Messerschmitt Bf 109: Pt. 2, John R. Beaman, Jr.

Messerschmitt Bf 109: Pt. 2, John R. Beaman, Jr.


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Messerschmitt Bf 109: Pt. Beaman, Jr.

Messerschmitt Bf 109: Pt. Beaman, Jr.

Illustrated by Don Greer

This second volume continues on from part one, beginning with the Bf 109F, probably the best version of the fighter, and taking the story to the end of the war and beyond. This time there is a little less history, mostly because the 109 went through so many different versions as the war went on that there is little space for it. However, there are sections on the defences of the reich and the air campaign that was meant to prepare the way for the battle of the Bulge. Another useful book, full of accurate information on the Bf109 in its greatest model (and beyond).

Author: John R. Beaman, Jr.
Edition: Paperback
Pages: 50
Publisher: Squadron/Signal Publications Inc.,U.S.
Year: 1983



Messerschmitt ​Bf 109 in action, Part 1

By ​the time the Third Reich collapsed in 1945, the Messerschmitt firm had produced some 34,000 examples of the legendary Bf 109, making it the most prolific aircraft of the era. Key to this tremendous output and to the plane’s longevity was a simple design that allowed rapid production – even by unskilled Zwangsarbeiter – forced laborers – and gave Messerschmitt an advantage over the Focke Wulf Fw 190. The Nazis came to power in January 1933 intent on scrapping the Versailles Treaty that banned Germany from having an air force. Issued on 15 February 1934, the request by the new Reichsluftfahrtsministerium ( RLM /Air Ministry) for a single-seat daytime air combat fighter with a top speed of 400 km/h brought a new lease of life to the financially strapped Bayerische Flugzeugwerke AG ( BFW ). BFW began work on the plane, its first military aircraft, that December, and in May 1935 the Bf 109 V1 prototype took to the air – 10 months before the first Spitfire – launching the career of an iconic plane whose numerous versions would serve the Reich until the end of World War II.

Kapcsolódó könyvek

Tom Clancy - Fighter ​Wing
"Fighter ​Wing: A Guided Tour of an Air Force Combat Wing" is a nonfiction book written by Tom Clancy which explores the inner workings of the United States Air Force's 366th Fighter Wing based out of Mountain Home Air Force Base in Idaho. With an overview of the evolution of air power such as aircraft engines, stealth, avionics, sensors, and onboard displays, it also briefly introduces the B-2 Spirit and the F-22 Raptor. The following section focuses on Operation Desert Storm and its air campaign planners and the next on the combat aircraft found on the current USAF inventory. Ordnance is tackled as well as the creation of the Air Combat Command. A tour of the 366th Wing is presented in detail including the Green Flag exercise of 1994-3. A simulated scenario of how the 366th Wing may possibly be employed in a future conflict with Vietnam is also laid out. The final sections of the book includes the author's conclusion, a glossary and a bibliography.

Gerhard Koop - Klaus-Peter Schmolke - Battleships ​of the Bismarck Class
The ​warships of the World War II German Navy are among the most popular subjects in naval history, and one of the best collections is the concise but authoritative six volume series written by Gerhard Koop and illustrated by Klaus-Peter Schmolke. Each book contains an account of the development of a particular class, a detailed description of the ships, with full technical details, and an outline of their service, and are heavily illustrated with plans, battle maps and a substantial collection of photographs. The first five volumes of this much sought after series are now available in paperback, with the sixth volume German Light Cruisers of World War II, planned for release in the fall of 2014. The first volume in the series is devoted to the Bismarck and the Tirpitz, the German Navy's most famous warships of World War II. Each was superbly equipped and carried the highly effective armament of eight 15 inch guns. Not only did they pose a very real danger to the ships of the Royal Navy, but they were also a serious threat to Britain's transatlantic trade. This volume traces the development of the class from inception to destruction and provides detailed technical specifications for the ships with notes on design and layout as well as their service histories. This lavishly illustrated book is a complete and indispensable guide to these two extraordinary warships.

Bruce I. Gudmundsson - DAK ​- Deutsches Afrika Korps
A ​német Afrika Korps egyedülálló katonai alakulat volt, amely észak-afrikai hadjárata során a Nyugati-sivatagban a dicsőség csúcsait éppúgy megismerte, mint a vereség mélységeit. A könyv egy német vezérkari tiszt szemszögéből mutatja be a csatákat, és betekintést enged a félelmetes hadigépezet működésébe. A DAK révén teljesebb, objektívebb képet alkothat az olvasó Rommelről és az általa vezényelt katonákról. Megismerheti, az alakulat miképp arathatott sorozatos győzelmeket, és melyek voltak a bukásához vezető tényezők.

John Keegan - A ​parancsnoklás álarca
Ez ​a könyv hadvezérekről szól. Arról, hogy kik ők, milyen cselekedetek fűződnek a nevükhöz, s hogy e cselekedetek milyen kihatással vannak arra a világra, amelyben a közönséges halandók, férfiak és nők élnek. Hiszen egy tábornok – ez a szó már önmagában is kétértelmű – sokkal több a hadsereg egyszerű parancsnokánál. Lehet király vagy pap: Nagy Sándor mindkettőt megtestesítette egy személyben. Lehet diplomata: Marlborough és Eisenhower egyformán kiválóan értett a békítéshez és a stratégiához. Lehet inkább teoretikus, mint gyakorlati szakember: az idősebb Moltke inkább intellektuális képességeivel írta be nevét a történelembe, mintsem végrehajtói tehetségével. Parancsnokolhat az uralkodó helyetteseként, mint Wellington, vagy esetleg demokratikus gyülekezet felhatalmazásával, ahogy Grant kapta a hatalmát. Lehet demagógból zsarnokká avanzsált politikus, és mégis megőrizheti főparancsnoki hatalmát, ahogyan Hitlernek sikerült. A hadvezérség sokkal több, mint seregek vezénylete a harctéren. Hogy a megszokott kliséhez folyamodjunk, a hadsereg annak a társadalomnak a tükörképe, amely kiállítja. A célokat, amelyekért küzd és ahogyan küzd, az határozza meg, mit akar elérni az adott társadalom a háborúval és mit vár el a hadseregétől.

David Nicolle - Tom Cooper - Arab ​MiG-19 and MiG-21 Units in Combat
The ​MiG-21 provided the backbone of frontline Arab air combat strength for many years and remained the Arabs’ only real hope of challenging Israeli air supremacy. This book provides a detailed history of the MiG-21 in Egyptian, Syrian and Iraqi service. It includes numerous photographs, most of which have not been seen outside the Arab world and a large proportion of which have never previously been published anywhere. The material is drawn from official sources and from the private collections and recollections of men who flew, or met, these aircraft in combat.

Tim Ripley - Elit ​alakulatok
1939–1941 ​között a Wehrmacht elképesztő villámháborús győzelmeket aratott, nem kis részben a hagyományos kiképzésű és felszerelésű csapatok támogatására bevetett különleges alakulatoknak köszönhetően.A speciális egységek kiképzését és bevetéseit fényképekkel illusztráló mű azonban nemcsak a háború németek számára dicsőséges éveivel foglalkozik, hanem bemutatja azokat az elit alakulatokat is, amelyek 1943–1945 között a katonai vereség elkerüléséért küzdöttek. A Tiger harckocsikkal felszerelt nehézpáncélos-zászlóaljak – olyan legendás parancsnokok irányításával, mint Michael Wittmann – mindent elkövettek, hogy megállítsák a Harmadik Birodalom hanyatlását. Hasonlóképp a Waffen-SS páncéloshadosztályai is súlyos harcokat vívtak a Berlin felé nyomuló Vörös Hadsereggel.Egy különleges egység sikere nagyban függ a parancsnok határozottságától, gyors helyzetfelismerésétől és vállalkozó szellemétől. Nem volt ez másként a részletes bemutatásra kerülő, kiváló parancsnoki kvalitásokkal rendelkező ,Joachim Peiper, Adolf Galland, "Sepp" Dietrich vagy Hans-Ulrich Rudel vezette alakulatoknál sem. Mindemellett az Elit alakulatok egy egész fejezetben foglalkozik Hitler talán leghíresebb kommandósával, a "Sebhelyesarcúnak" nevezett Otto Skorzenyvel, aki 1943-ban kiszabadította Mussolinit a fogságból. A könyv kiváló olvasmány mindazok számára, akik érdeklődnek a hitleri hadigépezet legjobb katonái és legkorszerűbb fegyverei iránt.Tim Ripley író, fotóriporter, a hadtörténelem lelkes kutatója. Számos, haditechnikával, harcászattal és hadműveletekkel foglalkozó könyve jelent már meg.

Christopher Shores - Spanish ​Civil War Air Forces
This ​book traces the combat history of the air forces that fought in the Spanish Civil War. Major aircraft types are all covered, and their missions, including major operations at Brunete, Belchite and the Ebro, are all detailed. Aircraft markings and aircrew uniforms are shown in full colour illustrations.

Galántay Ervin - Boy ​Soldier
A ​könyv Budapest 1944–1945-ös ostromát, a Városmajor térségében harcoló Vannay-zászlóalj történetét dolgozza fel az események idején mindössze 14 éves Galántay Ervin (a zászlóalj hírvivő futárjának) korabeli hadinaplója alapján. Az angol nyelvű, 280 oldal terjedelmű, több mint hatvan fotót és tíz térképet tartalmazó könyv Magyarországon csak korlátozott példányszámban került forgalomba! Militaria kiadó

Philip Warner - A ​második világháború titkos erői
A ​II. vil&aacutegh&aacutebor&uacute alatt d&oumlbbenetes sz&aacutem&uacute &eacutes t&iacutepus&uacute nem hagyom&aacutenyos katonai egys&eacuteg j&oumltt l&eacutetre. A tengelyhatalmak &eacutes a sz&oumlvets&eacutegesek egyar&aacutent felismert&eacutek, hogy a k&uumll&oumlnleges k&uumlldet&eacutesekhez k&uumll&oumlnleges katon&aacutekra van sz&uumlks&eacuteg. Embereket toboroztak, akikből azut&aacuten h&iacuterszerzők, k&eacutemek, szabotőr&oumlk &eacutes orgyilkosok lettek, akiket ellens&eacuteges vonalak m&oumlg&eacute k&uumlldtek, ahol titkos akci&oacutekba &eacutes ny&iacutelt harcba kezdtek. Időnk&eacutent olyan k&uumlldet&eacutesekben vettek r&eacuteszt, amelyek &oacuteri&aacutesi volumenűek voltak, mint p&eacuteld&aacuteul a Dieppe elleni t&aacutemad&aacutes 1942-ben, m&aacuteskor eg&eacuteszen kis feladatot v&eacutegeztek el, mint amilyen a n&eacutemet Kreipe t&aacutebornok elrabl&aacutesa volt Kr&eacuteta sziget&eacuteről, vagy titkos, &aacutem &eacuteletbev&aacuteg&oacutean fontos feladatot kaptak, mint amikor megakad&aacutelyozt&aacutek, hogy a n&aacutecik megszerezz&eacutek a norv&eacutegok neh&eacutezviz&eacutet, &eacutes ezzel meghi&uacutes&iacutetott&aacutek az atombomba meg&eacutep&iacutet&eacutes&eacutet. B&aacutermilyen nevet is adtak a csoportoknak, amelyekbe ezek az emberek t&oumlm&oumlr&uumlltek, a k&uumll&oumlnleges hadvisel&eacutesi erőkre mindv&eacutegig sz&uumlks&eacuteg volt. Ez a lebilincselő &eacutes t&eacutenyfelt&aacuter&oacute k&oumlnyv tele van igaz t&oumlrt&eacutenetekkel, amelyek olyan megt&oumlrt&eacutent akci&oacutekat mondanak el, amelyekre az 1939-1945 k&oumlz&oumltti időszakban ker&uumllt sor a h&aacutebor&uacute minden l&eacutetező frontj&aacuten, &eacutes a f&oumlld minden l&eacutetező szeglet&eacuteben. Philip Warner, aki kiv&aacutelts&aacutegos helyzet&eacuten&eacutel fogva a k&oumlnyv&eacuteben szereplő inform&aacuteci&oacutek egy r&eacutesz&eacutet olyan szem&eacutelyektől szerezhette be, akik maguk is szolg&aacuteltak, eddig eltitkolt hadműveletekről &iacuter, amelyeket a brit kommand&oacutes alakulatok, az SAS, az OSS, a csinditek, Merrill martal&oacutecai, Darby rohamcsapata &eacutes sz&aacutemtalan egy&eacuteb titkos csoport hajtott v&eacutegre. Azt is elmagyar&aacutezza, milyen befoly&aacutessal rendelkeztek az olyan emberek, mint Orde Wingate, David Stirling, Lord Louis Mountbatten &eacutes &quotVad Bill&quot Donovan. A m&aacutesodik vil&aacutegh&aacutebor&uacute titkos erői ler&aacutentja a leplet a sz&oumlvets&eacutegesek titkos, elit alakulatair&oacutel, amelyek nagym&eacutert&eacutekben hozz&aacutej&aacuterultak a v&eacutegső győzelemhez, noha tagjaik gyakran sz&oumlrnyű &aacuterat fizettek ez&eacutert.

Kurt Rieder - Vadászok ​akcióban!
„1915 ​és 1945 között a vadászpilóták társadalma alkotta a hadsereg elitjét, az ászok pedig a vadászerők ünnepelt hősei voltak. Kevés pilóta volt képes a megtisztelő titulus megszerzé­sére: ahhoz, hogy valaki ásszá váljon, olyan képességek szük­ségeltettek, melyek tízezer emberből legfeljebb egy számára adatnak meg. Azok a férfiak, kik az első világháború éveiben repülték a vászonból és fából, zongorahúrokból és vascsövek­ből összetákolt, kehes motorok által hajtott, idegtépőén bi­zonytalan masinákat, és nap-nap után veszedelmes harci missziókat teljesítettek, kivételesen bátor emberek voltak. Ám a rettenthetetlen szív, avagy a harci ösztön önmagában még vaj­mi keveset ért: ha nem társult mellé képzettség és hidegvér, úgy inkább hozott bajt a pilóta fejére, mintsem segítette győ­zelmekhez.”

Manfred Griehl - Német ​bombázók Anglia és Oroszország fölött
1940 ​augusztusának első napjaiban a Luftwaffe megindította a koncentrált támadást a szigetország ellen. 1000 vadászgép védelmében a 2. és a 3. Luftflotte mintegy 500 bombázója emelkedett a magasba, hogy elpusztítsa a vadászrepülő-parancsnokság földi objektumait. Ezzel egy időben Ju 87-es zuhanóbombázók fontosabbnak ítélt La Manche menti célpontokat támadtak a kikötők semlegesítésére. A súlyos veszteségek ellenére, mely időnként a pilóták és a repülőgépek számának aggasztó mértékű csökkenéséhez vezetett, a RAF vadászrepülő-parancsnoksága mindvégig megőrizte hadműveleti képességét. A Luftwaffe bombázóerői elsőként a Lengyelország elleni győztes hadjárat során adták tanújelét elsöprő taktikai fölényüknek. A lengyelországi hadműveletet követő, Dánia és Norvégia ellen végrehajtott támadás a Wehrmacht teljes győzelmét hozta, Franciaország bukása után pedig úgy tűnt, a német haderő elég erős ahhoz, hogy akár egész Európát meghódítsa. A brit légvédelem azonban heves ellenállást tanúsított a légitámadásokkal szemben, az első jelentősebb vereséget okozva ezzel a német légierőnek. Hitler kontinentális politikája, így a balkáni invázió, Kréta szigetének megszerzése, Luftwaffe-egységek Olaszországba telepítése, a hajókonvojok ellen indított támadások és az atlanti-óceáni csata során a légierőt számos veszteség érte, ami óhatatlanul együtt járt a Kampfgeschwader bombázó-Gruppéinak gyengülésével. A legtöbb veszélyt rejtő feladatot a Luftwaffe számára azonban az 1941 nyarán a Németországgal korábban megnemtámadási szerződést kötő Szovjetunió elleni támadás jelentette.

Angus Konstam - British ​Napoleonic Ship-of-the-Line
The ​French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars encompassed a period when rival European fleets vied for naval supremacy, and naval tactics were evolving. The British Royal Navy emerged triumphant as the leading world sea power, and the epitome of Britannic naval strength was the Ship-of-the-Line. These 'wooden walls' were more than merely floating gun batteries: they contained a crew of up to 800 men, and often had to remain at sea for extended periods. This book offers detailed coverage of the complex vessels that were the largest man-made structures produced in the pre-Industrial era.

Vándor Károly - Soviet ​Air Force in Hungary and Austria 1944-1991
A ​közgazdász diplomával rendelkező, angol, német és orosz nyelvtudással bíró harmincas éveinek elején járó fiatalember életének elmúlt tizennyolc évét a Szovjet Légierő és Légvédelem magyarországi és ausztriai történetének felkutatására szentelte. Pusztán kíváncsiságból, vagy megszállottságból? A kérdésre a választ talán még önmaga sem tudja… Az azonban biztos, egy gyerekkori élmény késztette arra, hogy a téma Magyarországon, sőt egész Európában egyedülálló szakértője legyen. „1983 nyarán költöztünk Kunmadarasra, mely számomra akkor még semmilyen különleges jelentést nem hordozott. Aztán megláttam a hatalmas ’szitakötőket’, melyekből folyamatosan ugrottak az ejtőernyősök. (…) 1989-ben jutottam be először a repülőtérre: családi ismerősünk, ’Ljosa’ Posztas, a felderítőezred második századának parancsnoka segített. Mindenben támogatott, nagyon készséges volt. Először a földdel fedett betonfedezés ajtaját nyitotta ki: megnéztük az ott álló repülőgépet, egy SZU–17M4R-t, majd a nézelődés után sisakját, pilótadzsekijét, hevederét rám adta, s beülhettem a gép kabinjába, ahol ő lelkesen elmagyarázta, hogy melyik műszer mire való, majd rám csukta a kabintetőt… Ez volt az a pillanat, amikor a sorsom örökre összefonódott a szovjet haditechnikával…”

Steven J. Zaloga - M10 ​and M36 Tank Destroyers 1942- 53
The ​US Army had a unique tactical doctrine during World War II, placing the emphasis for tank fighting on its Tank Destroyer Command whose main early-war vehicle was the M10 3-inch Gun Motor Carriage, based on the reliable M4A2 Sherman tank chassis. This durable and versatile vehicle saw combat service from the North Africa campaign in 1943. By 1944, its gun was not powerful enough and it was rearmed with the new 90 mm gun, becoming the M36 90mm Gun Motor Carriage. This book details one of the only US armoured vehicles capable of dealing with the Panther and Tiger during the Battle of the Bulge.

Jack Greene - Alessandro Massignani - Rommel ​észak-afrikai hadjárata
Észak-Afrika ​és a Közép-Kelet sivatagaiban született meg a II.világháború legnagyobb legendáinak egyike: Erwin Rommel, a Sivatagi Róka legendája, aki az Afrika Korpsot vezényelte a Bernard Montgomery vezette 8. brit hadsereg `sivatagi patkányai` ellen. Ez a kivételes mű exkluzív interjút közöl Rommel német-olasz tolmácsával, megismertet a szembenálló felek földközi-tengeri hadászati terveivel, bemutatja a hadjárat napjaink Észak-Afrikájára és Közép-Keletére kifejtett hatását, továbbá teljes leírást ad a szíriai és az iraki hadműveletekről is.

Steven J. Zaloga - M26/M46 ​Pershing Tank 1943-53
From ​the moment that the M4 Sherman had been matched against German Panther and Tiger tanks, the American tank crews had known that their vehicles were outclassed by the opposition. What was needed was a more powerful tank, more heavily armed and armored, that could take-on the powerful German panzers on a more equal footing. Although it took time to develop by the latter months of the war numbers of M26 Pershing tanks were reaching the frontline US armored units. Well armored and with a powerful 90mm gun the Pershing was a match for any tank in the German order of battle.

Steven J. Zaloga - Spanish ​Civil War Tanks
The ​tanks used during the Spanish Civil War are not often examined in any great detail, and are often labeled as little more than test vehicles in a convenient proving ground before World War II. But, with groundbreaking research, armor expert Steven J Zaloga has taken a fresh look at the tanks deployed in Spain, examining how future tanks and armored tactics were shaped and honed by the crews' experiences, and how Germany was able to benefit from these lessons while their Soviet opponents were not. Based on recently uncovered records of Soviet tankers in Spain and rare archival accounts, this book describes the various tanks deployed in Spain, including the PzKpfw I and the T-26.

