Fred H. Moore

Fred H. Moore

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Fred H. Moore was a lawyer who began his career working for railroad companies. He then established an office in Los Angeles. Moore became a socialist and in 1912 took the case of a friend, who was a member of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) and had been arrested while making a speech in San Diego.

After this case Moore usually represented IWW members. This included defending those people arrested during the strike at the American Woolen Company in Lawrence, Massachusetts. The Lawrence Textile Strike became so violent that as William Cahn has pointed out in his book Lawrence 1912: The Bread and Roses Strike (1977): "To safeguard the health of small children during the strike, parents would send them to relatives and friends in other cities. Small tots were bundled up, with identification tags hung around their necks, and sent off to spend a few weeks in New York or Bridgeport or Barre or Philadelphia. Usually a reception demonstration would be given the children upon their arrival in a community.

The governor of Massachusetts ordered out the state militia and during one demonstration, a fifteen-year old boy was killed by a militiaman's bayonet. Soon afterwards a woman striker, Anna LoPizzo was shot dead. The union claimed that she had been killed by a police officer, but Joseph Caruso, a striker, was charged with her murder. Arturo Giovannitti and Joseph Ettor, who were three miles away speaking at a strike meeting, were arrested and charged as "accessories to the murder".

Fred Moore was sent to was sent to Lawrence to defend the men. Faced with growing bad publicity, on 12th March, 1912, the American Woolen Company acceded to all the strikers' demands. By the end of the month, the rest of the other textile companies in Lawrence also agreed to pay the higher wages. However, Giovannitti and Ettor remained in prison without trial. Protest meetings took place in cities throughout America and the case eventually took place in Salem. On 26th November, 1912, both men were acquitted.

In 1919 the Workers Defense Union asked Fred Moore to defend Charles Krieger, an Industrial Workers of the World organizer who had been accused of dynamiting the home of a Standard Oil official in Tulsa, Oklahoma. IWW leader Elizabeth Gurley sent Eugene Lyons to help him. In his autobiography, Assignment in Utopia (1937): "Moore, rather sinister-looking under his broad-brimed Western hat took in my hundred-odd pounds of scrawny youthfulness, my poetic haircut, the bohemian untidiness of my clothes, in one scowling inspection. He did not trouble to hide his disgust." Moore commented: "And I thought Gurley was sending us a man!" Another helper was the writer, Lola Darroch, who later married Moore.

During the trial that lasted ten weeks, Moore and Lyons had a tip-off that a vigilante group under the control of Standard Oil, Committee of One Hundred, intended to lynch Moore and Lyons. This never happened because according to Lyons, after the trial they discovered "that we had been under the sharp-eyed protection of a little army of private gunmen, under orders to shoot down the first man who touched us." Fred Moore managed to show that Krieger was a victim of a Standard Oil frame-up and the jury found him not guilty. Lyons argued: "Books about the American labor and radical movements have not done justice to Moore. A brilliant lawyer, quixotically devoted and self-sacrificing, he was handicapped by a genius for non-conformity."

On 5th May, 1920, Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were arrested and interviewed about the murders of Frederick Parmenter and Alessandro Berardelli, in South Braintree. The men had been killed while carrying two boxes containing the payroll of a shoe factory. After Parmenter and Berardelli were shot dead, the two robbers took the $15,000 and got into a car containing several other men, and driven away. Several eyewitnesses claimed that the robbers looked Italian. A large number of Italian immigrants were questioned but eventually the authorities decided to charge Sacco and Vanzetti with the murders. Although the two men did not have criminal records, it was argued that they had committed the robbery to acquire funds for their anarchist political campaign.

Moore agreed to defend the two men. Eugene Lyons, carried out research for Moore. Lyons later recalled: "Fred Moore, by the time I left for Italy, was in full command of an obscure case in Boston involving a fishmonger named Bartolomeo Vanzetti and a shoemaker named Nicola Sacco. He had given me explicit instructions to arouse all of Italy to the significance of the Massachusetts murder case, and to hunt up certain witnesses and evidence. The Italian labor movement, however, had other things to worry about. An ex-socialist named Benito Mussolini and a locust plague of blackshirts, for instance. Somehow I did get pieces about Sacco and Vanzetti into Avanti!, which Mussolini had once edited, and into one or two other papers. I even managed to stir up a few socialist onorevoles, like Deputy Mucci from Sacco's native village in Puglia, and Deputy Misiano, a Sicilian firebrand at the extreme Left. Mucci brought the Sacco-Vanzetti affair to the floor of the Chamber of Deputies, the first jet of foreign protest in what was eventually to become a pounding international flood."

The trial started on 21st May, 1921. The main evidence against the men was that they were both carrying a gun when arrested. Some people who saw the crime taking place identified Bartolomeo Vanzetti and Nicola Sacco as the robbers. Others disagreed and both men had good alibis. Vanzetti was selling fish in Plymouth while Sacco was in Boston with his wife having his photograph taken. The prosecution made a great deal of the fact that all those called to provide evidence to support these alibis were also Italian immigrants.

Vanzetti and Sacco were disadvantaged by not having a full grasp of the English language. Webster Thayer, the judge was clearly prejudiced against anarchists. The previous year, he rebuked a jury for acquitting anarchist Sergie Zuboff of violating the criminal anarchy statute. It was clear from some of the answers Vanzetti and Sacco gave in court that they had misunderstood the question. During the trial the prosecution emphasized the men's radical political beliefs. Vanzetti and Sacco were also accused of unpatriotic behaviour by fleeing to Mexico during the First World War.

