official Branches and Keikokai (study groups). Ôtsuka calls himself a "shuriken teacher and researcher." There is a specific kind of shuriken called a Meifu Shinkage-ryū shuriken, but Ôtsuka teaches and students will often practice throwing shuriken from many different schools, most of which are now extinct.

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