Basil Henry Liddell Hart - Stratégia
„Az ​emberi emlékezet (a világtörténelem) a stratégia, vagyis hadászat alakulására nagy hatást gyakorló személyeknek tartja Thuküdidészt, Julius Caesart, Machiavellit, Nagy Frigyest, Szuvorovot, Napóleont, Clausewitzet, Moltkét és Liddell Hartot.” (A Magyar Hadtudományi Társaság Hadtudományi Lexikona) B. H. Liddell Hart (1895–1970) több olyan reformot valósított meg a brit hadseregben, amelyeknek a parancsnokok eleinte ellenálltak (pl. a légvédelem fejlesztése) a második világháborúban a németek – az ő stratégiai elképzeléseit felhasználva – többször győztek a franciák ellen, mivel a „páncélos háború” korai proponense is volt, amit az angolok vonakodtak elfogadni, Guderian és Rommel viszont – akárcsak Patton tábornok – több ízben kifejezte, mennyit köszönhet Liddell Hart könyveinek. A 20. század egyik legnagyobb katonai gondolkodójáról és legidőtállóbb művéről van tehát szó. A Stratégia átfogó történelmi (hadtörténeti) analízis: kezdődik a görög–perzsa háborúval, az athéni Epameinóndasszal, Periklésszel, Alkibiadésszel, a spártai Lüszandrosszal, azután következnek a makedónok, II. Philipposz és Nagy Sándor, majd a pun Hannibál, a római Fabius Maximus Cunctator (róla, a „Habozóról” általában csak rosszat tanulunk az iskolában, pedig zseniális taktikus volt), Scipio Africanus, Julius Caesar, a bizánci Belisar és Narses, az eunuch a középkorból röviden a hastingsi csata (Normandiai Vilmos, illetve Harold király), a százéves háború (Crécy, Poitiers), Agincourt, a Rózsák Háborúja ismét részletesebben a 17. század (Gusztáv Adolf, Cromwell, Turenne), a 18. század (Nagy Frigyes és Marlborough), utána a francia forradalom és Napóleon összefoglaló áttekintést kapunk az amerikai polgárháború nagyjairól, a német–francia háborúról, nagy ívű elemzéseket az első, majd a második világháború stratégiájáról, végül az egészet elméleti következtetések zárják le taktikáról, stratégiáról és „nagystratégiáról”, s egy fejezet a hadviselés legújabb jelenségéről, a gerillaháborúról. Az analízis vezérfonala a Liddell Hart által híressé tett „közvetett megközelítés”, az a hadászati eszme, amelynek értelmében a hadvezér nem a frontális támadásra alapozza a sikert (legyen bármekkora erőfölényben), hanem kerülő utakat választ, akár konkrétakat (szárnyfelgöngyölítés, a mozgékonyságra épített kikerülés, hátba támadás, a leggyengébb pontra való koncentrálás, a döntő ütközet elől való kitérés, az ellenség, főleg a megszállók kifárasztása, utánpótlási vonalaik elvágása, az eszközöknek a célokhoz való igazítása stb.), akár messzebb mutatókat (szövetségi rendszerek fellazítása, váratlan politikai eszközök alkalmazása, „ötödik hadoszlop” beépítése, a hadművelethez alternatív lehetőségek előre való kidolgozása stb.). Liddell Hart szerint csakis az ilyen hadvezetés hozhatott tartós sikert a századok során, s monumentális művében ezt igyekszik bizonyítani. Már csak azért is örökzöld a téma és a koncepció, mert mint a szerző a bevezetőben írja, végső fokon mindenfajta sikernek a közvetett megközelítés a titka: az üzletben éppúgy, mint a szerelemben.

Stephen Turnbull - Katana
The ​Samurai sword of Japan is probably the finest edged weapon ever made. This volume, written by leading Samurai expert Stephen Turnbull, reveals the story of how and why it achieved this distinction, from the sword's unique metallurgy to its use in combat, where one stroke often decided the victor. Particular attention is paid to the development of the familiar curved blade from the original straight blades, the associated development of Japan's famous steel-making techniques and the challenges from contemporary warfare. Together with the technical details of forging, polishing, mounting and testing, this volume is brought to life with details of the great swordmakers themselves. Moreover, no history of the sword would be complete without a detailed examination of its use in combat, from the greatest Samurai armies to individual duels and revenge killings. Personal accounts allow the reader to discover the art of Japanese swordsmanship in the hands of masters such as Miyamoto Musashi to the unnamed Japanese warrior defending his family's honor. This lively text is perfectly complemented by artwork reconstructions of the sword in use and color photographs of the swords in use.

Peter Chamberlain - Hilary Doyle - Encyclopedia ​of German Tanks of World War Two
This ​is the classic guide to the tanks and other armoured fighting vehicles of the Third Reich. The result of years of painstakingly detailed research, it was first published in 1978, to immediate acclaim, and has been revised and updated since to provide the most astonishing amount of information. Here are the complete technical and combat histories of all German Second World War AFVs, in standard data layouts and conveniently arranged in sections by type.


Messerschmitt Bf 109: Pt. 2, John R. Beaman, Jr. - History

Messerschmitt Bf 109 E
over the Balkan Peninsula

Eduard , 1/32 scale

Eduard kit no.1156 &ndash Bf 109 E over the Balkan Peninsula Limited Edition

143 olive coloured plastic parts 9 clear plastic parts 1 decal sheet containing markings for 5 aircraft 1 decal sheet containing enough stencils for 1 aircraft 1 set of pre-cut canopy masks 2 frets of photo-etched detail parts (1 pre-painted) 1 set of Brassin Bf 109 E wheels

Good basic kit high quality photo-etch and resin details interesting and well-researched marking options

A little flash on some plastic parts air bubbles in resin wheels minor blemishes on decal sheet.

A great overall package that with care will assemble into an excellent model, whichever marking option is selected


HyperScale is proudly supported by Squadron.com

Background

The Balkans campaign of April-June 1941 was arguably the Bf 109 E&rsquos swansong as an air superiority fighter. The type was being replaced in service by the more powerful, aerodynamically refined 109F, which would be the Luftwaffe&rsquos main fighter by the time of Operation Barbarossa in late June. By the end of 1941 most surviving Emils had been withdrawn to pilot training duties in Germany, although some would soldier on as fighter-bombers into 1943. Over the Balkans, however, the Bf 109 E still dominated the mostly obsolescent aircraft &ndash such as Battles, Blenheims, and PZL fighters &ndash against which it fought. Only the RAF Hurricanes could hold their own against the Emil, and then only just. The campaign also briefly pitted 109 against 109, but the E-3s flown by the inexperienced pilots of the Royal Yugoslav Air Force were no match for the Luftwaffe veterans in their E-4s and E-7s.

Many of the Emil-equipped Luftwaffe units which fought in the Balkans &ndash such as JG 27, JG 54 and JG 77 &ndash had until recently been involved in operations against the RAF over England and along the Channel coast. It is not surprising, therefore, that the camouflage and markings of Balkan Emils are similar to those seen in the latter part of the Battle of Britain: RLM 04 yellow engine cowlings and rudders RLM 02 grey/RLM 71 dark green splinter camouflage on the upper wing, fuselage and stabilizer surfaces RLM 65 blue undersurfaces and fuselage sides, the latter toned down with various field-applied combinations of RLM 02, RLM 71 and RLM 70 black green large black and white Balkenkreuz and Hakenkreuz and a colourful variety of unit emblems. Further dash was added by a diversity of RLM 04 theatre recognition markings, mostly in the form of fuselage and wing bands and stripes. This combination of features makes Balkan Bf 109 Es attractive modeling subjects, and the unexpected but welcome subject of Eduard&rsquos latest release of its 1/32 Emil &ndash a limited edition boxing entitled &ldquoBf 109 E over the Balkan Peninsula&rdquo.

FirstLook

Eduard&rsquos Emil series has already been well covered in a number of articles on Hyperscale:

The essence of these reviews is that the Eduard Bf 109 E is largely accurate kit that builds easily into an attractive replica. This latest, limited edition boxing repeats this winning formula, being literally stuffed full with the following items:

Six sprues of subtly detailed, mostly cleanly moulded plastic parts. I was surprised to see a little flash on some of the larger parts, such as the fuselage halves however this can be easily sanded away and will not be a problem during construction. The plastic parts contain the improved, multi-part wheels which were first introduced in the E-3 boxing of the kit, although as we will see shortly, these won&rsquot be needed for this build.

One small tree of clear plastic parts for the head armour, gunsight, windshield and straight-edged E-4 canopy. It isworth noting that this is the later, more accurate version of the canopy introduced by Eduard following criticism that the top of the canopy in the initial E-4 boxing was too narrow.

Two photo-etched frets &ndash one of them pre-painted &ndash providing additional detail for the cockpit, radiators and oil cooler. In my experience, Eduard&rsquos photo-etch generally fits well, and while the colour of the pre-painted etch can sometimes be a bit off (the representation of RLM 02 on a 1/48 Emil set I used recently was awful, and had to be over-painted), here it seems pretty good.

A pre-cut canopy mask. While pre-cut masks are a matter of personal choice, I love them because I think the crispness or otherwise of canopy masking makes or breaks a model, and Eduard&rsquos masks have always given me great results.

Eduard&rsquos in-house decals containing markings for five aircraft, and enough stencils for at least one, and possibly two, aircraft. The stencils look good, being clearly printed and legible (although I can&rsquot vouch for the accuracy of the German spelling!). The main decal sheet looks mostly good, too, with the unit markings in register and showing nice detail. The quality falls away slightly when it comes to the national, rank, and tactical identification markings, however, with the printing lacking a little crispness, and some minor blemishes on the surface of the markings.

A set of replacement resin wheels from Eduard&rsquos Brassin line. The detail on these wheels is far superior to the kit&rsquos plastic items, with the main tyre castings capturing not only some very subtle tread patterns, but also the manufacturer&rsquos name and the recommended air pressure! Unfortunately, also clearly visible on these castings are a number of air bubbles &ndash which should be easy enough to fill, but which were nonetheless unexpected. The rest of the items in the set appear to be perfectly cast, and include touches such as offering the modeler a choice of built-in or separate spoke detail in the wheel hubs. I liked the inclusion of a full tail wheel well &ndash usually a neglected subject on Emil kits, but big enough to be noticed in 1/32, so well done Eduard.


Bf 109 G 6

Il G-6 fu ampiamente utilizzato su tutti i fronti dal marzo 1943 fino alla fine della guerra. Incluse decalcomanie per le seguenti versioni: Capitano Franz Dörr, Bf 109 G-6, W.Nr. 411960, Stab III./JG 5, Gossen, maggio 1945 Capitano Karl Rammelt, Bf 109 G-6, W.Nr. 160717, Stab II./JG 51, Romania, aprile 194 Messerschmitt Bf 109 G-6 - Angelo Battistelli Appassionato di aerei Italiani, ho deciso di riprodurre il Bf 109 G-6 n.9 Giallo con W.Nr. 163164 utilizzato dal 2° Gruppo Caccia 2ª Squadriglia A.N.R. nel novembre 1944 basato probabilmente all'aeroporto di Verona Villafranca Trova bf-109 g6 1/32 in vendita tra una vasta selezione di su eBay. Subito a casa, in tutta sicurezza Vano motore di un Bf 109 G-6 si nota appena sotto la cerniera della cappottatura il meccanismo elettrico di sparo della mitragliatrice MG 17 di sinistra. Si noti anche come lo spazio del vano motore sia sfruttato all'estremo, cosa che non rendeva certo agevole il lavoro dei meccanici o degli armieri

Dalla Primavera all'estate del 1943 la Luftwaffe riversò alla R.A. centoventidue Bf.109 nelle versioni F4, G2, G4 e in maggior parte G6 Bf 109 G-6/U3 Black 1 Presso l'aeroporto del 2° Gruppo Caccia dell'Aeronautica Nazionale Repubblicana, si mimetizzano i Messerschmitt Bf 109, a difesa di eventuali attacchi dell'aviaizone nemica. Foto di gruppo per alcuni piloti della squadriglia Gigi tre Osei dell'Aeronautica Nazionale Repubblicana

ITALERI - Messerschmitt BF - 109 G - 6

  • The Messerschmitt Bf 109 is a German World War II fighter aircraft that was, along with the Focke-Wulf Fw 190, the backbone of the Luftwaffe's fighter force. The Bf 109 first saw operational service in 1937 during the Spanish Civil War and was still in service at the dawn of the jet age at the end of World War II in 1945. It was one of the most advanced fighters when it first appeared, with an.
  • Learn to fly the Bf 109 G-6 in IL-2: Battle of Kuban and be familiar with its cockpit, engine start, takeoff, and landing procedures. Various engine limitati..
  • The Bf 109A was the first version of the Bf 109. Armament was initially planned to be just two cowl-mounted 7.92 mm (.312 in) MG 17 machine guns.However, possibly due to the introduction of the Hurricane and Spitfire, each with eight 7.7 mm (.303 in) machine guns, experiments were carried out with a third machine gun firing through the propeller shaft
  • Bf 109 G-6/U3 Black 1, mimetizzato con arbusti. Quì è ben visibile la scritta gigetti sull'ogiva dell'aereo Amedeo Fagiano fotografato durante un pasto a Cascina Vaga nel maggio del 1944, all'epoca sede della 4^ squadriglia Gigi Tre Osei dell'Aeronautica Nazionale Repubblicana

Messerschmitt Bf 109 G-6 Wehrmacht Luftwaffe (German Air Force 1935-1945) 6./JG 27 Yellow 2 (Franz Stigler) Dicembre 1943 World War 2 - Defense of Bremen (Result: Escorted Ye Olde Pub to N. Sea) RLM74 RLM75 RLM7 The Bf 109 G-6 is a rank IV German fighter with a battle rating of 5.3 (AB) and 4.7 (RB/SB). It has been in the game since the start of the Open Beta Test prior to Update 1.27. The Bf 109 G-6 is, while stock, a difficult plane to fly, and needs the upgrades to even be considered an opponent for its adversaries caccia ad ala bassa a sbalzo, monoposto ed interamente metallico, il Bf. 109 è caratterizzato da una fusoliera realizzata in due semigusci, riuniti secondo il piano di simmetria verticale mediante due correntini. Le due semiali, di tipo monolongherone, sono dotate di alette automatich Bf-109 G-6 - Finito - « Older Newer G-10 e con la capottina a destra (ma non so se era di Cavagliano), e disegni che indicano l'aereo (di Cavagliano) come G-6 e con la capottina a sinistra. E sotto le ali ci metto i cannoni o i razzi? Grazie mille a chi mi vuole aiutare. ratin. Posted on 2/2/2015, 23:59: gattone brontolone

Bf 109 G-6 - War Thunder Wik

Visita eBay per trovare una vasta selezione di bf 109 g6. 1/72. Scopri le migliori offerte, subito a casa, in tutta sicurezza Non sappiamo se vi siano recensioni per questo (kit) Bf 109 G-6 (#np-Bf109G6-3) da Model Monkey. La mia scorta. Accedi per gestire il tuo magazzino. Lista dei desideri (0 Amici) Nessuno. La mia scorta (0 Amici) Nessuno. Iniziato (0 Amici) Nessuno. Completato (0x) Nessuno . Prodotti correlati. Kit completi

Bf 109 G-6/AS 1/48. Riferimento ED84169. Condizione: Nuovo prodotto. Bf 109 G-6/AS 1/48. 2 pezzi disponibili. Twitta Condividi Google+ Pinterest . Condividi su Facebook! Rimuovi questo prodotto dai miei preferiti Aggiungi questo prodotto ai miei preferiti. Stampa 19,00 € tasse incl. Quantità. Bf 109 G-6 « Older Newer » Poi un vecchio bf 109 Testors Hawk di versione incerta. ne feci un what if ma non mi soddisfa più: pensionatissimo. Infine un Me109g-6 Airfix new tool (ma uno dei primi, alquanto simile al vecchio, a parte i pannelli incisi) nei colori della Regia Il Messerschmitt BF 109 G-6 è una delle tante evoluzioni del mitico aereo di Willy Messerschmitt, progettato nel 1933 e già volante l'anno dopo con un motore Jumo da 800 cv. Prima di passare alla versione G si è passati per la E, o Emil, con l'adozione del motore Daimler Benz DB 601 da 1100 cv, poi alla F, Friedrich, che adotta il DB 601 N un po' piu potente

Revell Messerschmitt Bf 109 G-6 - 3DJake Itali

  • Bf 109 G-6 is a German fighter available as a collector plane. 1 Gameplay 2 Specifications 2.1 Stall Characteristics 2.2 Maximum Speeds and Load 2.3 Climb 2.4 Turn 2.5 Flight Endurance 2.6 Recommended Speeds 2.7 Engine Specifications 2.7.1 Engine modes 2.7.2 Temperatures 2.8 Armament 2.8.1 Additional Configurations 2.9 Weight and dimensions 3 History Data last updated December 4th 2019. Actual.
  • Apr 16, 2016 - Explore Toby Knight's board Bf-109 G-6 on Pinterest. See more ideas about messerschmitt bf 109, messerschmitt, wwii aircraft
  • Revell 04665 - Messerschmitt Bf109 G-6 Kit di Modello in Plastica, Scala 1:32: Amazon.it: Giochi e giocattoli Selezione delle preferenze relative ai cookie Utilizziamo cookie e altre tecnologie simili per migliorare la tua esperienza di acquisto, per fornire i nostri servizi, per capire come i nostri clienti li utilizzano in modo da poterli migliorare e per visualizzare annunci pubblicitari
  • Bf 109 G-6 Bf 109 G-6. Details by Mirosław Żelechowski, Jakub Plewka Hits: 15954. Print Email The Messerschmitt 109 G-6 was the most numerous sub-type of the Luftwaffe's basic front-line fighter. Equipped with Daimler-Benz DB 605 A-1 engine rated at 1574 hp,.
  • EagleCals EC#48-047 - Messerschmitt Bf 109 G-6 Trops (JG 27, JG 51) Price Canadian Dollars: $24.95 . EagleCals EC#48-048 - Messerschmitt Bf 109 G-4s (JG 27, JG 52, JG 53) Price Canadian Dollars: $24.95 . EagleCals EC#48-050 - Major Hans Assi Hahn, Special Airbrushed Edition Part

Messerschmitt Bf 109 G-6 - Angelo Battistell

  • Bf 109-G6 - FineMolds - FL 8 Scritto da Salvatore Venerdì 08 Maggio 2009 18:42 - Ultimo aggiornamento Martedì 20 Ottobre 2009 23:56 Kit: Messerschmitt Bf 109 G-6
  • Shop Devices, Apparel, Books, Music & More. Free Shipping on Qualified Orders
  • MESSERSCHMITT Bf109 G-6. CODICE: TA60790. Il Messerschmitt prodotto in più di 30000 esemplari è il più prolifico aereo da battaglia prodotto. La versione G-6 sarà a breve disponibile nella linea 1:72 di Tamiya. Il kit permette la fedele riproduzione ed il set decal permette la realizzazione di due versioni JG51 e JG54
  • Bf 109 G-2 Tropical Bf 109 G-6 USA. F4F-3 Wildcat F4F-4 Wildcat P-40E-1 P-400 Airacobra F4U-1c Corsair P-39N-0 Airacobra F4U-1d Corsair UK. Spitfire Mk Ia Spitfire Mk IIb Spitfire Mk Vc Spitfire F Mk IX Spitfire LF Mk IXe Spitfire F Mk XIVe Hornet Mk.III Community. Recent blog posts Help Explore. Recent Changes Random page
  • Il modello riproduce il Bf (o Me) 109G-6U/3 aereo, di costruzione tedesca, personale del S. Ten. Amedeo Fagiano e basato ad Aviano nel novembre del 1944. G alleria fotografica: le altre fotografie dell'aereo. Foto 2 Messerschmitt Me 109 G-6/U3 ANR. Foto 3 Messerschmitt Me 109 G-6/U3 ANR: Foto 4 Messerschmitt Me 109 G-6/U3 AN

ITALERI IT0063 MESSERSCHMITT BF 109 G 6 KIT 1:72 MODELLINO MODEL Marca/Brand ITALERI (in nuove condizioni contenuto nella confezione originale del produttore) Original Scale Model (in new conditions mint boxed) Scrivete per verificare la disponibilita' dei colori e per ogni esigenza sui Modellini (grazie Eduard released their ProfiPACK Edition 1/48 scale Messerschmitt Bf 109 G-6/AS in early 2020, adding a new fuselage with the revised nose to what was otherwise a late version Messerschmitt Bf 109 G-6. As is their habit, Eduard is now offering a lower-priced Weekend Edition version of that kit

Bf-109 g6 1/32 in vendita - eBa

  1. Bf 109 G-6/R6 I./JG 300 wilde Sau Above anonymous Bf 109 G-6/R6 from I./JG 300. Note the wavy camouflage scheme, the absence of Kennziffer, flame shroud over the exhaust and the Eberspächer acoustic pipe or 'whistle' over the leading stack
  2. Tamiya has provided a little more information on the intended January 2018 release of a newly tooled Bf 109 G-6. The new kit will include a seated pilot and markings options for 9./JG54, 7./JG27 and 9./JG52. It is also stated to include a highly detailed engine, optional armor, and positional flaps and radiator opening
  3. Bf 109 G-6 of III./JG 26 Villacoublay This nice photo was previously published in Jean-Bernard Frappé's La Luftwaffe face au débarquement a 350-page French-language account of the Luftwaffe in Normandy and southern France during the summer of 1944, subtitled 'Messerschmitt 109 G and Focke Wulf 190 A au combat en Normandie et en Provence'
  4. Revell's 1/32 scale Bf109 G-6 is available online from Squadron.com for only $23.99
  5. Acquista 1/72 Modellino Aereo Aircraft Messerschmitt Bf 109 G6 VII/JG3 1944 by Easy Model sul miglior sito di modellini die cast di alta qualità. Spedizioni in tutto il mondo
  6. Bf 109 G-6 Tamiya 1/72. pieroluftwaffe2. 500 1,024. pieroluftwaffe2. 500 1,024. Post 6:28 AM - Jan 08 #1 2021-01-08T06:28. As many know, the Tamiya's 'Gustav' is probably the best G-6 on the market today it has some small flaws (but which model does not have any ?), including the absence of additional armaments to create different versions.