Eugene Lyons has argued in his autobiography, Assignment in Utopia (1937): "Fred Moore was at heart an artist. Instinctively he recognized the materials of a world issue in what appeared to others a routine matter... When the case grew into a historical tussle, these men were utterly bewildered. But Moore saw its magnitude from the first. His legal tactics have been the subject of dispute and recrimination. I think that there is some color of truth, indeed, to the charge that he sometimes subordinated the literal needs of legalistic procedure to the larger needs of the case as a symbol of class struggle. If he had not done so, Sacco and Vanzetti would have died six years earlier, without the solace of martyrdom. With the deliberation of a composer evolving the details of a symphony which he senses in its rounded entirety, Moore proceeded to clarify and deepen the elements implicit in the case. And first of all he aimed to delineate the class character of the automatic prejudices that were operating against Sacco and Vanzetti. Sometimes over the protests of the men themselves he cut through legalistic conventions to reveal underlying motives. Small wonder that the pinched, dyspeptic judge and the pettifogging lawyers came to hate Moore with a hatred that was admiration turned inside out."

In court Nicola Sacco claimed: "I know the sentence will be between two classes, the oppressed class and the rich class, and there will be always collision between one and the other. We fraternize the people with the books, with the literature. You persecute the people, tyrannize them and kill them. We try the education of people always. You try to put a path between us and some other nationality that hates each other. That is why I am here today on this bench, for having been of the oppressed class. Well, you are the oppressor." The trial lasted seven weeks and on 14th July, 1921, both men were found guilty of first degree murder and sentenced to death. The journalist. Heywood Broun, reported that when Judge Thayer passed sentence upon Sacco and Vanzetti, a woman in the courtroom said with terror: "It is death condemning life!"

Bartolomeo Vanzetti commented in court after the sentence was announced: "The jury were hating us because we were against the war, and the jury don't know that it makes any difference between a man that is against the war because he believes that the war is unjust, because he hate no country, because he is a cosmopolitan, and a man that is against the war because he is in favor of the other country that fights against the country in which he is, and therefore a spy, an enemy, and he commits any crime in the country in which he is in behalf of the other country in order to serve the other country. We are not men of that kind. Nobody can say that we are German spies or spies of any kind... I never committed a crime in my life - I have never stolen and I have never killed and I have never spilt blood, and I have fought against crime, and I have fought and I have sacrificed myself even to eliminate the crimes that the law and the church legitimate and sanctify."

In 1925 Celestino Madeiros, a Portuguese immigrant, confessed to being a member of the gang that killed Frederick Parmenter and Alessandro Berardelli. He also named the four other men, Joe, Fred, Pasquale and Mike Morelli, who had taken part in the robbery. The Morelli brothers were well-known criminals who had carried out similar robberies in area of Massachusetts. However, the authorities refused to investigate the confession made by Madeiros.

Important figures in the United States and Europe became involved in the campaign to overturn the conviction. John Dos Passos, Alice Hamilton, Paul Kellog, Jane Addams, Heywood Broun, William Patterson, Upton Sinclair, Dorothy Parker, Ben Shahn, Edna St. Vincent Millay, Felix Frankfurter, John Howard Lawson, Freda Kirchway, Floyd Dell, Bertrand Russell, George Bernard Shaw and H. G. Wells became involved in a campaign to obtain a retrial. Although Webster Thayer, the original judge, was officially criticised for his conduct at the trial, the authorities refused to overrule the decision to execute the men.

Eugene Debs, the leader of the Socialist Party of America, called for trade union action against the decision: "The supreme court of Massachusetts has spoken at last and Bartolomeo Vanzetti and Nicola Sacco, two of the bravest and best scouts that ever served the labor movement, must go to the electric chair.... Now is the time for all labor to be aroused and to rally as one vast host to vindicate its assailed honor, to assert its self-respect, and to issue its demand that in spite of the capitalist-controlled courts of Massachusetts honest and innocent working-men whose only crime is their innocence of crime and their loyalty to labor, shall not be murdered by the official hirelings of the corporate powers that rule and tyrannize over the state."

By the summer of 1927 it became clear that Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti would be executed. Vanzetti commented to a journalist: "If it had not been for this thing, I might have lived out my life talking at street corners to scorning men. I might have died, unmarked, unknown, a failure. Now we are not a failure. This is our career and our triumph. Never in our full life can we hope to do such work for tolerance, justice, for man's understanding of man, as now we do by accident. Our words - our lives - our pains - nothing! The taking of our lives - lives of a good shoemaker and a poor fish peddler - all! That last moment belong to us - that agony is our triumph. On 23rd August 1927, the day of execution, over 250,000 people took part in a silent demonstration in Boston.

The novelist, Upton Sinclair, decided to investigate the case. He interviewed Moore and according to Sinclair's latest biographer, Anthony Arthur: "Fred Moore, Sinclair said later, who confirmed his own growing doubts about Sacco's and Vanzetti's innocence. Meeting in a hotel room in Denver on his way home from Boston, he and Moore talked about the case. Moore said neither man ever admitted it to him, but he was certain of Sacco's guilt and fairly sure of Vanzetti's knowledge of the crime if not his complicity in it." A letter written by Sinclair at the time acknowledged that he had doubts about Moore's testimony: "I realized certain facts about Fred Moore. I had heard that he was using drugs. I knew that he had parted from the defense committee after the bitterest of quarrels.... Moore admitted to me that the men themselves had never admitted their guilt to him, and I began to wonder whether his present attitude and conclusions might not be the result of his brooding on his wrongs."

Sinclair was now uncertain if a miscarriage of justice had taken place. He decided to end the novel on a note of ambiguity concerning the guilt or innocence of the Italian anarchists. When Robert Minor, a leading figure in the American Communist Party, discovered Upton Sinclair's intentions he telephoned him and said: "You will ruin the movement! It will be treason!" Sinclair's novel, Boston, appeared in 1928. Unlike some of his earlier radical work, the novel received very good reviews. The New York Times called it a "literary achievement" and that it was "full of sharp observation and savage characterization," demonstrating a new "craftsmanship in the technique of the novel".

From one labor fight to another he drifted, taking on the cases that could not afford the more publicized attorneys, the hopeless, desperate cases in the labor struggle. Many of those legal battles have become famous in American labor history - the Ettore-Giovanniti case; the Spokane free speech fight; the Everett, Washington, case; the Bisbee, Arizona, case; the Wichita I.W.W. case-but no share of this fame accrued to him. Always he quarreled with the defense committees or the clients or got himself into some private emotional scrape and lost the laurels of victory. Even in the Sacco-Vanzetti case, to which he gave four years - and there probably would have been no such case if Moore had not taken hold of it and turned it to a cause celebre - a well-paid capitalist lawyer in the end reaped the credit and the fame.