Messerschmitt Bf 109 - Wikipedi

  • This new Bf-109G-6 is the first really mainstream kit to be released in 35th scale that we can remember of recent times. A bold move, but also one that will polarize modellers we think. The sprues of the kit at the Shanghai New Year model show - 6 regular plus transparent plastic on offe
  • ò i cieli nella prima parte della Seconda Guerra Mondiale. Questa versione era dotata di un motore più potente in grado di incrementare le prestazioni di velocità e quota operativa, nonché di armamento potenziato in alcune sottoversioni destinate all'attacco dei grandi bombardieri alleati
  • Eduard's Bf 109 G-6/AS ProfiPACK comprises 188 parts in grey plastic, 10 parts in clear, a coloured photo-etch fret, self-adhesive canopy masks and markings for four aircraft. More than 70 of the parts are marked not for use and there are a few optional parts too, so the actual number of parts used is quite modest
  • ato 13 Rosso, era pilotato dal Fwbl. Heinrich Bartels e dislocato a Kalamaki in Grecia nel 1943. Heinrich Bartels partecipo' a circa 500 missioni divise tra il fronte della manica, quello russo, nel mediterraneo ed infine a difesa della Germania dove mori' nel Dicembre 1944
  • Indeed the designation G-6/AS is for DB-605 AS equipped Bf 109G-6. This engine had a larger supercharger, and consequently better high altitude performance, performance up-high was similar with that of Bf 109G-10 (but not so at low altitudes)
  • Bf 109 G-6/R6 Tamiya. pieroluftwaffe2. 500 1,024. pieroluftwaffe2. 500 1,024. Post 6:33 AM - Jan 08 #1 2021-01-08T06:33. As many know, the Tamiya's 'Gustav' is probably the best G-6 on the market today it has some small flaws (but which model does not have any ?), including the absence of additional armaments to create different versions, or.
  • ated the skies during the early stages of World War II. The aircraft was equipped

Messerschmitt Bf.109 G6/R6 Gustav dal kit Eduard in scala ..

  1. Bf 109 G-6 Non-pressurized version. The only external difference between the G-6 and the G-5 was the small fresh air intake scoop found on either side of the windscreen. The G-6 was the most important and the most produced of all G-versions. In service from the beginning of 1943 until to the end of the war
  2. Me Bf 109 G-6/trop. 18070 : 6 (*) Nel foglio Decals Tauromodel questo velivolo viene ( giustamente) rappresentato con insegne Tedesche, ma non bisogna dimenticare che abbia comunque portato insegne Italiane. Bibliografia: Monografie Lotnicze n°50 Messerschmitt Bf 109 di Robert Michulec ( AJ Press
  3. Manuale per la Revell set 04665 Airplanes Messerschmitt Bf109 G-6. Visualizza e scarica il pdf, trova le risposte alle domande più frequenti e leggi il feedback degli utenti
  4. AIRCRAFT. Messerschmitt Bf 109 G6. SCALE & KIT. 1/48 Tamiya. MODELER. Chris Wauchop. HISTORY. The Messerschmitt Bf 109 is a German World War II fighter aircraft that was the backbone of the Luftwaffe's fighter force. The Bf 109 first saw operational service in 1937 during the Spanish Civil War and was still in service at the dawn of the jet age at the end of World War II in 1945
  5. Bf 109 G-6 | Mirosław Zelechowski, Jakub Plewka | download | Z-Library. Download books for free. Find book
  6. Eagle Editions EP21-48 - Bf 109 G-6 Corrected Drop Tank for All Variants Price Canadian Dollars: $20.95 . Eagle Editions EP22-48 - Bf 109 G-6, G-10 & G-14 Battery Box Price Canadian Dollars: $15.95 . Eagle Editions EP23-48- Messerschmitt Bf 109 ETC Rack for F, G, K Series Pric
  7. HOW TO BUILD MESSERSCHMITT BF 109 G-6. Codice: 212MD001006 Prenota Richiedi informazioni Dillo ad un amico. € 18,00 . Dagli editori della rivista TAMIYA MODEL MAGAZINE INTERNATIONAL questa serie di monografie aeronautiche destinate ai modellisti. Ogni.

Foto del Messerschmitt Bf 109 G-6U3 dell'Aeronautica

  1. Messerschmitt Bf109 G-6 Late & early version - The Bf109 is one of the Luftwaffe's most famous World War II fighter aircraft. More than 33,000 Bf109's were built in many different versions. Both its
  2. The Bf 109 G-6 was the most produced Messerschmitt 109 model during the war with over 12,000 aircraft in total being built once production began in February 1943. The main goal of its development was increasing the G-6's firepower
  3. The BF 109 G-6 is one of the many planes available in Battlefield V. . This is an anti-air plane, that's nimble and lightly armored. It boasts powerful, forward mounted machine guns that will tear.
  4. The Messerschmitt Bf 109 is a German World War II fighter aircraft that was the backbone of the Luftwaffe 's fighter force. The Bf 109 first saw operational service in 1937 during the Spanish Civil War and was still in service at the dawn of the jet age at the end of World War II in 1945
  5. Messerschmitt Bf109 G-6 WNr 161742, Slowak, Eduard 1/48 Another Slowak uprising build! I do know this Eduard kit has been presented here before, but in order to present my 109's I have chosen to add it here too
  6. Bf 109 G-6 W.Nr. unknown, II Gruppo Caccia (?), Northern Italy, Summer 1944. Source: eBay auction Ju 188 D W.Nr. 230 060 ??+A? might be a 4.(F)/ or a 6.(F)/122 plane

Bf 109 G-6 250px: Aircraft Data Nation: Germany: Classification: Fighter: Era: IV Economic Data Research Needed: 75000 . Purchase Price: 250000 . Training Price: 72000 . Aircraft Progression Previous: Bf 109 G-2 (Tropical) Next in Series: None Next in Tree: Bf 109 G-10 BF 109 G6 ANR . Data: 22/01/2013 Proprietario: Paolo11 Dimensione: 382 oggetti prossimo ultimo . DSC03580 Data: 22/01/2013 Visite: 46 DSC03581 Data: 22/01/2013 Visite: 42 DSC03582 Data: 22/01/2013 Visite: 38 DSC03584 Data: 22/01/2013 Visite: 45 DSC03583 Data: 23/01/2013 Visite: 41 DSC03584 Data.

anche a Manching presso il museo dedicato a Willy Messerschmitt si danno (o si sono dati) da fare con il Bf 109 G 6 . It fits somewhere between the top of the line G14 model and earlier G2 model and offers an interesting decision to 109 pilots. While the G14 has the ultimate in engine and firepower, the G6 offers performance worse than the G2, but with the same firepower as the G14 1/72 Messerschmitt BF-109 G-6 1/72 Messerschmitt BF-109 G-6 SKU: ITA0063. Codice del fornitore:: 0063. Marca:: Italeri. Non disponibile. Prezzo di listino: €11,20. Prezzo: €10,08 Spediamo in tutta Italia al costo di 8,9 € (isole comprese) Quantità:.

The Bf 109 is a fighter featured in Battlefield 1942 issued to the Wehrmacht, Afrika Korps ,German Elite Forces and Royal Italian Army.It has space for one player, who pilots the aircraft. It has two weapons available, its machine guns with 900 rounds of ammunition, and single bombs, with 15 units available . Werner, Jr., #26266 . The Controversy. About two months ago someone asked on Hyperscale about a 109 with a different paint scheme. I had just received my copy of the Jet & Prop magazine from Germany that had an all black 109 in it. I suggested this to the guy who posted

Messerschmitt Bf 109 G-6/R3 Key Accomplishment(s) Famous German WWII Aircraft Brief Description The world became aware of the Messerschmitt Bf. 109 during the Battle of Britain, and to this day it is Germany's best known aircraft. Throughout World War II, new models were developed the Bf. 109G-6 Gustav was among the best. Credit Lin Bf 109 G-6/AS or G-14/AS W.Nr. unknown Sxchwarze ?, 5./JG 53, Hustedt, July-August 1944. Source: eBay auction via FB. Original caption: Erinnerung von der 5. Staffel der Jagdgesch. 53 in Hustedt. Courtesy of Sinisa Sestanovic, Messerschmitt Bf 109 - years 1935 to 1945 and beyond, 18 January 2021 26-giu-2019 - Esplora la bacheca Messerschmitt BF-109 di Alessandro Chimenti su Pinterest. Visualizza altre idee su aereo, aviazione, luftwaffe

Learn to fly the Bf 109 G-6 - YouTub

Bf 109 G-14 Bf 109G-14 seurasi G-6:n jälkeen, koska G-10 version tuotanto viivästyi DB 605D moottorin tuotanto-ongelmien vuoksi. Hävittäjätuotannossa esiintyvien ongelmien ratkaisemiseksi ja tuotannon lisäämiseksi perustettiin erityinen Hävittäjäesikunta Trumpeter Aeromaster 1:24 Bf-109 G-6 Early Version Decal Sheet #02407U. Sign in to check out Check out as guest . Adding to your cart. The item you've selected was not added to your cart. Add to cart . Add to Watchlist Unwatch. Free shipping and returns. Ships from United States Buy Bf 109 at Amazon. Free Shipping on Qualified Orders The Bf 109G6/R6 has *three* 20mm cannon (the good kind, not the early 20mm cannon found in the outer wing bays in the FW 190A4 and Bf 109E), plus *two* 13mm machine guns. This translates into awesome killing power, but also epitomizes the effects of the later modifications upon the 109 airframe Messerschmitt Bf 109 G-6/R3 Panorama. Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Panoramic view inside the cockpit of the Messerschmitt Bf 109 G-6/R3. More about Messerschmitt Bf 109 G-6/R3. Created: 04/04/2019. Photographer: Jim Walker. ID #: Source: National Air and Space Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution

Original Luftwaffe Messerschmitt Bf 109 G-6 with Daimler Benz DB 605 Engine flown by Mikael Carlson as his first time experience on the Messerschmitt Bf-109 with the DB 605 direct injected engine Nerf the BF-109 G-6. Odinslayer848. 27 posts Member, Battlefield 4, Battlefield, Battlefield 1, Battlefield V Member. July 4, 2020 10:40PM. The plane is ridiculous. I've gone a match on breakthrough in it dogfighting two other competent pilots in P-51's, only losing out once the ground AA finally intervened G-6 with 151/20 gun-pods is 3278kg and 3196 without. This is impossible, because the MG 151/20 gun-pods with 250 combined 20mm ammo would add at least 145 kg. The original weight without the gun-pods was probably a typo in the original document

Eduard 1/48 Messerschmitt Bf 109 G-6 Early Version (Re-Tooled) Review by Brett Green. Bf 109 cockpit size in real life. Page 3 of 3 - Bf 109 cockpit size in real life - posted in General Discussion: Ok, heres another tiny cockpit. If the guys built a 1/5th model of that too Ill give up She may look like (and be labelled as) a Messerschmitt Bf 109 G-6, but really she's a Spanish licence-built Hispano. Flown by the Spanish AF until 1966, she was purchased for the movie Battle of Britain. She later played the part of a P-51 Mustang (yes, really!) in the Hollywood movie about General Patton, called Patton

. Manfred Dieterle 3./JG 300 Bonn-Hangelar March-April 1944 (SCALE 1:24) BF 109 NACHTJAGER WİLDE SAU JG 300 (GELBE 1) Posted by bismarck at 06:44. Email This BlogThis! Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest. 2 comments � A Bf 109G-6 or 14 crash-landed at 1300 hours near Luneville, France. � The German pilot was defecting. He was not named but was from Berlin. � The aircraft was listed in the report as a G-4 (sic, typo) or G-6

Messerschmitt Bf 109 variants - Wikipedi

From the end of 1941, the Bf 109 was steadily being supplemented by the Focke-Wulf Fw 190. In February 1943, the G-6 was introduced with the 13 mm (.51 in) MG 131s, replacing the smaller 7.92 mm (.312 in) MG 17 - externally this resulted in two sizeable Beule blisters over the gun breeches, reducing speed by 9 km/h (6 mph) The Bf 109 G-6/U4 was equipped with two fuselage mounted MG 131 13mm machine guns and one engine mounted MK 108 30mm cannon. Rüstsatz R6 offered the possibility to add one MG 151 20mm cannon underneath each wing 1:72 BF-109 G-6 The BF-109 G represents the logical evolution of the earlier F version of the well-known German fighter plane, which dominated the skies during the early stages of World War II. The aircraft was equipped 1/48 Hasegawa Bf-109 G-6, Gerhard Barkhorn . November 7, 2016 in Aviation 1/48 Bf 109 Hasegawa 15 Comments As promised from last night here's another one of my Bf-109's from a Luftwaffe Experten. This time I chose the Ace Gerhard Barkhorn who amassed 301 kills

The Bf-109G-6 lacked a pressurized cockpit but was the most numerous Bf-109 produced and the first to carry 13mm machine guns equivalent to the American 50 caliber Browning. During WWII the Finnish Air Force received 159 Bf-109s referred to by the Finns as Mersu. These aircraft made it possible for Finland to take on the Soviet aircraft The Bf 109 G-6 is a rank IV German fighter War Thunder Mods Planes - Germany bf_109_g6_camo bf_109_g6_camo. https://wiki.warthunder.com/File:Bf_109_G-6_Erica. Foto galleri på en Messerschmitt Bf 109 G-6, Messerschmitt Bf 109 er en enmotorede jagerfly, enkelt-sæde tyske designet i 1930'erne af den tyske ingeniør Willy Messerschmitt i respons til et udbud af Reichsluftfahrtministerium (RLM) for design af en fighter moderne at udstyre Luftwaffe naissante. Autour du moteur le plus puissant disponible, un Junkers Jumo 210 à 12 cylindres en V inversé. TAMIYA # 61117 1/48 Messerschmitt Bf 109 G-6. Complied by Michael Burns. ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTIONS (pdf download) HYPERSCALE: First Look Review. RONBEE SCALEWINGS: In-Box Review. FLORY MODELS - Tamiya 1/48 Bf109 G-6 Review: DACHS HUND MODEL: (use Google Chrome to translate) Kit Review Part 1

Foto di Amedeo Fagiano e del Messerschmitt Bf 109G-6U3

Warbird enthusiasts are now being offered the opportunity to own a Messerschmitt BF-109G-6 which has reportedly been rebuilt to its original wartime configuration. As previously reported, The aircraft, S/N 440738, was built by Wiener Neustädter Flugzeugwerke in 1944 and is said to be the only original, airworthy example of the type in existence Costruisci la tua flotta modello statico con l'Italeri 1/72 Messerschmitt BF-109 G-6 kit modello in plastica. Il BF-109 G rappresenta la logica evoluzione della versione precedente F del noto aereo da caccia tedesco, che ha dominato i cieli durante le prime fasi della seconda guerra mondiale Photo ©: Karsten Palt The Messerschmitt Bf 109 is a single-engine single-seat fighter aircraft produced by the German manufacturer Bayerische Flugzeugwerke, later Messerschmitt AG. The Bf 109 is the worlds most produced fighter aircraft and the most produced aircraft in World War II

Messerschmitt Bf 109 G-6 as flown by Lt. Erich Hartmann, Staffelkapitän of 9./JG 52, Russia, October 1943. I completed this model about 20 years ago and thought it was about time for a revamp. This was achieved mainly by tidying up and redoing the main weathering. The wing roots were first to receive attention 3D Model of a Bf 109 G-6 fighter. Messerschmitt Bf 109 was a german fighter aircraft used during Spanish civil war and ww2. The G-6 version is powered by DB605 A Engine and armed with two 13mm machine guns and one 20mm automatic cannon. This version of Bf 109 also had an optional kit, which added 20mm automatic cannon under each wing . The highest scoring fighter ace of all time, Erich Hartmann of Germany, flew the Bf 109 and was credited with 352 victories (and also survived the war) This Messerschmitt Bf 109 G-6 model kit recreates the large aircraft flown by Mario Bellaganambi, the leader of the 364th Squadriglia, 150th Gruppo Autonomo of the Italian Air Force. The kit includes special limited markings updated for its 2018 release and an easy-to-build design created in 3D-CAD

Messerschmitt Bf109 G-6, Tamiya 60790 (2019

The Bf 109 G-6/U4 was a sub-series of the G-6 that was fitted with a 3 cm MK 108 as centrally mounted weapon instead of the regular 2 cm MG 151/20. It was built by WNF, the planned production figure for 1943 being 800 - or 810 according to another official source -, beginning in May 1943 with the delivery of the first two a/c The Bf-109 is my favorite aircraft and a popular modeling subject. With the release of the Eduard and Zvezda kits recently and even more recently the Tamiya one there is no lack of plastic to add these decals to. Blue 14 from 12./JG 2 is a pretty plain Jane G-6 Messerschmitt Bf-109 HC Vol 1 1936-42 and Messerschmitt Bf-109 HC Vol 2 1942-45 Beaman, John R. Jr. and Jerry L. Campbell. Messerschmitt Bf 109 in action, Part 1. Carrollton, Texas: Squadron/Signal Publications, 1980. ISBN -89747-106-7. Boyne, Walter J. Clash of Wings. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994. ISBN -684-83915-6. Burke, Stephen Messerschmitt Bf-109 G-6 Gustav 3D model , formats OBJ, 3DS, FBX, C4D, LWO, STL, ready for 3D animation and other 3D project

Bf 109 G6

BF-109 G-6 With a Red Barron look I was going to weather it but I'm happy with it as is. Completed. Close. 508. Posted by 4 months ago. BF-109 G-6 With a Red Barron look I was going to weather it but I'm happy with it as is. Completed. 15 comments. share. save. hide. report. 99% Upvoted. Log in or sign up to leave a comment Log In Sign Up 1-mar-2018 - Questo Pin è stato scoperto da Xoxol. Scopri (e salva) i tuoi Pin su Pinterest Asisbiz fighter profile Finnish Air Force Messerschmitt Bf 109 G-6 FAF 1.HLeLv34 MT-460 Olli Puhakka Finland 194 Below are two pictures of Bf 109 G-6, 1/32 Hasegawa, modeled by Jerry Crandall of Yellow 7 9./JG 3 Udet Die Augen Staffel (Eye Squadron). He notes: I was very interested in building this model and trying out our decals because of the challenge of the large yellow eyeball over the machine gun bulges Bf 109 A Hispano Aviación HA-1112, a license-built Messerschmitt Bf 109 G-2, rebuilt by the EADS/Messerschmitt Foundation, Germany with a Daimler-Benz DB 605 engine as a G-6. The paint scheme is missing the Swastika, due to German law.: Role Fighter: Manufacturer Bayerische Flugzeugwerke (BFW) Messerschmitt AG: Designer Willy Messerschmitt, Robert Lusse

Features such as a liquid-cooled V-12 engine, a closed canopy and retractable landing gear made the Bf 109 a huge improvement over WWI fighters. The G-6 variant, which appeared late in WWII, had a more powerful engine with superchargers and also came with many field adjustment kits Bf - 109 G - 6 Zvezda 1/48. zipper. February 2017 in Torre (annunci) Comparso in un lampo la box art del nuovo kit. Se fossimo al livello del loro F credo che sarebbe un ottimo antagonista per l' Eduard, anche sul prezzo. Commenti. Tex. February 2017. Visto l'F2/4 sono propenso a crederti sulla parola. Tex. Tex Bf 109 G-6 (Erla) con cui il ten. Lecchi fu costretto ad un atterraggio di emergenza il 28 maggio 1943, dopo essere stato colpito da alcuni Spitfire. Kit: Bf 109 G-6 - Italeri - 6802. Fotoincisioni Eduard - Bf-109 G-6 for Italeri - SS119. Bf 109 G-6 Detail Set 1:72 - QuickBoost. Per le Decal vedremo più avant Bf 109 G6 / Silver 1 53LP / 55W 45L Win Ratio 55% / A rating system that measures a users performance within a game by combining stats related to role, laning phase, kills / deaths / damage / wards / damage to objectives etc Many RA Bf-109's did not use the white wingtips, and the 02 overpainting seems logical, so that's what I went with. Photos, anyone? It could be that the plane carried two different color schemes at different times, but I wonder. Most references show Italian 109's in Luftwaffe camouflage, which would have been 74/75/76


Contingut

Durant 1933, el Technisches Amt (C-Amt), el departament tècnic del Reichsluftfahrtministerium, va concloure una sèrie de projectes de recerca per al futur del combat aeri. El resultat dels estudis van ser 4 esborranys sobre com hauria de ser el futur avió: [5]

  • Rüstungsflugzeug I per a un bombarder mitjà de múltiples seients
  • Rüstungsflugzeug II per a un bombarder tàctic
  • Rüstungsflugzeug III per a un caça d'un únic tripulant
  • Rüstungsflugzeug IV per a un caça pesant de 2 tripulants

El Rüstungsflugzeug III havia de ser un interceptor, destinat a substituir als biplans Arado Ar 64 i Heinkel He 51, llavors en servei. Dos mesos després que el nou govern nacional socialista pugés al poder el 30 de gener de 1933, el RLM publicà els requeriments tàctics per a un caça monotripulat al document L.A. 1432/33. [6]

El caça havia de tenir una velocitat màxima de 400 km/h a 6.000 metres, que hauria de mantenir durant 20 minuts, estant enlairat un total de 90 minuts. L'alçada crítica de 6.000 metres havia d'assolir-se en no més de 17 minuts, i el caça havia de tenir un sostre operatiu de 10.000 metres. [6] El motor havia de ser el nou Junkers Jumo 210 de 522 kW (700 hp). Havia d'anar armat amb un canó MG C 30 de 20 mm disparant a través del motor o, alternativament, amb dues metralladores MG 17 de 7,92 mm, o un canó MG FF de 20 mm amb dues MG17 de 7,92 mm. [7] Una altra especificació era que havia de mantenir una càrrega a les ales per sota dels 100 kg/m 2 . L'assaig seria per avaluar-lo basant-se en la velocitat de nivell del caça, la taxa d'enlairament i la maniobrabilitat, en aquest ordre. [6]

De fet, les especificacions del R-III no estaven previstes al T-Amt: a inicis de 1933, tant Heinkel com Arado havien enviat de manera privada dissenys per a un caça monoplaça, i el T-Amt simplement va agafar les millors característiques de tots dos i els hi va tornar, convidant també al projecte a Focke-Wulf.

S'ha suggerit la possibilitat que Willy Messerschmitt no va ser convidat en un inici a participar en la competició degut a l'animositat personal entre ell i el director del RLM, Erhard Milch, [nb 1] però, investigacions recents han indicat que no va ser el cas, i que totes tres empreses (Arado, Heinkel i BFW) van rebre simultàniament el contracte de desenvolupament amb els requeriments del L.A. 1432/33, al febrer de 1934. [6] Una quarta empresa, Focke Wulf, va rebre una còpia del contracte al setembre de 1939. [6] El motor havia de ser el Junkers Jumo 210, però hauria de poder-se modificar pel més potent però menys desenvolupat Daimler-Benz DB 600. [8] Se'ls demanà que lliuressin 3 prototipus per ser provats a finals de 1934.

Prototipus Modifica

El treball de disseny del que seria el Bf 109 començà al març de 1934, només 3 mesos després de rebre el contracte de desenvolupament, sota el projecte de P.1034. La maqueta bàsica es completa al maig de 1934, i una maqueta encara més detallada es preparà per a gener de 1935. El disseny va rebre la designació del RLM "Bf 109". [6]

El primer prototipus (Versuchsflugzeug 1 o V1), sota el registre civil D-IABI, va ser completat al maig de 1935, però els motors alemanys encara no estaven a punt. Per tal de poder fer volar els dissenys del "RIII", el RLM adquirí 4 motors Rolls-Royce Kestrel VI, dient a Rolls-Royce que l'era Heinkel He 70 Blitz per a una prova de motors. [nb 2] Messerschmitt rebé 2 d'aquests motors, i començà adaptant els suports del V1 per usar el motor V-12. Aquest treball es completà a l'agost, i el V1 completà els seus vols de prova al setembre de 1935. Llavors, l'avió va ser enviat al centre de proves de la Luftwaffe a Rechlin per prendre part en el concurs de dissenys.

A finals d'estiu, els motors Jumo van començar a estar disponibles, i el V2 va ser completats amb el motor Jumo 210A de 600 hp a l'octubre de 1935. El va seguir el V3, sent el primer a portar canons incorporats, però no hi havia cap Jumo 210 més disponible i això va fer retardar el vol del V3 fins al maig de 1936.

El concurs Modifica

Després que les proves d'acceptació es completessin a Rechlin, els prototips van ser traslladats a Travemünde per a provar-los entre ells. Els participants de les proves van ser el Arado Ar 80 V3, el Focke-Wulf Fw 159 V3, el Heinkel He 112 V4 i el Bf 109 V2. El primer a arribar va ser el He 112, a inicis de febrer de 1936, mentre que la resta de prototips arribaren a inicis de març.

Com que la majoria dels pilots de caça de la Luftwaffe estaven habituats als biplans amb cabines obertes, una baixa càrrega de vent, unes forces-g lleugeres i eren senzills de pilotar, es mostraren molt crítics vers al Bf 109 en un inici. Però ben aviat passà al capdavant de la competició, mentre que el Arado i el Focke-Wulf, que estaven com a reserves en cas que els favorits fallessin, es demostraren com a desfasats. El Arado Ar 80, amb la seva ala de gavina (substituïda per una ala recta i afilada al V3), i amb un tren d'aterratge carenat tenia un sobrepès i poca potència, i el disseny va ser abandonat després que es construïssin 3 prototips. El Fw 159, amb les ales en parasol sempre va ser considerat pel personal de Erprobungsstelle (E-Stelle) a Travemünde com un model de compromís entre un biplà i un monoplà d'ala baixa amb una aerodinàmica més eficient. Tot i que tenia algunes característiques avançades, va fer servir un xassís nou que demostrà ser poc fiable. [9]

Inicialment, el Bf 109 va ser vist amb suspicàcia pels pilots de proves de E-Stelle a causa del seu angle de terra, que oferia molt poca visió del terra al davant les escotilles laterals, que no podien obrir-se en vol, així com pels slats automàtic del frontal de les ales, que s'obriren sense advertir-ho durant les acrobàcies. També estaven preocupats pel pes de càrrega de les ales. [10]

El Heinkel He 112, basat en el Blitz, era el favorit dels caps de la Luftwaffe. Comparat amb el Bf 109, també era més econòmic. [11] Els aspectes positius del He 112 incloïen l'ample de via i la força del tren d'aterratge, una visibilitat considerablement millor des de la cabina i un ala més baixa que permetia aterrar més fàcilment. Per contra, el He 112 era estructuralment més complicat, amb un 18% més de pes que el Bf 109, i ben aviat va ser evident que el gruix de l'ala, que s'estenia 12,6 metres amb una àrea de 23,2m 2 al primer prototipus (V1) era un desavantatge clar per a un caça lleuger, disminuint la maniobrabilitat i la taxa de gir. A casa del fuselatge més petit i lleuger, el Bf 109 era 30 km/h més ràpid que el He 112 a nivell de vol i superior en les pujades i baixades. Com a resultat, el He 112 V4 que va ser emprat per les proves tenia noves ales, que feien 11,5 metres de longitud i 21,6 m 2 d'àrea. A més, el V4 tenia una carlinga lliscant d'una sola peça i un motor Jumo 210Da més potent, amb un sistema d'escapament modificat. Però aquestes millores no havien estat completament provades i el He 112 V4 no va poder ser mostrat d'acord amb les normes de la Comissió d'Acceptació, donant avantatge al Bf 109. Així doncs, la Comissió fallà en favor del Bf 109 perquè durant les proves dels pilots sobre les capacitats del Bf 109 en una sèrie de girs, salts, picats i girs tancats, en les que el pilot sempre va tenir un control absolut de l'avió. [12]

Al març, la RLM s'assabentà que el Spitfire britànic entrava a les línies de producció necessitant-se urgentment un resultat del concurs per tal que el guanyador comencés a ser produït. El 12 de març, publicaren un document que esbossava els resultats del concurs, amb el resultat que s'ordenava a Heinkel que redissenyés radicalment el He 112, ordenant que el Bf 109 comencés a fabricar-se. [13] El Messerschmitt 109 va debutar públicament als Jocs Olímpics de Berlin'36, quan va volar el prototipus V1. [14]

Característiques del disseny Modifica

Igual que l'anterior Bf 108, el nou disseny es basava en el principi de la "construcció lleugera de pes" de Messerschmitt, que estava dirigida essencialment a reduir el nombre de peces de l'avió sempre que fos possible. Exemples d'això es poden trobar en l'ús de dos suports llargs i complexos que van ser instal·lats al servidor de seguretat principal del motor aquests suports incorporaven els suports del motor més baix i el punt del pivot del tren d'aterratge en una sola unitat. Un llarg suport soldat al servidor de seguretat portava el pal principal dels punts de recollida, i carregaven la major part de les càrregues de les ales. Els dissenys contemporanis solien tenir en compte aquestes estructures principals de càrrega muntades en parts diferents del fuselatge, amb les càrregues distribuïdes per l'estructura principal mitjançant una sèrie de punts forts. En concentrar les càrregues sobre el servidor principal de la mampara, l'estructura principal del Bf 109 era relativament lleugera i senzilla. [15]

Un avantatge d'aquest disseny era que el tren d'aterratge principal, que es retractava en un angle de 85º, estava adjunt al fuselatge, fent possible eliminar completament les ales pel servei sense necessitat d'equips addicionals per donar suport al fuselatge. També volia dir que l'estructura de les ales podia ser simplificada al no haver de suportar el pes de l'avió i no haver de suportar les càrregues de l'aterratge i l'enlairament. Malgrat això, havia un inconvenient, que era que el tren d'aterratge posterior tenia una roda estreta, fent que l'avió fos inestable mentre que es trobava a terra. Per incrementar l'estabilitat les cames van ser esteses cap a l'exterior, creant un altre problema en les càrregues de l'enlairament i l'aterratge sent transferides a un angle superior per les cames. [16]

El petit timó del Bf 109 també era relativament ineficaç per controlar els moviments creats per l'estela de l'hèlix durant la primera part de la carrera d'enlairament, i aquesta deriva cap als costats creaven càrregues desproporcionades al costat de la roda. Si les forces imposades eren prou grans, els punts de pivotació es trencaven i el tren d'aterratge es venia a baix cap a l'exterior. [16] Els pilots experimentats deien que era fàcil de controlar, però alguns dels més inexperts es van perdre en l'enlairament. [17]

A causa del seu gran angle de terra causat per les llargues cames, la visibilitat pel pilot, especialment la frontal, era molt pobre, un problema exacerbat per l'escotilla lateral. Això volia dir que els pilots sovint havien de portar l'avió de manera sinuosa durant les maniobres a terra, que s'accentuava sobre les cames esteses del tren d'aterratge. Els accidents a terra eren, malgrat tot, més un problema dels pilots novells, especialment durant les darreres etapes de la guerra, quan els pilots van rebre menys entrenament abans de ser enviats a les unitats operatives. [17] Fins i tot els pilots més experimentats, especialment quan estaven molt cansats, van tenir aquest problema. La major part dels pilots finesos van dir que aquesta oscil·lació era fàcil de controlar, però alguns dels menys experimentats van perdre avions. [17] Aproximadament un 10% dels Bf 109 van perdre's en accidents durant l'enlairament o l'aterratge, 1.500 dels quals van tenir lloc entre 1939 i 1941. [18] La instal·lació d'un fix "d'altura" a la roda de cua en alguns dels darrers G-10 i 14 i a la sèrie K va ajudar a alleujar en gran manera el problema. [19]

Des de l'inici del disseny es va prioritzar que hi hagués un accés senzill al motor, a les armes del fuselatge i a altres sistemes mentre que estiguessin operatius als aeròdroms avançats. Amb aquest objectiu tota la coberta del motor estava feta amb grans panells, fàcilment desmuntables, que eren subjectats mitjançant passadors. Un gran panell sota la secció central de l'ala podia ser retirar per accedir al tanc de combustible principal, que estava situat sota el pis de la cabina i parcialment darrere de la mampara posterior. Altres panells menors donaven un accés senzill als sistemes de refrigeració i a l'equipament elèctric. El motor estava situat sobre dues cames en voladís des de la mampara, amb forma de Y i fets en aliatge de magnesi. Cadascuna de les cames estava assegurada mitjançant dos passadors sota el voladís. Totes les connexions de les canonades principals tenien un codi de colors i estaven agrupades en un sol lloc, sempre que era possible, i l'equip elèctric estava connectat a les caixes de connexió muntades sobre el voladís. Tot el motor podia ser retirat o substituït en qüestió de minuts. [16]

Un altre exemple d'aquest disseny va ser l'ús d'una única biga de suport situada a la punta de l'ala, formant una D rígida en forma de caixa de torsió. La majoria dels avions de l'època empraven dos travessers, prop de les puntes frontals i posteriors de les ales, però la caixa D era molt més rígida, i eliminava la necessitat d'una biga posterior. El perfil de l'ala va ser la NACA 2R1 14,2 a l'arrel i NACA 2R1 11,35 a la punta, [20] amb un gruix de corda proporció de 14,2% en l'arrel i l'11,35% a la punta.

Una altra important diferència amb dissenys de la competència va ser la major càrrega alar. Mentre que el contracte d'I-IV va demanar una càrrega alar de menys de 100 kg / m 2 , Messerschmitt creia que això era poc raonable. Amb una càrrega d'ala baixa i els motors disponibles, el caçador acabaria per ser més lent que al que havia de perseguir. Un caça era dissenyat principalment per a l'alta velocitat de vol. Una àrea de l'ala més petita era l'òptima per a l'assoliment d'alta velocitat, però de baixa velocitat de vol patiria, mentre que amb l'ala més petita que requeriria un major flux d'aire per generar sustentació suficient per mantenir el vol. Per compensar això, el Bf 109 incloïa avançats dispositius d'alta sustentació a les ales, incloent-hi de forma automàtica d'obertura de dels llistons d'avantguarda, i pels canvis bruscs en combat, flaps al vora de sortida. Els llistons augmentaven la sustentació de l'ala considerablement quan es desplegaven, [21] millorant en gran manera la maniobrabilitat horitzontal de l'aeronau, ja que diversos veterans de la Luftwaffe, com Erwin Leykauf, ho testificaren. [22] Messerschmitt també incloïa alerons "caiguts", augmentant així l'àrea de solapa eficaç (i més tard les aletes del radiador també). Quan s'implementaren aquests dispositius de manera efectiva, augmentà el coeficient de les ales de l'elevació. [23] Els caces amb motors refrigerats per líquid són vulnerables als impactes en el sistema de refrigeració. Per aquesta raó, als darrers Bf 109 F, G i K els dos models de radiadors de refrigeració estaven equipats amb un sistema de tall. Si un radiador es tancava, era possible volar amb el segon, o volar almenys durant cinc minuts amb tots dos tancats. [24] [25] [26] [27] El 1943, l'Oberfeldwebel Edmund Rossmann es va perdre i va caure darrere de les línies soviètiques. Va estar d'acord a mostrar als soviètics com funcionava l'avió. El tècnic d'ametralladores soviètic Víctor M. Sinaiski recordar:

« "El Messer era un avió molt ben dissenyat. En primer lloc, tenia un motor d'un tipus invertit, de manera que no podia ser eliminat des de baix. També hi havia dos radiadors d'aigua amb un sistema de tall: .. Si un radiador falla es pot volar amb el segon o tancar els dos i volar almenys cinc minuts. A més, el pilot està protegit per un blindatge a la part posterior, i el dipòsit de combustible també estava darrere de l'armadura. Els nostres avions tenen tancs de combustible al centre de les seves ales: .. és per això que els nostres pilot es cremen. Què més m'agrada del Messer? És molt automàtic i per tant fàcil de volar. També s'empra un regulador de camp elèctric, que els nostres avions no tenen. El nostre sistema d'hèlix, de pas hidràulic variable, que fa impossible el canvi de to sense el motor en marxa. Si, Déu no ho vulgui, s'apaga el motor al màxim, és impossible fer girar l'hèlix i és molt difícil d'arrencar el motor. Finalment, el comptador de munició alemanya va ser també una gran cosa. " [27] »

Armament i canons de góndola Modifica

Provant la creença de Messerschmitt en un monoplà de poc pes i poca resistència, l'armament va situar-se al fuselatge: dues metralladores sincronitzades, com en un caça biblà com l'Albatros D.Va, situades a la capota, disparant per damunt del motor i disparant enmig l'hèlix. Com a alternativa, un canó que disparava per un tub d'explosió enmig de les bancades dels cilindres del motor. [5] Aquesta també va ser l'armament elegit en alguns caces francesos, com el Dewoitine D.520. [28] D'acord amb el geni del Professor Messerschmitt, això mantenia les ales primes i sense càrregues.

Quan el 1937 es descobrí que la RAF estava planejant bateries de 8 canons pels seus nous caces monoplans (el Hawker Hurricane i el Supermarine Spitfire), va fer-se evident que el Bf 109 necessitaria més armament. Es va dissenyar una nova ala per tal de portar metralladores i, posteriorment, configuracions per un canó MG FF de 20mm. El problema era que quan va voler afegir-se armament, l'únic lloc on podia posar-se era a les ales, entre la roda i els slats, i només hi havia lloc per a una sola arma, ja fos una metralladora MG 17 de 7,92mm o un canó MG FF o MG FF/Mde 20mm. [29]

La primera versió del Bf 109 que tenia armes a les ales va ser el C-1, que tenia una MG 17 a cada ala. Per evitar redissenyar l'ala per acomodar grans dipòsits de munició i les escotilles d'accés, s'ideà un nou canal de munició pel qual una cinta contínua de 500 projectils s'alimentava per rampes des de la punta de l'ala, al voltant d'un corró i després per tota la longitud de l'ala, cap endavant i per sota de l'arma, fins a l'arrel de l'ala on anava per un altre corró fins a l'arma. [29]

Els canons de les armes van ser situats en uns tubs de gran diàmetre situats entre el pal i la vora davantera. Aquests tubs es refrigeraven mitjançant una canalització al voltant del canó i la recambra, amb una ranura a la part posterior de l'ala. La instal·lació era molt estreta car aquestes parts del mecanisme de tancament de les MG 17 estava en una obertura creada a l'estructura del flap de l'ala. [29]

El MG FF, més llarg i pesant, va haver de ser muntat a una badia exterior de l'ala. Es va fer un gran forat a través del pal que permetia que el canó fos equipat amb un alimentador de munició per davant per davant del pal, mentre que el bloc de tancament es projectava cap enrere a través de la biga. Un tambor de munició de 60 projectils va situar-se a un espai més proper a l'arrel de l'ala, causant una protuberància a la part inferior. Es va incorporar una petita escotilla a l'embalum per permetre l'accés per canviar el tambor. Es podia retirar tota l'arma mitjançant l'eliminació d'un panell de la part davantera. [29]

A partir de la sèrie 109F els canons ja no van estar "dins" de les ales (una excepció notable va ser el Bf 109 F-2 d'Adolf Galland, que tenia un MG FF/M de 20 mm instal·lat a la part interior de l'ala). Només alguns dels models projectats de les sèries 109K, com el K-6, van ser dissenyats per portat canons MK 108 de 30mm a les ales. [30]

En lloc d'armament a l'interior de l'ala, una potència de foc addicional va ser proporcionada mitjançant dos canons MG 151/20 de 20mm instal·lats sota les ales, a les beines de les armes. Encara que aquest armament addicional incrementava la potència del caça com a destructor de bombarders, tenia un efecte advers en les seves qualitats de maneig, reduint la seva competència en els combats caça contra caça i accentuant la tendència del caça a oscil·lar pendularment durant el vol. [31] Les beines de les armes, sense munició, pesaven 135 kg, [32] i tenien entre 135 i 145 projectils per canó. [32]

El pes total, incloent-hi la munició, era de 215kg. [32] La instal·lació de les beines de munició sota les ales era una tasca simple que podia ser ràpidament realitzada per les unitats d'armers, i imposà una reducció de velocitat de només 8 km/h. [32] En comparació, el pes d'instal·lar un armament semblant de dos canons MG 151/20 de 20mm dins de les ales del FW 190A-4/U8 va ser de 130kg, sense munició. [33]

Designació i sobrenoms Modifica

Originàriament, el Reichsluftfahrtministerium (Ministeri d'Aviació Alemany, RLM) el designà com a Bf 109, car el seu disseny provenia de la Bayerische Flugzeugwerke (literalment, la Fàbrica Aeronàutica Bavaresa).