The dynamiting charge against "Big Boy" Krieger, a tall, rawboned Pennsylvania Dutchman, was so palpably a frame-up that no one even pretended it was anything else. The average citizen of Tulsa, which was then ruled by a vigilante Committee of One Hundred, merely had a sporting interest in whether the Standard Oil crowd could make their fantastic invention stick. The case was the last stage of a determined effort of the oil interests to drive I. W.W, union agitation, which had been making considerable headway, out of the state. Organizers had been beaten, tarred and feathered, ridden out on rails. But they kept coming back like so many pesky flies. One night someone set off dynamite under the Pew porch, where Mrs. Pew normally slept. She wasn't there, it happened, and not much harm was done. But the press promptly headlined it as Red Terror and the authorities proceeded to round up every known and suspected I.W.W. in Oklahoma.

The police were considerably chagrined when it appeared that not one of the men taken into custody had been in or near Tulsa the night of the explosion. After the recent tar-and-feather parties, the Wobblies had apparently kept at a distance from the city. But that little detail did not checkmate patriotic ardor. The Red Terror, the police decided, had been applied by absent treatment.

Fred Moore was at heart an artist. Instinctively he recognized the materials of a world issue in what appeared to others a routine matter. A socialist newspaperman spent a few days in Boston and returned to New York to report that "there's no story in it ... just a couple of wops in a jam." Not one of the members of the defense committee formed immediately after the men's arrest suspected that the affair was anything larger than it seemed. If he had not done so, Sacco and Vanzetti would have died six years earlier, without the solace of martyrdom.

With the deliberation of a composer evolving the details of a symphony which he senses in its rounded entirety, Moore proceeded to clarify and deepen the elements implicit in the case. Small wonder that the pinched, dyspeptic judge and the pettifogging lawyers came to hate Moore with a hatred that was admiration turned inside out. He was not "playing the game" according to their sacred rules.

Perhaps his most difficult task, and therefore his most creative achievement, was to show the two Italians as types and symbols of workmen everywhere. Labor elements in other countries recognized Sacco and Vanzetti as their own long before American workers consented to this identification. American labor, and especially the portion organized into conservative trade unions, at first rejected violently the implication that these two foreigners-self-confessed anarchists, internationalists, atheists-were in any sense representative American workers. Their social views were "unAmerican." To accept them as brothers was to throw doubt on the middle-class delusions of the bona fide labor movement.

It was Fred Moore, Sinclair said later, who confirmed his own growing doubts about Sacco's and Vanzetti's innocence. Moore said neither man ever admitted it to him, but he was certain of Sacco's guilt and fairly sure of Vanzetti's knowledge of the crime if not his complicity in it. This knowledge had not prevented Moore from doing whatever he could to save the two men, perhaps including illegal activities. The entire legal system was corrupt, Moore insisted, assuring Sinclair that "there is no criminal lawyer who has attained to fame in America except by inventing alibis and hiring witnesses. There is no other way to be a great criminal lawyer in America.

Fred H. Moore, Sr. Obituary

&ldquoUncle Fred was part of that big group of Moore men that Daddy loved. His mother Mable Davis told great stories about her father and her brothers and. Read More » &rdquo
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Funeral services for Fred H . Moore , Sr ., of Start, LA were held at 2:00 PM, Sunday, September 30, 2012 at Start Baptist Church, Start, LA, with Rev. Jeff Smart officiating. Interment followed in Start Cemetery, Start, LA, under the direction of Brown-Holley Funeral Home, Rayville, LA.

Fred was born June 11, 1920 in Rayville, LA, and passed away Thursday, September 27, 2012 in Monroe, LA at the age of 92. He is preceded in death by his wife, Viola Simpson Moore parents, Harland and Mary Williams Moore sons, Charles R. Moore , John E. Moore daughter-in-law, Elaine Farley Moore brothers, James, Harvey, Tommy, Harrold "Joe", Horace, Raymond and Felix sisters, Mable, Dolly and Florence.

Survivors include his sons, Fred H . Moore , Jr. and wife, Ethel of Start, Kenneth D. Moore and wife, Cindy of Sterlington, LA, Mike Moore and wife, Nita of Start daughter-in-law, Barbara Moore of Davenport, Iowa 12-grandchildren 16-great grandchildren and a host of nieces, nephews and cousins.

The family would like to express their appreciation to Mrs. Betty Crawford for her dedicated and loving care of Mr. Moore .

Pallbearers were Brian Allen, Brandon Moore , Chuck Moore , Nicky Smith, Bubba Moore , David Moore , Elliott Colvin, and Will Minchew.

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Biography of Fred H. Moore Jefferson County, NY Biographies Fred H. Moore. - Outstanding among the citizens of Watertown, both for his professional ability and for his public spirited concern in the affairs of the community, is Fred H. Moore, who is serving as clerk of Jefferson County. He was born in this city, Nov. 14, 1879, the son of Jacob H. and Mary E. (Steadman) Moore. Jacob H. Moore and his wife were natives of Albany County, N. Y. He died in 1915 and his wife died in 1923. Fred H. Moore attended the local public schools and entered the law offices of Smith & Reeves. He was admitted to the New York State bar in 1902, and until 1921 successfully engaged in the practice of law in this city. He has since served as the capable clerk of Jefferson County. Politically, Mr. Moore is a Republican, and he has held the office of secretary of the Jefferson County Republican committee. He was elected chairman in May, 1930, and reelected in September of that year. He has served as assistant district attorney of Jefferson County, and as alderman of the Fifth Ward. Mr. Moore is a member of Trinity Episcopal Church, and is affiliated with the Masonic and Elk lodges. He is identified with the Jefferson County Bar Association, and belongs to the Lincoln League. The North Country A History, Embracing Jefferson, St. Lawrence, Oswego, Lewis and Franklin Counties, New York. By: Harry F. Landon Historical Publishing Company Indianopolis, Indiana 1932 Freddy Moore's wife talks Demi Moore’s shocking cheating claim, says musician is battling Alzheimer's

In her new memoir 'Inside Out,' Demi Moore opens up about her difficult childhood and shares a story of when she was raped at age 15. The man reportedly paid her mom $500 to have sex with her.