Però l'empresa va passar a anomenar-se Messerschmitt AG després de juliol de 1938, quan Erhard Milch va permetre finalment a Willy Messerschmitt a adquirir l'empresa. Subseqüentment, tots els avions Messerschmitt que van crear-se després de la data, com el Me 210, portaven la designació "Me". Malgrat alguns reglaments del RLM, documents de durant la guerra de Messerschmitt AG, RLM i la Luftwaffe, continuaven emprant totes dues designacions, sovint fins i tot en la mateixa plana. [34] Tots els dissenys i plànols són descrits com a "Bf 109" en les planxes d'identificació, [35] incloent els models finals K-4, amb l'excepció de l'avió inicialment construït per Erla Flugzeugwerke, que a vegades portava el segell Me 109.

El Bf 109 va tenir diversos malnoms atorgats tant pels seus operadors com pels seus adversaris, generalment derivats a partir del nom del fabricant (Messer, Mersu, Messzer, etc.) o de l'aparença exterior de l'avió: la variant G-6 va rebre el nom de Die Beule (La protuberància) pel personal de la Luftwaffe, a causa de les cobertes de les metralladores MG 131 de 13mm, mentre que els pilots soviètics l'anomenaven "el prim" per la seva aparença (comparat amb el Fw 190, més robust). Els noms "Anton", "Bertha", "Caesar", "Dora", "Emil", "Friedrich", "Gustav" i "Kurfürst" eren derivats de la lletra de la designació oficial de la variant (per exemple, Bf 109G – 'Gustav'), basat en l'alfabet fonètic alemany emprat durant la II Guerra Mundial una pràctica comuna en altres dissenys alemanys. [36]

Rècords de vols Modifica

Poc després del seu debut públic, tres Bf 109B van prendre part al juliol de 1937 al Flugmeeting de Zuric. Sota el comandament del Major Seidemann, van guanyar en diverses categories: Primer Premi en una cursa de velocitat de 202 km, Primer Premi en la categoria Classe A en el Alpenrundflug internacional d'avions militars, i també la victòria al Patrouillenflug internacional. [37]

L'11 de novembre de 1937, el Bf 109 V13, pilotat pel pilot en cap de Messerschmitt, Dr. Hermann Wurster, volà amb un motor DB 601R de 1650 hp establint un nou rècord de velocitat per a "avions amb motors de pistó" amb una marca de 610,55 km/h, guanyant el títol per a Alemanya per primer cop. Convertit dun Bf 109D, el "V13• portava un motor especial DB 601R que podia arribar als 1650 hp per curts períodes. [38] [39] [nb 3]

Heikel, després de veure rebutjat el He 112, començà a treballar amb el He 100. El 6 de juny de 1938, el He 100 V3, pilotat per Ernst Udet, establí un nou rècord de 634,7 km/h, i el 30 de març de 1939, el pilot de proves Hans Dieterle superà aquest rècord, establint una marca de 746,61 km amb el He 100 V8. Messerschmitt recuperà el lideratge ben aviat en aquesta cursa: el 26 d'abril de 1939, el Flugkapitän Fritz Wendel, volant amb el Me 209 V1, situà la marca en 755,14 km/h. Aquest era un avió de competició que tenia ben poc en comú amb el Bf 109, amb un motor BD 601ARJ que produïa fins a 1.550 hp, però capaç d'arribar fins als 2.300. Per motius de propaganda, l'avió va ser nomenat Bf 109R, suggerint que es tractava d'una nova versió del caça. Aquest rècord es va mantenir fins al 1969. [40]

Quan es dissenyà el primer Bf 109 al 1934 per l'equip format per Willy Messerschmitt i Robert Lusser, [41] el seu paper principal era un interceptador d'alta velocitat i bombarder de curt radi. [42] El 109 també estava dissenyat per tenir avantatge sobre les aerodinàmiques més avançades d'aquell temps, així com les estructures tècniques del cos eren estaven avançades als seus contemporanis. [43] Durant els anys de la Blitzkrieg, el 109 era l'únic caça monomotor de la Luftwaffe, fins a l'aparició del Fw 190.

El 109 seguí fabricant-se des de 1937 i fins a 1945, amb diverses variants i sub-variants els primers motors eren els Daimler-Benz DB 601 i DB 605, amb el Junkers Jumo 210 per la majoria de variants de la preguerra. El model del Bf 109 més fabricat va ser la sèrie 109-G i més d'un terç de totes les variants eren la sèrie G-6, amb unes 12.000 unitats fabricades des del març de 1943. [44]

Els primers models de les sèries A, B, C i D portaven els motors 670-700 PS Junkers, sèrie Jumo 210, relativament de baixa potència. Diversos prototipus d'aquests avions van ser modificats per poder usar el motor DB 600, més potent. [45]

El primer gran redisseny va ser la sèrie E, incloent-hi la variant naval del Bf 109E i el Bf 109T (T de Träger, o remolcador d'avions). El Bf 109E, o "Emil" introduí una sèrie de canvis estructurals per tal d'acomodar el motor 1.100 PS Daimler-Benz DB 601, més pesant però més potent així com un armament més pesant i augmentava la capacitat de combustible. Les darreres variants del E introduïen una raqueta al fuselatge per les bombes o per un tanc extra de combustible, i usava el motor DB 601N. [46] El 109E entrà en servei amb la Legió Còndor durant la darrera fase de la Guerra Civil Espanyola i va ser la variant principal usada durant l'inici de la II Guerra Mundial fins a mitjans de 1941, quan el 109F el substituí en el paper de caça a la Luftwaffe. [47] Vuit 109E van fabricar-se el 1946 a Suïssa per la Dornier-Werke, usant la llicència de construcció. Un novè va construir-se usant peces de recanvi. [48]

El segon gran redisseny durant 1939-40 donà naixement a la sèrie F. El "Friedrich" tenia un redisseny complet de les ales, el sistema de refrigeració i l'aerodinàmica del fuselatge, i portava el motor 1,175 PS DB 601N (F-1, F-2) o l'1,350 PS DB 601E (F-3, F-4). Considerat per molts el punt d'inflexió del desenvolupament del Bf 109, la sèrie F abandonava el canó de l'ala i concentrava tot l'armament en el fusetatge frontal dues metralladores a dalt i un únic canó de 15 ó 20mm sota el motor. Aquesta configuració va emprar-se en totes les variants següents. Diversos Bf 109F van emprar-se en les darreres etapes de la Batalla d'Anglaterra el 1940, però realment va entrar en servei durant la primera meitat de 1941, substituint el Bf109E. [49]

La sèrie G ("Gustav") va entrar a mitjans de 1942, amb les seves variants inicials (de la G-1 a la G-4) que diferien només en petits detalls del Bf 109F, principalment al portar el motor 1475 PS DB 605 més potent. Van construir-se variants estranyament numerades com els caces de gran altitud amb una cabina pressuritzada i les variants parells eren no-presuritzades, destinades als caces bombarders. També existien variats amb un gran radi d'acció destinats al reconeixement fotogràfic. Les darreres sèries G (de la G-5 a la G-14) van ser fabricades amb un munt de variants, amb armament millorat i provisió de recanvis pre-empaquetats, coneguts com a Umrüst-Bausätze, normalment contractats a i que rebien el sufix "/U". Aquests kits, coneguts com a Rüstsätze també estaven disponibles per a les sèries G, però no es modificà la denominació dels avions. A inicis de 1944 els requeriments tàctics resultaren en l'addició d'un compressor d'aigua per injecció MW-50 d'alt rendiment, augmentant la potència del motor a 1.800-2.000 PS (1.775-1.973 HP). A inicis de 1944 diversos G-2s, G-3s, G-4s i G-6s van ser convertits en avions d'entrenament biplaces, coneguts com a G-12. La cabina de l'instructor va situar-se darrere la cabina original, i ambdues anaven cobertes per una tendal allargat de vidre. [50]

La darrera versió del Bf 108 va ser la sèrie K o 'Kurfürst' , amb un motor DB 605D amb un màxim de 2.000 CV (1.973 hp). Encara que externament era semblant als darrers models de la sèrie Bf 109G, es van realitzar un gran nombre de canvis interns i millores aerodinàmiques que comportaren la millora de la seva eficàcia i corregia els defectes existents, fent que mantingués la competitivitat amb els darrers caces Aliats i soviètics. [4] [51]

Després de la guerra, el Bf 109 va construir-se a Txecoslovàquia sota la denominació Avia S-99 i S-199 i a Espanya, com els Hispano Aviación Ha 1109 i 1112 [52]

En total, es van produir 33.984 unitats del Bf 109. [1] La producció en temps de guerra (setembre de 1939 a maig de 1945) va ser de 30.573 unitats. La producció de caces va totalitzar el 47% de tota la producció aeronàutica alemanya, d'aquests, un 57% dels caces fabricats per Alemanya eren Bf 109s. [53] Abans de la guerra, entre 1936 i agost de 1939, es fabricaren 2.193 Bf 109 A-E.

Uns 865 derivats del Bf 109G van ser fabricats després de la guerra sota llicència com l'Avia S-99 & S-199s txecoslovac, abandonant-se la fabricació el 1948. [2] La producció del Hispano Aviación HA-1109 i del HA-1112 Buchons espanyols acabà el 1958. [2]


Vsebina

Bf 109 je bila prvotna oznaka, ki ga je podelil Reichsluftfahrtministerium (Rajhovsko ministrstvo za zračni transport RLM) za načrt letala, ki ga je izdelalo podjetje Bayerische Flugzeugwerke. Ta oznaka se je uporabljala v vseh nemških uradnih dokumentih.

Podjetje se je julija 1938 preimenovalo v Messerschmitt AG, ko je Erhard Milch le dovolil, da Willy Messerschmitt prevzame podjetje. Vsa Messerschmittova letala dobila uradno tovarniško oznako Me torej Me 109.

Tako sta se izoblikovali dve oznaki (uradna vojaška in komercialna), ki sta se in se še uporabljata za ta model letala.

V strokovni literaturi se uporablja nepisano pravilo, da se letala izdelana pred prevzemom oz. spremembo imena uporablja oznaka Bf, po prevzemu pa se uporablja oznaka Me. Tako se za modele 108, 109 in 110 itn uporablja oznaka Bf, za ostale pa Me - npr. Me 155, Me 163, Me 209, Me 210/410, Me 262, Me 309 itn.

Leta 1933 je Technisches Amt (T-Amt, tehniški oddelek RLM) zaključil serijo raziskovalnih projektov o prihodnosti letalskega bojevanja. V sklopu teh raziskav so prišli do štirih osnovnih modelov prihodnjih letal:

  • Rüstungsflugzeug I (RV-I večsedežni srednji bombnik),
  • Rüstungsflugzeug II (RV-II taktični bombnik),
  • Rüstungsflugzeug III (RV-III dvosedežni težki lovec) in
  • Rüstungsflugzeug IV (RV-IV enosedežni lovec).

Rüstungsflugzeug IV naj bi bilo popolnoma kovinsko enokrilno, enomotorno, enosedežno lovsko letalo oz. lovec prestreznik, ki bi zamenjal popolnoma zastarela dvokrilnika Arado Ar 64 in Heinkel He 60. Druge natečajne zahteve so bile:

  • najvišja hitrost 400 km/h na višini 6.000 m, ki jo lahko vzdržuje vsaj 20 minut, v sklopu 90-minutnega leta.
  • opremljen naj bo z novim motorjemJunkers Jumo 210A s 700 KM (522 KW).
  • oborožen z najmanj tremi mitraljezi 7,92 mm s po 1.000 naboji ali pa z enim topom kalibra 20 mm z 200 granatami.
  • obremenitev kril naj bo manj kot 100 kg/m² (majhna obremenitev kril omogoča letalu hitro vzpenjanje in veliko okretnost v zavojih).

Osnovne zahteve za letalo so bile (po prednosti): hitrost letala, hitrost vzpenjanja in okretnost letala.

Vse te zahteve pa niso izvirale iz raziskav, ampak iz zasebno financiranih projektov, ki sta jih izdelala Heinkel in Arado. Te načrte sta v začetku leta 1933 poslala v T-Amt, v upanju na možno naročilo. Uradniki so tako oba projekta pregledali in iz obeh izbrali najboljše lastnosti, ki so tako postale zahteve za novo letalo. Tekmi za novo letalo se je nato pridružil še Focke-Wulf.

Maja 1934 je T-Amt zaključil oblikovanje natečaja za R-IV in razposlal vsem trem podjetjem zahteve ter hkrati prošnjo, da naj do konca leta 1934 dostavijo tri prototipe za praktične preizkuse.

Willy Messerschmitt najprej ni bil povabljen k udeležbi na natečaju. To se je zgodilo zaradi osebnih zamer med Messerschmittom in direktorjem RLM, Erhardom Milchom. Milch je Messerschmittu očital smrt svojega prijatelja Hansa Hackmanna, ki se je ubil kot testni pilot med preizkušanjem lahkega transportnega letala Messerschmitt M20. Messerschmitt je dosegel, zahvaljujoč zvezam z visokimi častniki Luftwaffe in uspehu njegovega športnega letala Messerschmitt Bf 108 Taifun, da so zgodaj leta 1935 k natečaju povabili tudi Bayerische Flugzeugwerke. Tam je bil Messerschmitt zaposlen kot glavni inženir. Milch pa je vseeno izjavil, da Messerschmitt ne bo osvojil natečaja.

Messerschmitt je do povabila že zasnoval večino bodočega Bf 109. Podobno kot Bf 108, je zasnova temeljila na značilnih Messerschmittovih konstrukcijah. Letala majhne mase, katerih zasnova je stremela k zmanjšanju števila težjih delov v letalu na minimum. Ena takih konstrukcijskih posebnost je bila, da so vse strukturne točke pritrdili na nosilno steno pred pilotsko kabino, nanjo so pritrdili tudi nosilce kril in motorja ter podvozje. V konvencionalnih zasnovah so te strukturne točke razporedili na različne dele letala, tako so bile obremenitve enakomernejše. Težo so tako razporedili po celotnem trupu letala.

Druga pomembna prednost te zasnove je bil način pritrditve podvozja. S tem, da so vsa tri kolesa podvozja pritrdili na trup letala, so lahko v Messerschmittu popolnoma odstranili krila. Med izdelavo in servisiranjem letala je lahko trup samostojno stal na podvozju. Hkrati pa je bila to velika težava, neposredna posledica tega je bila zloglasna nestabilnost letala pri vzletu in pristanku. Manj izkušeni piloti so, pri drugače brezhibnem vzletu ali pristanku, izgubili nadzor nad letalom in se prevrnili bodisi na bok, bodisi se prevalili na nos. Šele z več izkušnjami so se piloti navadili na to konstrukcijsko posebnost. S podobnimi, a z bistveno manjšimi težavami so se ubadali tudi piloti britanskega Spitfira. Podvozje z repnim kolesom je povzročilo, da je bil naklon letala od repa do nosu zelo strm. Zaradi tega piloti pri vožnji na tleh niso mogli gledati naravnost naprej, to je imelo za posledico značilno vijuganje v obliki črke S med vožnjo po tleh. Ta zasnova podvozja je povzročila veliko število poškodb oz. razbitih letal. Okrog 5 % vseh izdelanih Bf 109 se je poškodovalo ali razbilo samo pri pristankih.

Zaradi značilne Messerschmittove enokrilne, nizkokrilne in aerodinamične zasnove letala z majhno skupno maso, so morali vso oborožitev namestiti v trup letala. Dva mitraljeza nad motorjem, tretjega pa tako, da je streljal skozi os propelerja, pri tem je motor deloval kot blažilec. Tako je Willy Messerschmitt dosegel, da so bila krila zelo tanka in lahka. Britansko Kraljevo vojno letalstvo (RAF) je zahtevalo enokrilna letala z osmimi mitraljezi, zato so Nemci uvideli, da trije mitraljezi v Bf 109 niso dovolj. To je spet vodilo v razvoj novega krila, v katerega so sprva vgradili mitraljez, pozneje pa še 20 mm top MG FF.

Leta 1938 je prišla v proizvodnjo različica Emil. Za povečanje zmogljivosti letala so pri Messerschmittu zamenjali dotedanji motor Jumo 210A (600-700 KM). Nadomestil ga je večji in močnejši motor Daimler Benz DB 601A, ki je razvil dodatnih 300 KM za ceno dodatnih 200 kg teže.

Pomembna razlika je bila tudi višja obremenitev kril v primerjavi z drugimi natečajnimi letali. Sam natečaj R-IV je zahteval, da naj bo obremenitev manj kot 100 kg/m². Messerschmitt je menil, da je ta zahteva nesmiselna, saj naj bi bilo lovsko letalo z zahtevanim motorjem prepočasno. Nikakor ne bi moglo dohiteti bombnikov, proti katerim naj bi se sploh borilo. Zasnova krila namreč povzroča dve vrsti upora: parazitski upor in inducirani upor, ki je posledica ustvarjanja vzgona. Vzgon dominira pri večjih hitrostih, medtem ko pretok zraka, ki zadane krilo, provzroča upor, ki narašča kvadratno s hitrostjo letala. Upor pa je dominanten pri manjši hitrosti, kjer pomanjkanje pretoka zraka povzroči, da mora biti krilo pod večjim vpadnim kotom. Ker je lovsko letalo zasnovano v prvi vrsti za polete pri visokih hitrostih, je manjše krilo veliko bolj učinkovito.

Slaba stran manjših kril je, da je letenje pri nižjih hitrostih oteženo. Manjše krilo potrebuje več pretoka zraka in s tem hitrosti, da ustvaril zadostno vzgonsko silo, da letalo ostane v zraku. Da bi to dosegli, je imel Bf 109 vgrajene visoko vzgonske lopute v krilih. Vgrajena so bila tudi predkrilca na čelnem robu krila, ki so delovala povsem samodejno. Veliki zakrilci na zadnjem krilnem robu sta imeli odprte komore, ki so se napolnile z zrakom. Messerschmitt je v zasnovo dodal tudi dodatna krilca, ki so izstopila, ko so se zakrilca spustila, tako se je povečala skupna površina zakrilc, ko so bila ta spuščena. Obenem se je tudi povečal koeficient vzgona, s čimer so izboljšali manevrsko sposobnost letala pri manjši hitrosti in večjih vpadnih kotih.

Druga slaba lastnost visoke obremenitve kril je, da je letalo potrebuje več sile za manevriranje. Zaradi omejene moči motorjev je to pomenilo, da letalo ne bi bilo zmožno delati tako ozkih zavojev kot letala z večjimi krili. Visoko vzgonske lopute so deloma popravile to slabost, toda s svojim delovanjem so povečale tudi zračni upor in tako le še bolj zavrle letalo. Okretnost letala je bila zadnja na seznamu zahtev RLM-ja. Messerschmitt je menil, da so druge izboljšave, ki sicer res povečajo obremenitev kril, bolj pomembne kot ta slabost.

Prvi prototip (Versuchsflugzeug 1 oz. V1) je bil izdelan maja 1935, toda pogonski motorji še niso bili pripravljeni. Zato je RLM pridobil štiri motorje Rolls-Royce Kestrel VI, v zameno zanje pa so Nemci izročili Britancem letalo Heinkel He 70 Blitz. Ta odločitev je imela pozneje za Nemce zelo hude in daljnosežne posledice.

Messerschmitt je prejel dva taka motorja in začel preurejati letalo V1, da bi lahko vgradili ta novi motor. Nalogo so končali avgusta tega leta in V1 je septembra 1935 opravil prvi poskusni let. Nato je bil poslan še v Preizkusni center Luftwaffe v Rechlinu, kjer so opravili praktične preizkuse za natečaj. Prvi prototip je bil prvi in obenem zadnjii Bf 109, ki je imel vgrajen motor Rolls-Royce Kestrel.

Do konca poletja je bil motor Jumo nared, tako da so lahko oktobra 1935 končali gradnjo V2, ki je imel motor Jumo 210A (610 KM/448 KW). Kmalu je bil dokončan tudi V3, to pa je bil prvi prototip, ki je že imel vgrajene mitraljeze. Letalo je poletelo šele maja 1936, ker prej ni bilo na voljo nobenega motorja Jumo 210A. Tako kot V1, sta bila nato tudi V2 in V3 tudi poslana v Rechlin na preizkušnje.

Končni rezultati so pokazali, da imajo vsa tri prototipna letala skoraj identične zmogljivosti. Največja hitrost letal je bila okoli 470 km/h na višini 4.000 m, dosegla pa so lahko najvišjo višino okoli 8.300 m.

Luftwaffe je opravila prve preizkuse v Rechlinu, s katerimi je ugotovila, če letala ustrezajo zahtevam razpisa. Preizkuse so nato prestavili v Travemünde, kjer so opravili medsebojne primerjave letal. Heinklovo letalo je prispelo prvo in sicer v začetku februarja 1936, medtem ko so ostala prototipna letala prispela šele v začetku marca.

Ker je bila večina nemških lovskih pilotov Luftwaffe navajenih na dobro odzivne dvokrilce z odprtimi pilotskimi kabinami, majhne g-sile in lahko upravljanje, so bili do Bf 109 zelo kritični. Kljub temu je Bf 109 kmalu postal favorit natečaja, saj so ugotovili, da sta letali Arado in Focke-Wulf zastareli. Nič čudnega, saj sta bili ti dve letali zasnovani dve leti prej in že zastareli, glede na tempo razvoja letal v tistem času.

Edini resen tekmec je bil Heinklov He 112, katerega zasnova je bila na določenih delih podobna Bf 109, na drugih pa popolnoma drugačna. Njegove prednosti so bile: široko in robustno podvozje, boljša vidljivost iz kabine in manjša obremenitev kril. Ta je prispevala k lažjim pristankom in večji okretnosti letala med letom. Toda Bf 109 je bil 30 km/h hitrejši od He 112 v vodoravnem letu, prav tako pa je bil boljši v vzpenjanju in pikiranju. Kljub temu je He 112 ostal favorit vodstva Luftwaffe.

Luftwaffe je naročila pri obeh podjetjih še dodatnih 10 letal, na katerih so delali v naslednjih mesecih. Med tem časom so prispeli močnejši motorji Jumo, s katerimi je Bf 109 postal odločilno boljši od He 112, saj so se z novimi motorji pokazale vse prednosti letala.

Še predno so prispela ostala predserijska letala, je bil natečaj praktično že končan. Marca je RLM prejel novice, da je bil Spitfire že poslan v proizvodnjo. Zaradi tega je v ministrstvu in vodstvu Luftwaffe upravičeno izbruhnila velika zaskrbljenost. 12. marca 1935 so izdali dokument Prioritetna dobava Bf 109, s katerim so v bistvu razglasili zmagovalca natečaja. Bf 109 je bil takoj nato poslan v proizvodnjo, medtem ko je Heinkel dobil navodilo, naj radikalno izboljša He 112.

Bf 109V (V kot Versuchsflugzeug)

Bf 109 V označuje vsa predproizvodna letala, ki so bila izdelana za potrebe natečaja in preizkusov (glej zgornje poglavje).

Bf 109 V1 je prvič vzletel 28. maja 1935 in opravil 20-minutni polet, letalo je upravljal Hans-Dietrich Knötzsch. To je bil prvi in obenem edini primerek Bf 109, ki je uporabljal motor Rolls-Royce Kestrel. Za razliko od proizvodnih letal, to ni bilo oboroženo in je imelo dvokrak propeler. Bilo je registrirano pod oznako D-IABI, imelo je tovarniško številko 758.

Letalo je prvič vzletelo 12. decembra 1935 s preizkusnim pilotom Joachimom von Köppenom. Med 26. februarjem in 2. marcem 1936 so potekali testni poleti pod nadzorom Dr.-ing. Hermanna Wurstra. 1. aprila 1936 je letalo zasilno pristalo in se tako poškodovalo, da so ga le še dokončno uničili. Najpomembnejša razlika od predhodnika je bila v vgradnji nekoliko močnejšega motorja Jumo 210A in malenkostni spremembi konstrukcije letala. Načrtovana je bila vgradnja dveh 7,92 mm mitraljezov MG 17, a jih niso nikoli vgradili. Bilo je registrirano pod oznakami D-IILU, D-ILLU oz. D-IUDE [3] in je imelo tovarniško številko 759.

Bf 109 V3 je prvič vzletel 8. aprila 1936, pilotiral pa ga je Dr.-ing. Hermann Wurster. To je bila prva oborožena različica, ki je imela vgrajena dva 7,92 mm mitraljeza MG 17 nad motorjem in en 30 mm top MG C/30, ki je bil vgrajen za motorjem, streljal pa je skozi os propelerja. Poleg tega je imela vgrajenih 5 električno vodenih nosilcev za 10 kg letalske bombe. V3 je bil vzorec za že načrtovano različico Bf 109 A. Konec oktobra 1936 je bilo to letalo z ladjo prepeljano v Španijo, kjer je sodelovalo v bojih španske državljanske vojne v sestavi Versuchsjagdgruppe 88 Legije Kondor. Bilo je registrirano pod oznakama D-IOQY oz. D-IHNY [3] in imelo tovarniško številko 760.

Bf 109 V4 je prvič vzletel 23. septembra 1936, pilotiral ga je Dr.-ing. Hermann Wurster. V4 je bila tudi vzorčni primerek za že načrtovano različico Bf 109 B. Konec novembra 1936 je bilo tudi to letalo z ladjo prepeljano v Španijo, kjer je sodelovalo v bojih v sestavi Versuchsjagdgruppe 88 Legije Kondor. Pilotiral ga je poročnik Hannes Trautloft, letalo je nosilo oznako 6-1. Bilo je registrirano pod oznako D-IALY in je imelo tovarniško številko 878.

Bf 109 V5 je prvič vzletel 5. novembra 1936, pilotiral ga je Dr.-ing. Hermann Wurster. Na tem prototipnem letalu so preizkušali novejše elektro-pnevmatične naprave. Bilo je registrirano pod oznakama D-IIGO oz. D-IEKS [3] in je imelo tovarniško številko 879.

Bf 109 V6 je prvič vzletel 11. novembra 1936, pilotiral ga je Dr.-ing. Hermann Wurster. Prvotno letala niso opremili z mitraljezoma, to so storili šele pozneje. Konec decembra 1936 je bilo tudi to letalo z ladjo prepeljano v Španijo, kjer je sodelovalo v bojih v sestavi Versuchsjagdgruppe 88 Legije Kondor. Bilo je registrirano pod oznako D-IHHB in je imelo tovarniško številko 880.

Bf 109 V7 je prvič vzletel 5. novembra 1936 s pilotom Dr.-ing. Hermannom Wurstrom za krmili. Letalo je sodelovalo na IV. mednarodnem letalskem sejmu, ki je potekal med 23. julijem in 1. avgustom 1937 v Zürichu. Nato je 25. julija dipl. ing. Carl Francke zmagal na sejemski hitrostni tekmi. 29. julija 1937 je stotnik Werner Restemeier s tem letalom v spremstvu Bf 109 V9 in Bf 109 B-1 (tovarniška št. 1062) osvojil krožni prelet Alp za vojaška letala v razredu C. Bilo je registrirano pod oznako D-IJHA in je imelo tovarniško številko 881.

Bf 109 V8 je prvič vzletel 29. decembra 1936, pilotiral ga je Dr.-ing. Hermann Wurster. Bil je registriran pod oznako D-IMQE in je imel tovarniško številko 882.

Bf 109 V9 je prvič vzletel 23. julija 1937, pilotiral pa ga je Fritz Wendel. Letalo je sodelovalo na IV. mednarodnem letalskem sejmu, ki je potekal med 23. julijem in 1. avgustom 1937 v Zürichu. 27. julija 1937 je major Hans Seidemann s tem letalom v spremstvu Bf 109 V7 in Bf 109 B-1 (tovarniška št. 1062) osvojil krožni prelet Alp za vojaška letala v razredu A. Bilo je registrirano pod oznako D-IPLU in je imelo tovarniško številko 1056.

Bf 109 V10 je prvič vzletel 30. decembra 1936. Pilotiral ga je Dr.-ing. Hermann Wurster, bil je registriran pod oznako D-IXZA in je imel tovarniško številko 884.

Bf 109 V10a je prvič vzletel jeseni 1937. Pri BFW so to letalo uporabili kot preizkusno letalo za Messerschmitt MeP 6. Bilo je registrirano pod oznako D-IAKO in je imelo tovarniško številko 1010.

Bf 109 V11 je prvič vzletel 1. marca 1937. Letalo so uporabili za preizkus namestitve dveh 7,92 mm mitraljezov MG 17 v krilih namesto nad motorjem, kot do tedaj. Bilo je registrirano pod oznako D-IFMO in je imelo tovarniško številko 1012.

Bf 109 V12 je prvič vzletel 13. marca 1937, pilotiral ga je Fritz Wendel. Letalo so uporabili za preizkus namestitve oborožitve, na levo krilo so lahko vgradili 20 mm top MG FF in tudi en 7,92 mm mitraljez MG 17, medtem ko so lahko na desnem vgradili le en mitraljez MG 17. Bilo je registrirano pod oznako D-IVRU in je imelo tovarniško številko 1016.

Bf 109 V13 je prvič vzletel 10. julija 1937. Letalo je nato sodelovalo na IV. mednarodnem letalskem sejmu, ki je potekal med 23. julijem in 1. avgustom 1937 v Zürichu. Novembra 1937 je Hermann Wurster s tem letalom postavil letalski hitrostni svetovni rekord. Bilo je registrirano pod oznako D-IPKY in je imelo tovarniško številko 1050.

Bf 109 V14 je prvič vzletel 28. aprila 1937. Letalo je tudi sodelovalo na IV. mednarodnem letalskem sejmu, ki je potekal med 23. julijem in 1. avgustom 1937 v Zürichu, pilot Ernst Udet je bil na tem sejmu zaradi težav z letalom prisiljen zasilno pristati. Bf 109 V14 je bila vzorčna različica za Bf 109 E. Letalo je bilo registrirano pod oznako D-ISLU in je imelo tovarniško številko 1029.

Bf 109 V15 je prvič vzletel 18. decembra 1937. Prvotno je bilo to letalo druga vzorčna različica za načrtovano serijo Bf 109 E, pri čemer je bil zelo podoben Bf 109 V14. Aprila 1940 so letalo opremili s testno opremo za načrtovano serijo Bf 109 T (zaviralni mehanizem, lovilna kljuka, predelana zakrilca itn). Zadnji znani let tega letala je bil julija 1942. Bilo je registrirano pod oznako D-IPHR (pozneje CE+BF) in je imelo tovarniško številko 1773.

To letalo je bila vzorčna različica za načrtovano serijo Bf 109 E-1. Bilo je registrirano pod oznako D-ITPD in je imelo tovarniško številko 1774.

Bf 109 V16 je prvič vzletel 10. marca 1938. To letalo je bila druga vzorčna različica za načrtovano serijo Bf 109 T. Bilo je registrirano pod oznako D-IDXG in je imelo tovarniško številko 1775.

Bf 109 V17 je prvič vzletel 24. februarja 1938, marca 1938 pa so letalo predali Luftwaffe. To letalo je bila prva vzorčna različica za načrtovano serijo Bf 109 T (Träger = letalonosilka). Pri tem prototipu so ojačali trup in ga prilagodili silam za katapultni vzlet in dodali lovilno kljuko za lovljenje jeklenice pri pristanku. Sprva so se podvozna kolesa zatikala, zato so pozneje dodali še kolesne branike. Maja 1938 so začeli z uradnimi preizkusi, ki so trajali vse do julija, ko se je letalo poškodovalo pri vzletu. Po tej nesreči so prenehali s preizkušanjem tega letala. Bilo je registrirano pod oznako D-IYMS (pozneje TK+HK) in je imelo tovarniško številko 1776.

Letalo je sprva služilo za preizkus motorja DB 601A. Pozneje so vgradili motor Jumo 210 in letalo uporabili za preizkuse uporabe letala na letalonosilki. Ti testi so trajali do oktobra 1941, zadnja potrjena uporaba letala pa je bila julija 1942. Bilo je registrirano pod oznako D-IKAC (pozneje TK+HM) in je imelo tovarniško številko 301.

Bf 109 V18 je prvič vzletel 4. februarja 1938. Letalo so uporabili za preizkus oborožitve pri Rheinmetall-Borsigu. Bilo je registrirano pod oznako D-ISDH in je imelo tovarniško številko 1731.

Bf 109 V19 je prvič vzletel 15. novembra 1938. Letalo so uporabili kot vzorčno različico za načrtovano serijo Bf 109 C. Bilo je registrirano pod oznako D-IVSG in je imelo tovarniško številko 1720.

Bf 109 V20 je prvič vzletel 6. oktobra 1938. Bil je registriran pod oznako D-ICZH in je imel tovarniško številko 1779.

Letalo je sprva služilo za preizkus motorja P&W »Twin Wasp« SC-G. Bilo je registrirano pod oznako D-IFKQ (pozneje KB+II) in je imelo tovarniško številko 1770.

Bf 109 V22 je prvič vzletel 14. februarja 1939. Bil je registriran pod oznako D-IRRQ (pozneje CE+BO) in je imel tovarniško številko 1800.

Bf 109 V23 je prvič vzletel 9. februarja 1939. Zakaj je bilo to letalo sprva uporabljeno ni znano, pozneje so letalo predelali. Nastala je vzorčna različica za načrtovano serijo Bf 109 F, takrat je letalo prejelo novo letalsko oznako in tovarniško številko. Pozneje so letalo uporabili za preizkus raznih oblik nosov za projekt Me 309 V1. Bilo je registrirano pod oznako D-ISHN (pozneje CE+BP) in je imelo tovarniško številko 1801, pozneje pa 5603.

Bf 109 V24 je prvič vzletel februarja 1939. Sprva so letalo uporabili samo za preizkuse v vetrovniku, pozneje pa so letalo predelali v vzorčno različico za načrtovano serijo Bf 109 F. Takrat je letalo prejelo novo letalsko oznako in tovarniško številko. To novo letalo je prvič vzletelo 16. julija 1940. Bilo je registrirano pod oznako D-ITDH (pozneje CE+BH in VK+AB) in je imelo tovarniško številko 1929, pozneje pa 5604.

Bf 109 V25 je prvič vzletel februarja 1939. Na tem prototipnem letalu so preizkušali zasnovo načrtovane serije Bf 109 F, dodali so obročast (anularen) hladilnik za olje. Bilo je registrirano pod oznako D-IVCK oz. D-IVKC [3] in je imelo tovarniško številko 1930, pozneje pa 5605.

Letalo so uporabili za preizkus naprave za odvrg dodatnega rezervoarja za gorivo in dodatne rezervoarje same. Avgusta 1940 se je letalo poškodovalo pri zasilnem pristanku. Bilo je registrirano pod oznako CA+NK in je imelo tovarniško številko 1361.

Letalo je bilo opremljeno s pilotsko kabino pod tlakom. Bilo je registrirano pod oznako ND+IE in je imelo tovarniško številko 5716.

Letalo je bilo opremljeno s pilotsko kabino pod tlakom. Bilo je registrirano pod oznako ND+IF in je imelo tovarniško številko 5717.

Letalo so uporabili za preizkus projekta Me 309 V1, pri katerem so razširili podvozje. Bilo je registrirano pod oznako SG+EK in je imelo tovarniško številko 5642.

Letalo so uporabili za preizkus projekta Bf 109 G-03 uporabili so rep v obliki črke »V«. Bilo je registrirano pod oznako VJ+WC in je imelo tovarniško številko 14003.

Letalo so predelali iz različice Bf 109 G-3 v vzorčno različico za načrtovano serijo Bf 109 H. Imelo je tovarniško številko 1629.

Letalo so predelali iz različice Bf 109 G-5. Imelo je tovarniško številko 15338.

Letalo so uporabili kot vzorčno različico za dvosedežni projekt Bf 109 G-12. Bilo je registrirano pod oznako CJ+MG in je imelo tovarniško številko 18319.

Bf 109 V54 je prvič vzletel decembra 1943. Na tem prototipnem letalu so preizkušali zasnovo načrtovane serije Bf 109 H. Letalo je bilo uničeno 14. avgusta 1944 med letalskim napadom na tovarno Daimler Benz. Bilo je registrirano pod oznako DV+JB oz. PV+JB [3] in je imelo tovarniško številko 15708.

Na tem prototipnem letalu so preizkušali zasnovo načrtovane serije Bf 109 G-5. Bilo je registrirano pod oznako DV+JC oz. PV+JC [3] in je imelo tovarniško številko 15709.

Primerjava različic

Primerjava različic
Različica Proizvodnja Dolžina Razpon kril Največja hitrost Največja operativna višina Osnovna teža Operativna teža Motor Oborožitev
Bf 109 V1 1934 - maj 1935 8,884 m 9,890 m 470 km/h 8.000 m 1.404 kg 1.800 kg Rolls-Royce Kestrel IIS brez
Bf 109 V2 1934 - december 1935 8,55 m 9,87 m 475 km/h 1.500 kg 1.940 kg Jumo 210A
Bf 109 V3 ? - april 1936 neznano Jumo 210C 2x MG 17
5x bombe SC 10
Bf 109 V4 ? - september 1936 8,50 m Jumo 210B 2x MG 17
Bf 109 V5 ? - november 1936 8,55 m 470 km/h 9.000 m
Bf 109 V6 Jumo 210D
Bf 109 V7 Jumo 210G brez
Bf 109 V8 ? - december 1936 440 km/h 9.500 m Jumo 210D 2x MG 17
Bf 109 V9 ? - julij 1937 420 km/h 9.100 m Jumo 210G neznano
Bf 109 V10 ? - december 1937 500+ km/h Jumo 210D brez
Bf 109 V10a ? - konec 1937 neznano
Bf 109 V11 ? - februar 1937 8,60 m 9,87 m 590 km/h 10.000 m neznano Jumo 210D 2x MG 17
Bf 109 V12 ? - marec 1937 580 km/h Jumo 210D MG FF
2xMG 17
Bf 109 V13 ? - julij 1937 8,60 oz. 8,64 m 610,95 km/h
(svetovni rekord)
neznano 2.310 do 2.450 kg DB 601A brez
Bf 109 V14 ? - 1937 8,64 m 570 km/h 10.500 m 2.005 kg 2.500 kg
Bf 109 V15 ? - 1937 2.010 kg 2.505 kg 3x MG 17
Bf 109 V15a neznano 572 km/h neznano
Bf 109 V16 neznano Jumo 210D neznano
Bf 109 V17 ? - februar 1938 8,60 m 9,87 m neznano 3x MG 17
Bf 109 V17a ? - marec 1938 Jumo 210D
DB 601A
Bf 109 V18 ? - februar 1938 Jumo 210D neznano
Bf 109 V19 ? - november 1938 neznano Jumo 210G
Bf 109 V20 ? - oktober 1938
Bf 109 V21 neznano P&W "Twin Wasp" SC-G
Bf 109 V22 DB 601A
Bf 109 V23 ? - februar 1939 neznano
Bf 109 V24
Bf 109 V25 neznano MG 17
MG FF
SC 250
Bf 109 V26 neznano
Bf 109 V30 DB 601 E-1 brez
Bf 109 V30a
Bf 109 V31
Bf 109 V48 DB 605 A
Bf 109 V49 DB 628 V8
Bf 109 V50 DB 628
Bf 109 V52 1942 - 1943 neznano DB 605 A-1
Bf 109 V54 ? - december 1943 neznano 13,26 m neznano 3.400 kg DB 628
Bf 109 V55 neznano

Bf 109 A »Anton« Uredi

Serija Bf 109 A [41] je bila odpovedana potem, ko so že izdelali 20 oz. 22 letal. Preklicali so jo, ker je bila preslabo oborožena - le dva nosna mitraljeza.

V zameno so izdelali Bf 109 V4 (glej zgoraj), ki je bil oborožen s tretjim sinhroniziranim mitraljezom MG 17. Ta je bil nameščen pod motorjem (med valji), streljal pa je skozi polje propelerja.

V tej seriji so uporabili dva različna tipa motorjev Jumo. Skoraj vsa letala so poslali v sestavo Legije Kondor v Španijo.

Bf 109 B »Berta« Uredi

Serija Bf 109 B je bila standardna serija Bf 109. Izdelanih je bilo čez 300 letal, obstajale pa so vsega tri izpeljanke.