Freddy Moore’s wife Renee Moore is coming forward after Demi Moore admitted she cheated on the musician in her shocking tell-all “Inside Out.”

Moore wrote in "the night before we got married, instead of working on my vows" she snuck out of her bachelorette party and slept with a man she met on a movie set.

The rock musician's wife Renee, whom he married in 2005, addressed the bombshell revelation in an exclusive statement to Fox News.

“We have not seen the book, so can’t and won’t comment on any specifics,” Renee told us Thursday. “What I will say is that Rick [Freddy] and Demi were married a long time ago when both of their lives were very different. In the time since they have both moved on to their own paths.”

Demi Moore and Freddy Moore during "Fridays" Wrap Party at ABC Studios in Los Angeles, California, United States. (Photo by Ron Galella/Ron Galella Collection via Getty Images)

According to Renee’s blog, It’s Not a Rumour, Freddy, who was born Frederick George Moore, was diagnosed with Alzheimer’s at age 60.

“Rick is, like too many others, struggling with the horrors of Alzheimer’s,” she explained. “Our thoughts and efforts are focused on his care. Before the disease progressed he did write his story, and at some point that will be shared in his own book. We see this as his, much as I’m sure Demi sees her book as her own.”

Freddy Moore and Demi Moore during "Fridays" Wrap Party at ABC Studios in Los Angeles, California, United States. (Photo by Ron Galella/Ron Galella Collection via Getty Images)

Through the blog, Renee has been raising awareness of the devastating disease that impairs memory and has encouraged readers to reach out about how it has impacted their own families.

“I married the love of my life,” wrote Renee in a post dated February of this year. “He was brilliant, a genius in fact, handsome, and so loving and giving, the sweetest person you could ever meet. He was an amazing songwriter, musician and singer. We would have conversations until the early hours of the morning and being together was heavenly.”

“After 35 years of loving each other and marriage, we got the horrible news that Rick had Alzheimer’s disease at age 60,” she continued. “But 60? It is such a young age 60. Men even have kids at 60, my dad did. People don’t retire until 65. Getting this news was the saddest day of my life.”

Freddy and Moore tied the knot when she was just 18 in 1980. The couple called it quits in 1985.

When The Daily Mail caught up with the musician on Wednesday, he made "crazy" gestures when asked about the tales in the book, the outlet said, but added that he was going to "read it as fast as [he] can."

This actress was born as Demetria Gene Guynes. (Reuters)

In her memoir, now a bestseller, Moore looks at why she cheated on her husband before the wedding.

“Why did I do that?” Moore wrote. “Why didn’t I go and see the man I was committing to spend the rest of my life with to express my doubts. Because I couldn’t face the fact that I was getting married to distract myself from grieving the death of my father. Because I felt there was no room to question what I’d already put in motion. I couldn’t get out of the marriage, but I could sabotage it.”

Rumer Willis, Demi Moore, Bruce Willis, Scout Willis, Emma Heming Willis and Tallulah Willis attend Demi Moore's "Inside Out" book launch party on Sept. 23, 2019 in Los Angeles. (Getty)

The Brat Pack star went on to marry actor Bruce Willis in 1987. The two stars share three daughters: Rumer, 31, Scout, 28, and Tallulah Belle, 25. The couple divorced in 2000.

Moore began dating Ashton Kutcher in 2003, a relationship she described to the New York Times earlier this month as “a do-over.”

“Like I could just go back in time and experience what it was like to be young, with him — much more so than I’d ever been able to experience it when I was actually in my 20s,” said Moore about their 15-year age difference.

Ashton Kutcher and Demi Moore at the premiere of "No Strings Attached" at the Regency Village Theatre in Los Angeles, Jan. 11, 2011. Moore alleged that Kutcher shamed her for her alcohol abuse during their marriage. (Reuters)

The paper said Moore became pregnant after she and Kutcher began dating. She lost the child, a girl she would have named Chaplin Ray, six months into the pregnancy.

After the couple married in 2005, Moore and Kutcher reportedly sought out fertility treatments. However, Moore relapsed and began drinking and abusing Vicodin. Moore claimed Kutcher had cheated on her. The couple separated in 2011 and divorced two years later.

Moore told the Times she wasn’t concerned that anything she wrote in her memoir would impact her Hollywood career.

November 16, 2014. Actress Demi Moore poses at the Santa Barbara International Film Festival 9th Annual Kirk Douglas Award for Excellence in Film in Santa Barbara, California. (Reuters)

“There’s nothing I have to protect,” she explained. “Really. I’m definitely not interested in blaming anyone. It’s a waste of energy. I hope that everyone that’s in the book feels like it’s — I don’t know what I hope they feel. Good, not bad.”

Jon Cryer recently responded to Moore’s claim that she took his virginity during their time together on the set of their 1984 movie “No Small Affair.”

“I played a young nightclub singer, and Jon Cryer played the 19-year-old photographer who falls in love with her, in his first movie role,” Moore wrote, according to People. “Jon fell for me in real life, too, and lost his virginity to me while we were making that movie.”

She added: “It pains me to think of how callous I was with his feelings — that I stole what could have been such an important and beautiful moment from him.”

On Tuesday, Cryer, 54, longtime star of the sitcom "Two and a Half Men," addressed an article about the excerpt on Twitter, writing: "Well, the good thing about this is she doesn’t have to feel bad about it anymore, because while I’m sure she was totally justified making that assumption based on my . skill level (and the stunned look on my face at the time), I had actually lost my virginity in high school," he clarified.

"But she’s right the other part, I was over the moon for her during a very troubled time in her life," he added. "I have nothing but affection for her and not a regret in the world."