Prvotno so imela letala dvokrak lesen propeler, ki so ga pozneje nadomestili s trikrakim kovinskim propelerjem s spremenljivim korakom. To je bila glavna razlika med izpeljankama B-1 in B-2. Pozneje so večino izpeljank B-1 nadgradili v različico B-2 z novimi propelerji.

Letala iz te serije so sodelovala v španski državljanski vojni v sestavi Legije Kondor, kjer pa so se pokazale pomanjkljivosti. Te so bile slaba oz. nezadostna oborožitev in ozko podvozje. Te ugotovitve in nesreče so med vojno vodile v nastanek stereotipov o Bf 109. Eden od teh je bil tudi, da konstrukcija letala ne vzdrži strmoglavega leta, zaradi česar so zavezniški piloti tega lovca pogosto podcenjevali.

Bf 109 C »Cäsar« Uredi

Bf 109 Cäsar je bila omejena serija, ki je imela štiri izpeljanke, od katerih je le ena šla v izdelavo.

Glavni namen te serije je bil preizkus namestitve močnejše oborožitve sprva štiri in pet mitraljezov, nato tudi pa še kombinacijo dveh mitraljezov in dveh topov.

C-0 je bila testna različica s štirimi mitraljezi, medtem ko je bila C-1 serijska proizvodnja predhodne izpeljanke. Naslednja izpeljanka C-2 je bila testna različica s 5 mitraljezi, tej pa je sledila še različica C-3 s po dvema mitraljezoma in dvema topoma. Sama namestitev oborožitve je bila sledeča: pri štirih mitraljezih sta bila dva nameščena nad motorjem in en v vsakem krilu, medtem ko je bilo v eni različici peto orožje nameščeno v nosu letala in je streljalo skozi os propelerja.

Tudi letala te serije so sodelovala v španski državljanski vojni.

Bf 109 D »Dora« Uredi

Bf 109 Dora je bila razvita iz prototipov V10 in V13. Izdelanih je bilo 647 letal. Ta različica je postala standardno lovsko letalo Luftwaffe tik pred drugo svetovno vojno.

Ob začetku druge svetovne vojne je bilo operativnih le še 235 letal, ki so jih nato hitro zamenjali z modernejšimi Bf 109 E. Nekaj teh letal pa je ostalo v sestavi Nachtjäger (nočni lovci) enot do začetka leta 1940.

Primerjava podrazličic

Primerjava podrazličic Bf 109 D [44]
Ime Dolžina Višina Razpon kril Površina kril Največja hitrost Operativna višina Motor Oborožitev
Bf 109 D-0 8,6 m 2,6 m 9,87 m 16,4 m² 471 km/h 8.100 m Junkers Jumo 210 D 4 x 7,9 mm MG 17
Bf 109 D-1 8,7 m 2,5 m 9,9 m

Bf 109 E »Emil« Uredi

Da bi preizkusili novi motor DB 601A s 1.100 KM/808 KW, so zgradili dva prototipa: V14 in V15 (glej zgoraj). Po prvih preizkusih so ugotovili, da je prototip V14 boljši. Tako so naročili deset predprodukcijskih letal E-0 (E kot Emil).

Različica E-1 je obdržala dva 7,92 mm mitraljeza MG 17 nad motorjem in dva MG 17 v krilih. Pozneje so večino teh letal predelali v različico E-3. Izpeljanka E-1B je bila zelo majhna serija letal E-1, ki so jih izdelali za prvo operativno rabo Bf 109 v vlogi lovskega bombnika. Letalo so opremili, da je lahko nosilo eno 250 kg bombo pod trupom ali pa dve 50 kg bombi, eno pod vsakim krilom. Serija E-2 je bila načrtovana, a nikoli zgrajena.

Da bi Bf 109 E izboljšali, so izdelali zadnja dva prava prototipa, V16 in V17. Izboljšali so nekatere strukturne lastnosti in povečali oklep. Ta dva prototipa sta bila osnova za različico Bf 109 E-3. Oborožena sta bila z dvema 7,92 mm mitaljezoma MG 17, ki sta bila nameščena nad motorjem in s po enim 20 mm topom MG FF v vsakem krilu. [45] E-3 je imela tudi okrepljen oklep in močnejši motor DB 601A, ki je zmogel 1.100 oz. 1.175 KM. E-3a je bila izvozna različica, ki pa ni imela dodatne opreme, veljala je namreč za vojaško tajnost.

E-3 je sledila serija E-4. Mnogo starih E-3 različic so prenovili v novejšo E-4 ob začetku bitke za Britanijo, ki se je razlikovala v nekaterih manjših podrobnostih. Imela je izboljšan 20 mm krilni top MG FF/M in izboljšan oklep za glavo pilota. MG FF/M je uporabljal nove in izboljšane eksplozivne granate, tako imenovane Minengeschoß (oz. 'minska granata'), ki so bile izdelane iz valjanega jekla in ne več iz ulivanega kot do tedaj. Plašč granate je bil tanjši, a močnejši, zato je bilo v granati več prostora za eksplozivno polnitev. Zaradi močnejšega odsuna so morali top predelati.

Preoblikovali so pilotsko kabino, ki je dobila bolj oglato obliko za lažjo izdelavo. Ta oblika se je obdržala vse do različice G-6, ki je prišla v proizvodnjo jeseni 1943. E-4 je tako postala osnovna različica za ves nadaljnji razvoj v seriji Bf 109 E. Nekatera letala različice E-4 in poznejših različic so dobila dodatno izboljšan motor. DB 601N je bil namenjen delovanju na večjih višinah in je razvil 1.175 KM/875 KW. Različica je dobila ime E-4/N. Prva taka različica se je pojavila julija 1940. DB 601N je bil standardni motor, ki so ga uporabili v večini serije E-6 in nato še v novejših serijah.

E-1 in E-4 sta bila uporabljena v bitki za Britanijo, večino E-3 pa so do takrat že prenovili v E-4. Motor DB 601 se je izkazal za zelo uporabnega proti britanskima lovcema Spitfire in Hurricane. Britanska letala so namreč imela padotočne uplinjače, ki so odpovedali pri negativni g-sili. To se je zgodilo pri prehodu iz vodoravnega v strmoglavi let, zato sta morala tako Spitfire kot Hurricane pred strmoglavljenjem narediti polsodček. DB 601 v takih situacijah zaradi vbrizgavanja goriva ni odpovedal, tako je imel Bf 109 prednost v spustu med napadom kot med begom. To so nemški piloti tudi s pridom izrabljali za dohitevanje ali "umik" pred lovci RAF-a. Spitfire je bil med nemškimi piloti zelo spoštovan nasprotnik, saj je bil hiter in po navedbah tudi bolj gibčen v zavojih pri srednjih in visokih hitrostih kot Bf 109. Ker pa sta imela Spitfire in Hurricane manjšo obremenitev kril (le okoli 120 kg/m² proti 160 kg/m² pri Bf 109), sta lahko delala ožje zavoje. Tako je lahko Spitfire obrnil v krogu premera 212 m, medtem ko je Bf 109 za obrat potreboval kar 270 m. To je v praksi pomenilo, da je Spitfire igraje obračal znotraj zavoja Bf 109. Do teh podatkov so Britanci prišli na podlagi testov z zaplenjenimi letali kot tudi med boji. Nemški priročnik za Bf 109 je sicer navajal, da je letalo sposobno zavojev polmera 170 m. Bf 109 se je izkazal za boljšega v bojnih hitrostih in je bil malce bolj obvladljiv pri najmanjši hitrosti. Oborožitev vseh treh je bila primerljiva. Spitfire in Hurricane sta imela osem .303" (7,69 mm) mitraljezov medtem, ko je imel Bf 109 dva mitraljeza MG 17 kalibra 7,92 mm in dva topa MG FF kalibra 20 mm. Top MG FF je imel nekaj pomanjkljivosti, občasno se je zaskočil, imel je shrambo za le 60 granat. To pomanjkljivost v zvezi s kapaciteto zabojnika za granate so pozneje ugotovili tudi Britanci, ko so Spitfire opremili z dvema topoma Hispano-Suiza HS.404 kalibra 20 mm. Britanski testni piloti, ki so testirali zaplenjenje nemške Bf 109, so pohvalili motor in odzivni čas ter skritizirali obvladljivost letala pri visoki hitrosti, slabšo sposobnost kroženja, trdo krmilno palico in debelejši okvir pilotske kabine, ki je močno omejeval vidno polje pilota.

Ponovno je potrebno omeniti, da je imel Bf 109 velike težave zaradi nihanja letala pri vzletu in pristanku. Po nekih ocenah naj bi se v tovrstnih nezgodah poškodovalo ali razbilo od 5 do celo 33 % vseh izdelanih letal. Medvojna Luftwaffina poročila pa kažejo, da je le okoli 1 % vseh letal imelo nezgodo na začetku vojne, kar je primerljivo z ostalimi podobnimi letali tistega časa. Ta slaba lastnost letala je bila očitna predvsem pri pilotih začetnikih, še posebno hudo je bilo proti koncu vojne, ko piloti niso bili več zadostno usposobljeni pred prvimi bojnimi poleti. [45] Zanimivo je, da je bilo pri Spitfiru, ki je imel podobno podvozje, teh težav bistveno manj. Večina finskih pilotov, ki je letela na Spitfirih je poročala, da je bilo nihanje veliko lažje obvladovati kot v Bf 109. Slabše izurjeni piloti pa na začetku pri vzletu niso obvladali niti tega lovca. [45]

Bf 109 E - različice in podrazličice

  • E-0 (predprodukcijsko letalo s štirimi mitraljezi MG 17 7,92 mm)
  • E-1 (podobno kot E-0)
    • E-1/B (lovsko-bombniška različica E-1, običajno z DB 601A)
    • E-4/B (lovsko-bombniška različica E-4, ena 250 kg bomba, običajno z DB 601A)
    • E-4/Trop (različica E-4, prilagojena za tropsko podnebje - poseben filter za zrak)
    • E-4/N (E-4 z motorjem DB 601N)
    • E-4/BN (lovsko-bombniška različica E-4/N, ena 250 kg bomba)
    • E-7/N (podobno kot E-4/N, toda z možnim zunanjim rezervoarjem za gorivo)
    • E-7/NZ (tudi E-7/Z E-7/N z dodatnim vbrizgalnim sistemom GM-1)
    • E-7/U2 (jurišna različica E-7)

    Bf 109 F »Friedrich« (tudi "Fritz") Uredi

    Po februarju 1940 so razvili boljši motor DB 601E, Messerschmittovi inženirji so trup različice E-1 predelali za ta novi motor (Luftwaffina oznaka VK+AB s tovarniško številko 5604). Tudi podvozje je bilo olajšano, nos in okrov motorja predelana, da so izboljšali aerodinamiko letala. Primerjava z E-1 je bila očitna, saj so uporabili trapezoidno obliko kril, to so pozneje spremenili v seriji F. Vse te spremembe so postale standardne za serijo Bf 109 F. Novi motor DB 601E pa še ni bil pripravljen za množično izdelavo, zato so na različicah F-0, F-1 in F-2 uporabili motor DB 601N (1.175 KM/875 KW). Šele za različico F-3 je bilo izdelanih dovolj novih motorjev, takrat so tudi povečali liste propelerja.

    Po zunanjosti se je Bf 109 F zelo razlikoval od serije E. Uvedene so bile tudi številne nove aerodinamične izboljšave. Zaradi teh so morali posodobiti tudi oborožitev: dva mitraljeza MG 17 sta bila nameščena nad motorjem, avtomatski top pa je streljal skozi os propelerja. Zgodnje F različice so bile opremljene z 20 mm topom MG FF/M, F-2 je bil opremljen s 15 mm topom MG 151. Različice od F-4 naprej pa so imele vgrajen 20 mm top MG 151/20. Več letalskih asov, predvsem polkovnik Adolf Galland, se je pritoževalo nad to pomanjkljivo oborožitvijo, bila je nezadostna za povprečnega pilota. Major Walter Oesau celo ni hotel leteti z različico F, dokler je imel na voljo različico E. Šele potem, ko je zmanjkalo rezervnih delov, je presedlal na novejšo različico. Pozneje so izboljšali oborožitev tako, da so dodali dva podkrilna 20 mm topa, ta namestitev je vplivala na manevrske sposobnosti letala. Nekateri drugi piloti, predvsem Werner Mölders, pa so bili zadovoljni s tako oborožitvijo.

    Prva letala iz serije F niso bila dovolj preizkušena, zaradi česar so nekatera skoraj strmoglavila. Največkrat so temu botrovale vibracije, ki so povzročile poškodbe oz. odlom krila ali pa se je odlomil repni višinski stabilizator. V eni od takih nesreč je življenje izgubil poveljnik JG 2 Richthofen, Wilhelm Balthasar. Med preizkusnim poletom ga je napadel britanski Spitfire, med izmikanjem so se krila njegovega Bf 109 odlomila, letalo pa je strmoglavilo. Ko so pregledali razbitino, so ugotovili, da letala ni zadela niti ena krogla. Pozneje so rešili tudi te konstrukcijske težave, tako da je serija F na splošno veljala za najboljšo v vsej družini letal Bf 109.


    Pegasus 1/48 Messerschmitt Bf 109E-4

    The Bf109 E-4 was the third major production model in the E (for "Emil") line of Messerschmitt fighters. It was powered by the Daimler-Benz DB 601A-1, with armament composed of 2 cowl mounted MG 17 machine guns and 2 20mm MG FF/M cannons in the wings. Externally the E-4 was was distinguished by a new windscreen and redesigned canopy with heavier framing. The engine mounted cannon of the earlier E-3 was deleted.

    The new kit by Pegasus is snap together, so the parts count is low. It consists of 30 parts, including the clear canopy, attached to 3 sprues. The rest of the parts are molded in a medium gray plastic. My overall impression of this kit is positive. The panel lines are recessed and are well done. There is decent cockpit detail molded to the inner fuselage halves, and also some ejector pin marks that require careful removal. The seat and rudder pedals are molded integrally with the cockpit floor and I would add either seat belts or a pilot figure for best results.

    The control column and instrument panel are separate pieces, but the instrument panel is blank so I would use Mike Grant instrument decals if so inclined. Returning to the fuselage, the supercharger intake, upper and lower cowls and exhausts are also individual pieces, and are reasonably well done. There are some sink marks on the outside of the fuselage, under which are the sockets for the connecting pins-remember this is a snap together kit-but a little Mr. Surfacer or your filler of choice will sort these out quickly. The upper cowl falls on a non-existent panel line that will need to be filled.

    There is also canopy armor to add to the canopy which is a nice touch. The upper wings have adequate wheel well detail molded into their upper surfaces and the lower wings have the cannon barrels molded on, but the inner faces of the wing radiators are blank. I might add a plastic card radiator face to avoid a see-through effect. Given the low parts count, it is nice to see a separate propeller, spinner and back plate. Many 109Es had the spinner back plate painted in a different color than the spinner so this will ease painting. Well done, Pegasus! There also 2 sets of landing gear so you can build the model in flight or on the ground. In the case of the latter option the landing gear and doors are molded in one piece.

    The wheels are simplified in detail and the tread of the tires is overscale. True Details, CMK, Ultracast and Aires have resin 109 wheels for those who feel compelled to upgrade. Minor omissions from the parts list are pitot tube and aileron mass balances. The single decal/sticker option is for the Bf109E-4 of Major Adolf Galland, Kommodore of JG 26 "Schlageter", France, 1940. This plane-the most familiar 109E of all?- was painted in the standard RLM 70 Black Green/71 Dark Green/65 Light Blue with 70/71 mottling. The rudder, spinner, back plate and entire cowl were painted in RLM 04 Yellow. The decal/sticker sheet includes all national insignia except swastikas, and also the JG 26 shield and the "Mickey Mouse" emblem. The decals are well printed and in register.

    I checked the wings and fuselage against 1/48th scale plans in the AJ Press monograph, Me109 Part 5, and the wings and fuselage matched almost perfectly the wings in particular are slightly narrow, but very close. The propeller blades are also too narrow. But the kit certainly looks the part. Check your references as to the colors of Galland's plane. By 1940 the Luftwaffe had switched to RLM 71/02/65 on the upper surfaces and at least one of Galland's 109Es was painted in RLM 74/75 upper surface colors. Most of Galland's planes also had a telescopic gunsight. And a cigar lighter, but I digress!

    There are plenty of Emil kits out there, but how many of them could you build and paint with your children in one day? This kit is accurate, inexpensive, well detailed, and the perfect antidote to the "throw everything aftermarket at the kit" school of model building. I like this kit, I recommend it, and I bought mine at the Skyway Model Shop.

    Messerschmitt Me 109 Part 5, by Robert Michulec, AJ Press, 1998.

    Messerschmitt Bf109 in action Part 1, by John R. Beaman, Jr. & Jerry Campbell, Squadron/Signal Publications, 1980.

    Messerschmitt "O-Nine" Gallery, by Thomas H. Hitchcock, Monogram Aviation Publications, 1973.


    Contents

    Origins

    During 1933, the Technisches Amt (C-Amt), the technical department of the Reichsluftfahrtministerium (RLM) ("Reich Aviation Ministry"), concluded a series of research projects into the future of air combat. The result of the studies was four broad outlines for future aircraft: [ 6 ]

    • Rüstungsflugzeug I for a multi-seat medium bomber
    • Rüstungsflugzeug II for a tactical bomber
    • Rüstungsflugzeug III for a single-seat fighter
    • Rüstungsflugzeug IV for a two-seat heavy fighter

    Rüstungsflugzeug III was intended to be a short range interceptor, replacing the Arado Ar 64 and Heinkel He 51 biplanes then in service. In late March 1933 the RLM published the tactical requirements for a single-seat fighter in the document L.A. 1432/33. [ 7 ] [ 8 ]

    The fighter needed to have a top speed of 400 km/h (250 mph) at 6,000 m (19,690 ft), to be maintained for 20 minutes, while having a total flight duration of 90 minutes. The critical altitude of 6,000 metres was to be reached in no more than 17 minutes, and the fighter was to have an operational ceiling of 10,000 metres. [ 7 ] Power was to be provided by the new Junkers Jumo 210 engine of about 522 kW (700 hp). It was to be armed with either a single 20 mm MG C/30 engine-mounted cannon firing through the propeller hub as a Motorkanone or, alternatively, either two engine cowl-mounted 7.92 mm (.312 in) MG 17 machine guns, or one lightweight, engine-mounted 20 mm MG FF cannon with two 7.92 mm MG 17s. [ 9 ] The MG C/30 was an airborne adaption of the 2 cm FlaK 30 anti-aircraft gun, which fired very powerful "Long Solothurn" ammunition, but was very heavy and had a low rate of fire. It was also specified that the wing loading should be kept below 100 kg/m 2 . The performance was to be evaluated based on the fighter's level speed, rate of climb, and manoeuvrability, in that order. [ 7 ]

    It has been suggested that Bayerische Flugzeugwerke (BFW) was originally not invited to participate in the competition due to personal animosity between Willy Messerschmitt and RLM director Erhard Milch [ nb 1 ] however, recent research by Willy Radinger and Walter Shick indicates that this may not have been the case, as all three competing companies—Arado, Heinkel and the BFW—received the development contract for the L.A. 1432/33 requirements at the same time in February 1934. [ 7 ] A fourth company, Focke-Wulf, received a copy of the development contract only in September 1939. [ 7 ] The powerplant was to be the new Junkers Jumo 210, but the proviso was made that it would be interchangeable with the more powerful, but less developed Daimler-Benz DB 600 powerplant. [ 11 ] Each was asked to deliver three prototypes for head-to-head testing in late 1934.

    Prototypes

    Design work on Messerschmitt Project Number P.1034 began in March 1934, just three weeks after the development contract was awarded. The basic mock-up was completed by May, and a more detailed design mock-up was ready by January 1935. The RLM designated the design as type "Bf 109," the next available from a batch of numbers assigned to BFW. [ 7 ]

    The first prototype (Versuchsflugzeug 1 or V1), with civilian registration D-IABI, was completed by May 1935, but the new German engines were not yet ready. In order to get the "RIII" designs into the air, the RLM acquired four Rolls-Royce Kestrel VI engines by trading Rolls-Royce a Heinkel He 70 Blitz for use as an engine test-bed. [ nb 2 ] Messerschmitt received two of these engines and adapted the engine mounts of V1 to take the V-12 engine upright. V1 made its maiden flight at the end of May 1935 at Haunstetten, piloted by Hans-Dietrich "Bubi" Knoetzsch. After four months of flight testing, the aircraft was delivered in September to the Luftwaffe test centre at Rechlin to take part in the design competition.

    In the late summer of 1935, the first Jumo engines became available so V2 was completed in October using the 449 kW (600 hp) Jumo 210A engine. V3 followed, the first to be mounted with guns, but it did not fly until May 1936 due to a delay in procuring another Jumo 210 engine.