Fox News’ Mariah Haas and Jessica Napoli contributed to this report.

Fred Moore

When a friend couldn’t make a scheduled interview with Walt Disney because of a toothache, 19-year-old Fred Moore seized the opportunity and went in his place. A natural draftsman, with no formal art training except for a few night classes he earned in exchange for janitorial work at Chouinard Art Institute, Fred won the job. His animation genius would subsequently be imprinted on Disney films and an entire generation of fledgling artists, whom he inspired through his impeccable drawings.

Storyman Larry Clemmons once recalled, “He was such a help to other guys. Guys would come in his room and say, ‘Fred, how would you do this?’ Fred would say, ‘Well, here!’—and he’d show them—he didn’t lecture, he just did it.”

Born Robert Fred Moore on September 7, 1911, he attended Polytechnic High School in Los Angeles. While growing up, Fred often submitted drawings to the Los Angeles Junior Times, a magazine for young people. Each time a drawing of his was published, Fred earned what he called “bright Junior Times buttons,” in lieu of cash.

Fred earned a lot of buttons by the time he joined Disney. While there, he transformed the look of Mickey Mouse from the traditional “rubber hose and round circle” school of drawing, which used a “squash and stretch” technique that made the character appear more elastic, to the beloved character still in design today.

The hallmark of Fred’s drawing style, however, was his uncanny ability to give emotion, charm, and appeal to his characters, while also making their actions more convincing.

When he animated the pigs in Three Little Pigs, for instance, Fred also won Walt’s highest praise that “at last, we have achieved true personality in a whole picture.” Fred contributed to nearly 35 shorts in all, including Pluto’s Judgement Day, Three Orphan Kittens, which won an Oscar ® , and Brave Little Tailor, which was nominated for an Academy Award ® .

In 1934, Walt named Fred directing animator of the Dwarfs in the Studio’s first feature-length animated film, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. The Dwarfs were among Fred’s crowning achievements, according to animators Frank Thomas and Ollie Johnston. In their book Disney Animation: The Illusion of Life, they wrote, “In the public’s mind there have been no more memorable characters than the Dwarfs.” Other characters Fred brought to life included Lampwick in Pinocchio, Timothy in Dumbo, and the Centaurettes in Fantasia.

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Fred was born on March 25, 1929 and passed away on Tuesday, February 1, 2011.

Fred was a resident of Drummonds, Tennessee.

The information in this obituary is based on data from the US Government's Social Security Death Index. No further information is available. More details on this data source are provided in our Frequently Asked Questions section.

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Fred H. Moore - History

Fred M. Moore, Jr. Union Grand Council Knights of Pythagoras

The period around 500-600 B.C. was extraordinary for the number of men whose thought would profoundly affect the world from that time forward.

In India, Prince Siddhartha was becoming the Gautama Buddha. In China, it was the time of Lao-tse and Confucius. In the western world, it was the time of Pythagoras.

In our modern perspective on "history", everything before Plato and Aristotle is murky, and even semi-mythic. We tend to see everything before the rise of Periclean Athens as primitive an arrogant and fallacious perspective. Pythagoras, some seven generations before Plato, was a philosopher/scientist in a line of teaching already thousands of years old, the Orphic tradition.

The major names we know from this ancient line are Orpheus (semi-mythological), Hermes Trismegistus of Egypt (legendary), Pythagoras, (historical personage), and Plato. The classic writers regarded Orpheus as the greatest spiritual master, Pythagoras the greatest scientist, and Plato the greatest philosopher in this line of teaching.

From our perspective we see the historical Pythagoras as an originator, but it would be more accurate to see him as the inheritor of a very ancient body of teaching, as is demonstrated in his own biography Most of his life was spent traveling, studying the accumulated wisdom of the ancient world from Egypt to India.

We can trace his path fairly accurately from Roman and Greek sources. Pythagoras left his birth island of Samos (in the third year of the 53rd Olympiad), at the age of 18, to spend the next 40 years studying with the greatest teachers of all schools in the ancient world. He spent 22 years in Egypt, and another 12 years in Babylon. He also studied in India, and with teachers in Crete and Sparta.

It was not until the age of 56 (in the 62nd Olympiad) that Pythagoras settled in the Italian city of Crotona. Crotona was one of the many Greek colonies around the northern Mediterranean, the autonomous cities of Magna Graecia.

In Crotona he established his Academy and its religious-scientific- philosophical-political movement, the secret wisdom school known as the Pythagorean Brotherhood. The Academy was to endure, in some form, for approximately 200 years after Pythagoras' death.

At about the same time Pythagoras married for the first time. His wife Theano was the daughter of Pythagoras' most famous disciple, Milo of Crotona, from whose house Pythagoras managed his school. (Men and women were admitted to the Academy on an equal basis, and Theano was a disciple at the Academy in her own right. Pythagoras' father-in-law and eminent disciple, Milo of Crotona, was the most famous wrestler of antiquity, winner of six Olympic Games.)

Pythagoras and Theano had seven children, four girls and three boys. After the murder of Pythagoras, Theano took over management of the Academy and one of the daughters, Damo, was entrusted with preserving, and keeping secret, her father's writings.

The Pythagorean Brotherhood was the archetypal Secret Society, whose inner teachings were available only to the initiates. It was a severe and authoritarian discipline. For the first five years of apprenticeship the applicants were not permitted to speak or to ask questions. Their teacher spoke to them from the other side of a curtain. When students, male or female, were initiated into the esoteric inner school, they joined an active dialogue "behind the curtain."

The body of Pythagorean teaching is known through the writings of others. Only two preserved letters are believed to have been directly written by Pythagoras. The wisdom of the initiates was never intended as public knowledge.

It was probably resentment of this elitist discipline of the Brotherhood that led to Pythagoras' murder at 80. The most frequent story goes that the richest, most powerful citizen of Crotona, named Cylon, applied to Pythagoras for discipleship, and was refused for reasons of bad personal character -- specifically, being "of a harsh, violent, turbulent Humor."