    Design competition

    After Luftwaffe acceptance trials were completed at Rechlin, the prototypes were moved to Travemünde for the head-to-head portion of the competition. The aircraft participating in the trials were the Arado Ar 80 V3, the Focke-Wulf Fw 159 V3, the Heinkel He 112 V4 and the Bf 109 V2. The He 112 arrived first, in early February 1936, followed by the rest of the prototypes by the end of the month.

    Because most fighter pilots of the Luftwaffe were used to biplanes with open cockpits, low wing loading, light g-forces and easy handling, they were very critical of the Bf 109 at first. However, it soon became one of the frontrunners in the contest, as the Arado and Focke-Wulf entries, which were intended as "back-up" programmes to safeguard against failure of the two favourites, proved to be completely outclassed. The Arado Ar 80, with its gull wing (replaced with a straight, tapered wing on the V3) and fixed, spatted undercarriage was overweight and underpowered, and the design was abandoned after three prototypes had been built. The parasol winged Fw 159 was always considered by the Erprobungsstelle (E-Stelle) staff at Travemünde to be a compromise between a biplane and an aerodynamically more efficient, low-wing monoplane. Although it had some advanced features, it used a novel undercarriage which proved to be unreliable. [ 12 ]

    Initially, the Bf 109 was regarded with disfavor by E-Stelle test pilots because of its steep ground angle, which resulted in poor forward visibility when taxiing the sideways-hinged cockpit canopy, which could not be opened in flight and the automatic leading edge slats on the wings which, it was thought, would inadvertently open during aerobatics, possibly leading to crashes. This was later borne out in combat situations and aerobatic testing by various countries test establishments. The leading edge slats and ailerons would flutter rapidly in fast tight turns, making targeting and control difficult, and eventually putting the aircraft into a stall condition. They were also concerned about the high wing loading. [ 13 ]

    The Heinkel He 112, based on a scaled-down Blitz was the favourite of the Luftwaffe leaders. Compared with the Bf 109, it was also cheaper. [ 14 ] Positive aspects of the He 112 included the wide track and robustness of the undercarriage (this opened outwards from mid wing, as opposed to the 109s which opened from the fuselage), considerably better visibility from the cockpit, and a lower wing loading that made for easier landings. In addition, the V4 had a single-piece, clear-view, sliding cockpit canopy and a more powerful Jumo 210Da engine with a modified exhaust system. However, the He 112 was also structurally complicated, being some 18% heavier than the Bf 109, and it soon became clear that the thick wing, which spanned 12.6 m (41 ft 4 in) with an area of 23.2 m 2 (249.7 ft 2 ) on the first prototype (V1), was a disadvantage for a light fighter, decreasing the aircraft's rate of roll and manoeuvrability. As a result, the He 112 V4 which was used for the trials had new wings, spanning 11.5 m (37 ft 8.75 in) with an area of 21.6 m 2 (232.5 ft 2 ). However, the improvements had not been fully tested and the He 112 V4 could not be demonstrated in accordance with the rules laid down by the Acceptance Commission, placing it at a distinct disadvantage.

    Because of its smaller, lighter airframe, the Bf 109 was 30 km/h (20 mph) faster than the He 112 in level flight, and superior in climbing and diving. The Commission ultimately ruled in favour of the Bf 109 because of the Messerschmitt test pilot's demonstration of the 109's capabilities during a series of spins, dives, flick rolls and tight turns, throughout which the pilot was in complete control of the aircraft. [ 15 ]

    In March, the RLM received news that the British Spitfire had been ordered into production. It was felt that a quick decision was needed in order to get the winning design into production as soon as possible, so on 12 March the RLM announced the results of the competition in a document entitled Bf 109 Priority Procurement, which ordered the Bf 109 into production. At the same time, Heinkel was instructed to radically re-design the He 112. [ 16 ] The Messerschmitt 109 made its public debut during the 1936 Berlin Olympics, when the V1 prototype was flown. [ 17 ]

    Design features

    As with the earlier Bf 108, the new design was based on Messerschmitt's "lightweight construction" principle, which aimed to minimize the number of separate parts in the aircraft. Examples of this could be found in the use of two large, complex brackets which were fitted to the firewall. These brackets incorporated the lower engine mounts and landing gear pivot point into one unit. A large forging attached to the firewall housed the main spar pick-up points, and carried most of the wing loads. Contemporary design practice was usually to have these main load-bearing structures mounted on different parts of the airframe, with the loads being distributed through the structure via a series of strong-points. By concentrating the loads in the firewall, the structure of the Bf 109 could be made relatively light and uncomplicated. [ 18 ]

    An advantage of this design was that the main landing gear, which retracted through an 85-degree angle, was attached to the fuselage, making it possible to completely remove the wings for servicing without additional equipment to support the fuselage. It also allowed simplification of the wing structure, since it did not have to bear the loads imposed during takeoff or landing. The one major drawback of this landing gear arrangement was its narrow wheel track, making the aircraft unstable while on the ground. To increase stability, the legs were splayed outward somewhat, creating another problem in that the loads imposed during takeoff and landing were transferred up through the legs at an angle. [ 19 ]

    The small rudder of the Bf 109 was relatively ineffective at controlling the strong swing created by the powerful slipstream of the propeller during the early portion of the takeoff roll, and this sideways drift created disproportionate loads on the wheel opposite to the swing. If the forces imposed were large enough, the pivot point broke and the landing gear leg would collapse outward into its bay. [ 19 ] Experienced pilots reported that the swing was easy to control, but some of the less-experienced pilots lost fighters on takeoff. [ 20 ]

    Because of the large ground angle caused by the long legs, forward visibility while on the ground was very poor, a problem exacerbated by the sideways-opening canopy. This meant that pilots had to taxi in a sinuous fashion which also imposed stresses on the splayed undercarriage legs. Ground accidents were a problem with rookie pilots, especially during the later stages of the war when pilots received less training before being sent to operational units. [ 20 ] At least 10% of all Bf 109s were lost in takeoff and landing accidents, 1,500 of which occurred between 1939 and 1941. [ 21 ] The installation of a fixed "tall" tailwheel on some of the late G-10s and 14s and the K-series helped alleviate the problem to a large extent. [ 22 ]

    From the inception of the design, priority was given to easy access to the powerplant, fuselage weapons and other systems while the aircraft was operating from forward airfields. To this end, the entire engine cowling was made up of large, easily removable panels which were secured by large toggle latches. A large panel under the wing centre section could be removed to gain access to the L-shaped main fuel tank, which was sited partly under the cockpit floor and partly behind the rear cockpit bulkhead. Other, smaller panels gave easy access to the cooling system and electrical equipment. [ 19 ] The engine was held in two large, forged, magnesium alloy Y-shaped legs which were cantilevered from the firewall. Each of the legs was secured by two quick-release screw fittings on the firewall. All of the main pipe connections were colour-coded and grouped in one place, where possible, and electrical equipment plugged into junction boxes mounted on the firewall. The entire powerplant could be removed or replaced as a unit in a matter of minutes. [ 19 ]

    Another example of the Bf 109's advanced design was the use of a single, I-beam main spar in the wing, positioned more aft than usual (to give enough room for the retracted wheel), thus forming a stiff D-shaped torsion box. Most aircraft of the era used two spars, near the front and rear edges of the wings, but the D-box was much stiffer torsionally, and eliminated the need for the rear spar. The wing profile was the NACA 2R1 14.2 at the root and NACA 2R1 11.35 at the tip, [ 23 ] with a thickness to chord ratio of 14.2% at the root and 11.35% at the tip.

    Another major difference from competing designs was the higher wing-loading. While the R-IV contract called for a wing-loading of less than 100 kg/m 2 , Messerschmitt felt this was unreasonable. With a low-wing loading and the engines available, a fighter would end up being slower than the bombers it was tasked with catching. [ citation needed ]

    A fighter was designed primarily for high-speed flight. A smaller wing area was optimal for achieving high speed, but low-speed flight would suffer, as the smaller wing would require more airflow to generate enough lift to maintain flight. To compensate for this, the Bf 109 included advanced high-lift devices on the wings, including automatically-opening leading edge slats, and fairly large camber-changing flaps on the trailing edge. The slats increased the lift of the wing considerably when deployed, [ 24 ] greatly improving the horizontal maneuverability of the aircraft, as several Luftwaffe veterans, such as Erwin Leykauf, attest. [ 25 ] Messerschmitt also included ailerons that "drooped" when the flaps were lowered, thereby increasing the effective flap area (and later radiator flaps as well). When deployed, these devices effectively increased the wings' coefficient of lift. [ 26 ]

    Fighters with liquid cooled engines were vulnerable to hits in the cooling system. For this reason, on later Bf 109 F, G and K models the two coolant radiators were equipped with a cut-off system. If one radiator leaked, it was possible to fly on the second, or to fly for at least five minutes with both closed. [ 27 ] [ 28 ] [ 29 ] [ 30 ] In 1943, Oberfeldwebel Edmund Roßmann got lost and landed behind Soviet lines. He agreed to show the Soviets how to service the plane. Soviet machine gun technician Viktor M. Sinaisky recalled:

    Armament and gondola cannons

    Reflecting Messerschmitt's belief in low-weight, low-drag, simple monoplanes, the armament was placed in the fuselage. This kept the wings very thin and light. Two synchronized machine guns were mounted in the cowling, firing over the top of the engine and through the propeller arc. An alternative arrangement was also designed, consisting of a single cannon firing through a blast tube between the cylinder banks of the engine. [ 6 ] [ nb 3 ] This was also the choice of armament layout on some contemporary French monoplane fighters, such as the Dewoitine D.520, and dated back to World War I's small run of SPAD S.XII cannon-armed fighters in France.

    When it was discovered in 1937 that the RAF was planning eight-gun batteries for its new Hawker Hurricane and Supermarine Spitfire fighters, it was decided that the Bf 109 should be more heavily armed. The problem was that the only place available to mount additional guns was in the wings. There was only one spot available in each wing, between the wheel well and slats and there was room for only one gun, either a 7.92 mm MG 17 machine gun, or a 20 mm MG FF or MG FF/M cannon. [ 32 ]

    The first version of the 109 to have wing guns was the C-1, which had one MG 17 in each wing. To avoid redesigning the wing to accommodate large ammunition boxes and access hatches, an unusual ammunition feed was devised whereby a continuous belt holding 500 rounds was fed along chutes out to the wing tip, around a roller and then back along the wing, forward and beneath the gun breech, to the wing root where it coursed around another roller and back to the weapon. [ 32 ]

    The gun barrel was placed in a long, large-diameter tube located between the spar and the leading edge. The tube channeled cooling air around the barrel and breech, exhausting out of a slot at the rear of the wing. The installation was so cramped that parts of the MG 17's breech mechanism extended into an opening created in the flap structure. [ 32 ]

    The much longer and heavier MG FF had to be mounted farther along the wing in an outer bay. A large hole was cut through the spar allowing the cannon to be fitted with the ammunition feed forward of the spar, while the breech block projected rearward through the spar. A 60-round ammunition drum was placed in a space closer to the wing root causing a bulge in the underside. A small hatch was incorporated in the bulge to allow access for changing the drum. The entire weapon could be removed for servicing by removing a leading edge panel. [ 32 ]

    From the 109F-series onwards, guns were no longer carried inside the wings. (A noteworthy exception was Adolf Galland's field-modified Bf 109 F-2, which had a 20 mm MG FF/M installed internally in each wing.) [ nb 4 ] Only some of the projected 109K-series models, such as the K-6, were designed to carry 30 mm (1.18 in) MK 108 cannons in the wings. [ 33 ]

    In place of internal wing armament, additional firepower was provided through a pair of 20 mm MG 151/20 cannons installed in conformal gun pods under the wings. Although the additional armament increased the fighter's potency as a bomber destroyer, it had an adverse effect on the handling qualities, reducing its performance in fighter-versus-fighter combat and accentuating the tendency of the fighter to swing pendulum-fashion in flight. [ 34 ] The conformal gun pods, exclusive of ammunition, weighed 135 kg (298 lb) [ 35 ] and 135 to 145 rounds were provided per gun. [ 35 ]

    The total weight, including ammunition, was 215 kg. [ 35 ] Installation of the under-wing gun pods was a simple task that could be quickly performed by the unit's armourers, and imposed a reduction of speed of only 8 km/h (5 mph). [ 35 ] By comparison, the installed weight of a similar armament of two 20 mm MG 151/20 cannon inside the wings of the FW 190A-4/U8 was 130 kg (287 lb), without ammunition. [ 36 ]

    Designation and nicknames

    Originally the aircraft was designated as Bf 109 by the RLM, since the design was submitted by the Bayerische Flugzeugwerke (literally "Bavarian Aircraft Factory"). The company was renamed Messerschmitt AG after 11 July 1938 when Erhard Milch finally allowed Willy Messerschmitt to acquire the company. All Messerschmitt aircraft that originated after that date, such as the Me 210, were to carry the "Me" designation. Despite regulations by the RLM, wartime documents from Messerschmitt AG, RLM and Luftwaffe loss and strength reports continued to use both designations, sometimes even on the same page. [ 37 ]

    All extant airframes bear the official [ 38 ] "Bf 109" designation on their identification plates, including the final K-4 models, [ 39 ] with the notable exception of aircraft either initially built or re-fitted by Erla Flugzeugwerke, which sometimes bear the Me 109 stamping. "Me-109" is usually pronounced in German as may hundert-neun ("hundred-nine") while English-speakers usually say "emm ee one-oh-nine".

    The aircraft was given several nicknames by its operators and opponents, generally derived from the name of the manufacturer (Messer, Mersu, Messzer etc.), or the external appearance of the aircraft: the G-6 variant was nicknamed by Luftwaffe personnel as Die Beule ("the bump/bulge") because of the cowling's characteristic, bulging covers for the breeches of the 13 mm (.51 in) MG 131 machine guns, with the separate Beule covers eliminated by the time of the G-10 model's introduction of a subtly reshaped upper cowling, while Soviet aviators nicknamed it "the skinny one" for its sleek appearance (compared to the more robust Fw 190). The names "Anton", "Berta", "Caesar", "Dora", "Emil", "Friedrich", "Gustav" and "Kurfürst" were derived from the variant's official letter designation (e.g. Bf 109G – "Gustav"), based on the German phonetic alphabet of World War II, a practice that was also used for other German aircraft designs. [ 40 ]

    Record-setting flights

    In July 1937, not long after the public debut of the new fighter, three Bf 109Bs took part in the Flugmeeting airshow in Zürich under the command of a Major Seidemann. They won in several categories: First Prize in a speed race over a 202 km course, First Prize in the Class A category in the international Alpenrundflug for military aircraft, and victory in the international Patrouillenflug category. [ 17 ] On 11 November 1937, the Bf 109 V13 flown by Messerschmitt's chief pilot Dr. Hermann Wurster, powered by a 1,650 hp (1,230 kW) DB 601R racing engine, set a new world air speed record for landplanes with piston engines of 610.55 km/h (379.38 mph), winning the title for Germany for the first time. Converted from a Bf 109D, the V13 had been fitted with a special racing DB 601R engine that could deliver 1,650 hp (1,230 kW) for short periods. [ 41 ] [ 42 ] [ nb 5 ]

    Heinkel, having had the He 112 rejected in the design competition of 1936, designed and built the He 100. On 6 June 1938, the He 100 V3, flown by Ernst Udet, captured the record with a speed of 634.7 km/h (394.4 mph). On 30 March 1939, test pilot Hans Dieterle surpassed that record, reaching 746.61 km/h (463.92 mph) with the He 100 V8. Messerschmitt, however, soon regained the lead when, on 26 April 1939, Flugkapitän Fritz Wendel, flying the Me 209 V1, set a new record of 755.14 km/h (469.22 mph). For propaganda purposes, the machine was called the Bf 109R, suggesting it was just another variant of the standard fighter, but in fact it was a racing aircraft having little in common with the Bf 109. It was powered by the DB 601ARJ, producing 1,156 kW (1,550 hp), but capable of reaching 1,715 kW (2,300 hp). This world record for a piston-engined aircraft was to stand until 1969, [ 43 ] when Darryl Greenamyer's modified Grumman F8F Bearcat, Conquest I, broke it with a 777 km/h (483 mph) record speed. [ 44 ]


    Bf 109X

    After the success of the demonstration at the meeting of Zürich in 1937, Udet was receptive to the idea of developing an export version of the Bf 109 but with a different engine than the DB 601. The engine chosen was the P&W "Twin Wasp" SC-G of 1200 hp. The Messerschmitt company received a contract from RLM/LC on 13 June 1938 to fit the P&W Twin Wasp on the Bf 109 V21 (21st prototype) Werknummer 1770 (D-IFKQ). Even the maiden flight date is not known it is established that Hermann Wurster flew it at Augsburg on 17 August 1939. In September 1940 it was part of the DVL (Deutsche Versuchsanstalt für Luftfahrt) at Brauschweig-Völkenrode with the Stammkennzeichen code KB+II. Its end is not known.

    As the BMW 801 radial engine became available, a Bf 109F, Werknummer 5608, callsign D-ITXP was converted with a BMW 801 A-0. This aircraft became a prototype for the Bf 109X. The fuselage had a wider cross-section, and a new canopy was fitted. The wing tips were akin to that of the Bf 109E. The prototype was first flown by Flugkapitän Fritz Wendel on 2 September 1940, and the test flights continued despite troubles with the BMW 801A powerplant. Development was stopped in early 1942.


    Marseille's 109F

    [/IMG]

    Mar 09, 2009 #3 2009-03-09T11:41

    In case you're wondering, THE definitive reference on Marseille's '109s is

    Mar 09, 2009 #4 2009-03-09T14:50

    Hans-Joachim Marseille, by Kitchens and Beaman (The Luftwaffe Ritterkreutzträger series, No. 1 AirPower Editions / Chevron [UK], 2008 64 pages):

    Sometimes the light's all shinin' on me
    Other times I can barely see.
    Lately it occurs to me
    What a long, strange trip it's been.
    -- Truckin', The Grateful Dead

    New Marseille info.

    Mar 09, 2009 #5 2009-03-09T14:53

    Re: In case you're wondering, THE definitive reference on Marseille's '109s is

    Mar 09, 2009 #6 2009-03-09T14:54

    Hans-Joachim Marseille, by Kitchens and Beaman (The Luftwaffe Ritterkreutzträger series, No. 1 AirPower Editions / Chevron [UK], 2008 64 pages):

    Sometimes the light's all shinin' on me
    Other times I can barely see.
    Lately it occurs to me
    What a long, strange trip it's been.
    -- Truckin', The Grateful Dead

    So is this an F-3 Trop?

    Mar 09, 2009 #7 2009-03-09T19:11

    The saga continues. Would this in fact be an F-3 of his? It carries the 87 octane rating which apparently came with the F-3 and its' DB-601E, plus it doesn't have the curved armor that extended over the pilot's as on an F-4.

    [/IMG]

    Mar 09, 2009 #8 2009-03-09T19:47

    Back to Kitchens/Beaman.

    Mar 09, 2009 #9 2009-03-09T20:40

    The saga continues. Would this in fact be an F-3 of his? It carries the 87 octane rating which apparently came with the F-3 and its' DB-601E, plus it doesn't have the curved armor that extended over the pilot's as on an F-4.

    [/IMG]

    A straight F-4/Trop, just like the others. These guys state that all of the work numbers I cited previously had external stiffeners (they had lots of pictures to work with) and had the curved armor plate removed (I guess he didn't care for it. he wasn't the only one). In "Messerschmitt Bf 109 F,G,&K Series" Prien and Rodeike state "In place of the DB 601, which required 100 or 96 Octane C3 fuel,the F-4 received the improved DB 601E engine which, in spite of improved performance, was satisfied with 87 Octane B4 fuel. The only external indication was the appropriate servicing triangle below the fuel tank filler point." Not one of the images published in their book shows anything other than an 87 Octane label. Regards, BB.


    Clarification:
    "This posting may contain copyrighted material the use of which has not been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. This material is being made available to the members of this forum for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, or research. I believe this is not an infringement of copyright and constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided for in Section 107 of the US Copyright Law."


    Watch the video: Messerschmitt. Эпизод 2 От спортивного к истребителю


Comments:

  1. Nyles

    You commit an error. I can defend the position. Write to me in PM, we will talk.

  2. Eurylochus

    I agree, very good information

  3. Langundo

    Are you kidding!

  4. Meztilrajas

    Between us, I would have received otherwise.

  5. Fenrihn

    Rather than criticize write their options.

  6. Dourn

    I can recommend visiting a site with a huge number of articles on a topic of interest to you.



Write a message