Enraged by the rejection, Cylon assembled a small private army. Waiting until a meeting at the disciple Milo's house, Cylo's thugs set the house afire, killing Pythagoras and forty of his disciples. This was in the 4th year of the 70th Olympiad, after Pythagoras had lived in Crotona for 20 years.

Other sources claim Pythagoras' murder was a simple political assassination, owing to the enormous political influence the Brotherhood had acquired in the colonies of Magna Graecia.

Fred H. Moore - History

Fred Moore:
An African-American Leader in Denton

Fred Moore was born Jan. 1, 1875. His mother was Mary Jane Goodall, an African-American whose parents had been slaves. She was called Janie. Because she was born in the time of slavery, she was never taught to read or write. Fred's father was an Indian man who disappeared six months before Fred was born.
It was cold and snowing the night Fred was born. Dr. Owsley, a woman doctor who helped deliver most of the babies in Denton at that time, came to help Janie with her new baby. She also helped Janie name the baby Frederick Douglas after the famous African-American leader.
When Fred was first born, Janie worked for a family in west Denton and she carried her baby with her to work. They made a cradle for the baby to stay in while he was there. She didn't earn much money, but she also was paid in food and clothes for the baby, so she managed to care for Fred.
When Fred was a year old, Janie married Henry Lucien Moore. Henry Moore adopted the baby, so Fred's full name became Frederick Douglas Moore. After their marriage, Janie and Henry Moore moved two miles south of the Owsley home and Janie worked for the Owsleys. Later, they moved to Mill Street where Henry worked at the old Davenport Mill. He lost his job when the mill burned. He then went to work at a brick plant carrying bricks and mortar. After the college that is now the University of North Texas opened, Henry became its first janitor.
Denton was still a frontier town when Fred was little. There were no electric lights. There were only a few streets. Lanterns hung at the street corners to illuminate the crossings.
The Moores lived in a one-room log house with two windows. The kitchen was in a side-room, a practice at those times to keep the heat from cookstoves away from the main living area. The house had a wood plank floor, which Janie kept clean by putting lye in the water when she mopped the floor. They had two very high beds, with mattresses filled with hay or straw.
Outside, the Moores had what was called a clean dirt yard or swept yard, the same kind of yard that most people had then. The grass was scraped away with a hoe, and the ground was swept regularly to keep it free of grass and weeds. They kept ducks, geese, chickens and pigs. Behind the house was an orchard where pear, plum, and peach trees grew, and grapes grew on the fence.
The Moores joined the Methodist Church. Traveling preachers came by horseback or horse and buggy to preach at the church, and they usually stayed at the Moore home while in Denton. Traveling peddlers in covered wagons also came by the house, selling or trading such hard-to-get items as pins, needles, threads, buttons and tobacco.
Fred had chores, such as carrying in the wood for his mother's cookstove, but he also had time to play. He liked to make pictures on the ground using berries, sticks and rocks. He used clay to make figures of people and animals and mixed mud with sticks to make tiny houses.
Fred started to school when he was seven years old. He learned to write so well that by the time he was ten, he was appointed secretary of the Sunday School at his church. He loved school and church. He made good grades in school, and he learned to play many musical instruments. He continued to be active in his church and was elected superintendent of Sunday schools when he was 19. He began collecting books and articles about the Bible and teaching his mother from them.
His schooling ended when he finished the ninth grade. It was time for him to go to work. His first job away from home was at a bank and he later worked at barbershops. Then he began using his musical talents. He organized a 14-piece band that played for events all over the county and he organized a string band that played for white people's dances. His bands became popular and he became known as the Professor. He met his wife, Sadie, when he took his band to Lewisville to play for a Juneteenth picnic and celebration. Fred and Sadie were married in 1902.
Eight years later, Sadie heard about a vacancy in the school for African-Americans in Denton. She convinced Fred that he should turn to education as a profession. He began studying and then passed an examination to earn his teachers certificate. He became principal of the school in 1915, beginning a career in education that spanned 40 years.
He kept studying during those early years, borrowing money to go to summer school. He attended Prairie View State Normal and Industrial College from 1917 to 1921, graduating in 1921. He later attended Fisk University and did graduate work at Columbia University in New York.
As teacher and principal in public school, a Sunday School official and leader in his church and community, Fred Moore influenced generations of students with his philosophy based on the following rules of conduct:

Exercise self-control control tongues, thoughts, temper and actions.
Be thrifty.
Never ridicule or defile the character of another.
Keep your self-respect and help others to keep theirs.
Kindness be kind in thoughts and never despise anyone.
Be kind in speech, never gossip or speak unkindly of others.
Good health is important. Keep yourself clean in body and mind.
Be self-reliant, but listen to the advice of wiser and older people.
Develop independence and wisdom.
Act according to what seems right and fair.
Never fear being laughed at for doing what is right.
Be brave. A coward does not make a good citizen.
Always play fair. Never cheat.
Always treat your opponents with courtesy.

Fred Moore was an honored citizen of Denton for many years. City landmarks such as Fred Moore Park and Fred Moore School were named in his honor. He died Oct. 1, 1953.

*Information for this biography is from the book, Fred Moore, by his wife, Sadie Moore.


On the night of Christmas Eve, a family is settling down to sleep when the father is disturbed by noises on the lawn outside. Looking out the window, he sees Saint Nicholas in a sleigh pulled by eight reindeer. After landing his sleigh on the roof, Saint Nicholas enters the house down the chimney, carrying a sack of toys. The father watches his visitor fill the stockings hanging by the fireplace, and laughs to himself. They share a conspiratorial moment before Saint Nicholas bounds up the chimney again. As he flies away, he wishes a "Happy Christmas to all, and to all a good night."

The authorship of A Visit is credited to Clement Clarke Moore who is said to have composed it on a snowy winter's day during a shopping trip on a sleigh. His inspiration for the character of Saint Nicholas was a local Dutch handyman as well as the historic Saint Nicholas. Moore originated many of the features that are still associated with Santa Claus today while borrowing other aspects, such as the use of reindeer. [2] The poem was first published anonymously in the Troy, New York Sentinel on 23 December 1823, having been sent there by a friend of Moore, [1] and was reprinted frequently thereafter with no name attached. It was first attributed in print to Moore in 1837. Moore himself acknowledged authorship when he included it in his own book of poems in 1844. By then, the original publisher and at least seven others had already acknowledged his authorship. [3] [4] Moore had a reputation as an erudite professor and had not wished at first to be connected with the unscholarly verse. He included it in the anthology at the insistence of his children, for whom he had originally written the piece. [3]

Moore's conception of Saint Nicholas was borrowed from his friend Washington Irving, but Moore portrayed his "jolly old elf" as arriving on Christmas Eve rather than Christmas Day. At the time that Moore wrote the poem, Christmas Day was overtaking New Year's Day as the preferred genteel family holiday of the season, but some Protestants viewed Christmas as the result of "Catholic ignorance and deception" [1] and still had reservations. By having Saint Nicholas arrive the night before, Moore "deftly shifted the focus away from Christmas Day with its still-problematic religious associations". As a result, "New Yorkers embraced Moore's child-centered version of Christmas as if they had been doing it all their lives." [1]

In An American Anthology, 1787–1900, editor Edmund Clarence Stedman reprinted the Moore version of the poem, including the Dutch spelling of “Donder” and German spelling of "Blitzen" that he adopted, rather than the version from 1823 "Dunder and Blixem" that is more similar to the old Dutch “Donder en Blixem” that translates to "Thunder and Lightning". [5]

Modern printings frequently incorporate alterations that reflect changing linguistic and cultural sensibilities. For example, breast in "The moon on the breast of the new-fallen snow" is frequently bowdlerized to crest the archaic ere in "But I heard him exclaim ere he drove out of sight" is frequently replaced with as. This change implies that Santa Claus made his exclamation during the moment that he disappeared from view, while the exclamation came before his disappearance in the original. "Happy Christmas to all, and to all a good-night" is frequently rendered with the traditional English locution "Merry Christmas". [ citation needed ]

Moore's connection with the poem has been questioned by Professor Donald Foster, [6] who used textual content analysis and external evidence to argue that Moore could not have been the author. [7] Foster believes that Major Henry Livingston Jr., a New Yorker with Dutch and Scottish roots, should be considered the chief candidate for authorship, a view long espoused by the Livingston family. Livingston was distantly related to Moore's wife. [7] Foster's claim, however, has been countered by document dealer and historian Seth Kaller, who once owned one of Moore's original manuscripts of the poem. Kaller has offered a point-by-point rebuttal of both Foster's linguistic analysis and external findings, buttressed by the work of autograph expert James Lowe and Dr. Joe Nickell, author of Pen, Ink and Evidence. [3] [8] [9]

Evidence in favor of Moore Edit

On January 20, 1829, Troy editor Orville L. Holley alluded to the author of the Christmas poem, using terms that accurately described Moore as a native and current resident of New York City, and as "a gentleman of more merit as a scholar and a writer than many of more noisy pretensions". [10] In December 1833, a diary entry by Francis P. Lee, a student at General Theological Seminary when Moore taught there, referred to a holiday figure of St. Nicholas as being "robed in fur, and dressed according to the description of Prof. Moore in his poem". [11] Four poems including A Visit from St. Nicholas appeared under Moore's name in The New-York Book of Poetry, edited by Charles Fenno Hoffman (New York: George Dearborn, 1837). The Christmas poem appears on pp. 217–19, credited to "Clement C. Moore". Moore stated in a letter to the editor of the New York American (published on March 1, 1844) that he "gave the publisher" of The New-York Book of Poetry "several pieces, among which was the 'Visit from St. Nicholas.'" Admitting that he wrote it "not for publication, but to amuse my children," Moore claimed the Christmas poem in this 1844 letter as his "literary property, however small the intrinsic value of that property may be". A Visit from St. Nicholas appears on pp. 124–27 in Moore's volume of collected Poems (New York: Bartlett and Welford, 1844). Before 1844, the poem was included in two 1840 anthologies: attributed to "Clement C. Moore" in Selections from The American Poets, edited by William Cullen Bryant (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1840), pp. 285–86 and to "C. C. Moore" in the first volume of The Poets of America, edited by John Keese (New York: S. Colman, 1840), pp. 102–04. The New-York Historical Society has a later manuscript of the poem in Moore's handwriting, forwarded by T. W. C. Moore along with a cover letter dated March 15, 1862 giving circumstances of the poem's original composition and transmission after a personal "interview" with Clement C. Moore. [12]

After A Visit from St. Nicholas appeared under Moore's name in the 1837 New-York Book of Poetry, newspaper printings of the poem often credited Moore as the author. For example, the poem is credited to "Professor Moore" in the 25 December 1837 Pennsylvania Inquirer and Daily Courier. Although Moore did not authorize the earliest publication of the poem in the Troy Sentinel, he had close ties to Troy through the Protestant Episcopal Church that could explain how it got there. Harriet Butler of Troy, New York (daughter of the Rev. David Butler) who allegedly showed the poem to Sentinel editor Orville L. Holley, was a family friend of Moore's and possibly a distant relative. [13] A letter to Moore from the publisher Norman Tuttle states, "I understand from Mr. Holley that he received it from Mrs. Sackett, the wife of Mr. Daniel Sackett who was then a merchant in this city". [14] The reported involvement of two women, Harriet Butler and Sarah Sackett, as intermediaries is consistent with the 1862 account of the poem's earliest transmission in which T. W. C. Moore describes two stages of copying, first "by a relative of Dr Moores in her Album" and second, "by a friend of hers, from Troy". [15] Moore preferred to be known for his more scholarly works, but allowed the poem to be included in his anthology in 1844 at the request of his children. By that time, the original publisher and at least seven others had already acknowledged his authorship. Livingston family lore gives credit to their forebear rather than Moore, but Livingston himself ever claimed authorship, [16] nor has any record ever been found of any printing of the poem with Livingston's name attached to it, despite more than 40 years of searches. [ citation needed ]

Evidence in favor of Livingston Edit

Advocates for Livingston's authorship argue that Moore "tried at first to disavow" the poem. [17] They also posit that Moore falsely claimed to have translated a book. [18] Document dealer and historian Seth Kaller has challenged both claims. Kaller examined the book in question, A Complete Treatise on Merinos and Other Sheep, as well as many letters signed by Moore, and found that the "signature" was not penned by Moore, and thus provides no evidence that Moore made any plagiaristic claim. Kaller's findings were confirmed by autograph expert James Lowe, by Dr. Joe Nickell, the author of Pen, Ink & Evidence, and by others. According to Kaller, Moore's name was likely written on the book by a New-York Historical Society cataloger to indicate that it had been a gift from Moore to the Society. [3] [19] [20]

The following points have been advanced in order to credit the poem to Major Henry Livingston Jr.:

Livingston also wrote poetry primarily using an anapaestic metrical scheme, and it is claimed that some of the phraseology of A Visit is consistent with other poems by Livingston, and that Livingston's poetry is more optimistic than Moore's poetry published in his own name. But Stephen Nissenbaum argues in his Battle for Christmas that the poem could have been a social satire of the Victorianization of Christmas. Furthermore, Kaller claims that Foster cherry-picked only the poems that fit his thesis and that many of Moore's unpublished works have a tenor, phraseology, and meter similar to A Visit. Moore had even written a letter titled "From Saint Nicholas" that may have predated 1823.

Foster also contends that Moore hated tobacco and would, therefore, never have depicted Saint Nicholas with a pipe. However, Kaller notes, the source of evidence for Moore's supposed disapproval of tobacco is The Wine Drinker, another poem by him. In actuality, that verse contradicts such a claim. Moore's The Wine Drinker criticizes self-righteous, hypocritical advocates of temperance who secretly indulge in the substances which they publicly oppose, and supports the social use of tobacco in moderation (as well as wine, and even opium, which was more acceptable in his day than it is now).

Foster also asserts that Livingston's mother was Dutch, which accounts for the references to the Dutch Sinteklaes tradition and the use of the Dutch names "Dunder and Blixem". Against this claim, it is suggested by Kaller that Moore – a friend of writer Washington Irving and member of the same literary society – may have acquired some of his knowledge of New York Dutch traditions from Irving. Irving had written A History of New York in 1809 under the name of "Dietrich Knickerbocker". It includes several references to legends of Saint Nicholas, including the following that bears a close relationship to the poem:

And the sage Oloffe dreamed a dream,‍—‌and lo, the good St. Nicholas came riding over the tops of the trees, in that self-same wagon wherein he brings his yearly presents to children, and he descended hard by where the heroes of Communipaw had made their late repast. And he lit his pipe by the fire, and sat himself down and smoked and as he smoked, the smoke from his pipe ascended into the air and spread like a cloud overhead. And Oloffe bethought him, and he hastened and climbed up to the top of one of the tallest trees, and saw that the smoke spread over a great extent of country and as he considered it more attentively, he fancied that the great volume of smoke assumed a variety of marvelous forms, where in dim obscurity he saw shadowed out palaces and domes and lofty spires, all of which lasted but a moment, and then faded away, until the whole rolled off, and nothing but the green woods were left. And when St. Nicholas had smoked his pipe, he twisted it in his hatband, and laying his finger beside his nose, gave the astonished Van Kortlandt a very significant look then, mounting his wagon, he returned over the tree-tops and disappeared.

MacDonald P. Jackson, Emeritus Professor of English at the University of Auckland, New Zealand and a Fellow of the Royal Society of New Zealand, has spent his entire academic career analyzing authorship attribution. He has written a book titled Who Wrote "The Night Before Christmas"?: Analyzing the Clement Clarke Moore Vs. Henry Livingston Question, [22] published in 2016, in which he evaluates the opposing arguments and, for the first time, uses the author-attribution techniques of modern computational stylistics to examine the long-standing controversy. Jackson employs a range of tests and introduces a new one, statistical analysis of phonemes he concludes that Livingston is the true author of the classic work.

Parts of the poem have been set to music numerous times, including a bowdlerized version (that omitted several verses such as "The moon on the breast of the new fallen snow . etc.". and rewrote and replaced many others such as "the prancing and pawing of each little hoof" with "the clattering noise of each galloping hoof"), by the American composer Ken Darby (1909-1992), [23] [24] whose version was recorded by Fred Waring and the Pennsylvanians three separate times in 1942, [25] [26] 1955, [27] and 1963. [23] The latter 1963 stereo recording for Capitol Records became the most familiar of the poem's musical adaptations. [28] Christmas song-writing specialist Johnny Marks also composed a short version in 1952, titled The Night Before Christmas Song, which has been recorded multiple times, [29] and was used in the soundtrack for the 1964 TV special Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer, sung by Burl Ives. [30] The poem was also set to music by British child composer Alma Deutscher (b. 2005). [31] In 1953, Perry Como recorded a recitation of the poem for RCA Victor with background music arranged and conducted by Mitchell Ayres.Louis Armstrong recited the poem in a March 1971 recording made only four months before his death. [32] [33] It was recorded at his home in Corona, Queens and released as 45rpm by Continental Records. [34]

The first completely musical rendition, that used the text of the poem in its entirety without material additions or alterations, was the cantata "A Visit from St. Nicholas" composed by Lucian Walter Dressel in 1992 and first performed by the Webster University Orchestra, SATB Soloists, and Chorus. [35] More recent performances of the cantata have been performed by regional orchestras and choruses in Missouri, Illinois and Colorado. [36]

Four hand-written copies of the poem are known to exist and three are in museums, including the New-York Historical Society library. [37] The fourth copy, written out and signed by Clement Clarke Moore as a gift to a friend in 1860, was sold by one private collector to another in December 2006. It was purchased for $280,000 by an unnamed "chief executive officer of a media company" who resides in New York City, according to Dallas, Texas-based Heritage Auctions which brokered the private sale. [38]

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