Everything you wanted to know about Kentucky, history, economy people and more - History

Everything you wanted to know about Kentucky, history, economy people and more - History

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Basic Information

Postal Abbreviation: KY
Natives: Kentuckian

Population. 2010: 4,468,402
Legal Driving Age: 16
(* Younger in special circumstances)
Age of Majority: 18
Median Age: 38.1

State Song:
“My Old Kentucky Home”
Lyrics & Music: Stephen F

Median Household Income:$46,535

Capital..... Frankfort
Entered Union..... Jun. 1, 1792 (15th)

Present Constitution Adopted: 1891

Nickname: Bluegrass State
Tobacco State

“United We Stand, Divided We Fall”

Origin of Name:
From the Iroquian Indian word, meaning “Land of Tomorrow”.

USS Kentucky

Railroad Stations

Kentucky Economy

AGRICULTURE: cattle, corn, eggs, hay,
milk soybeans, tobacco.

MINING: coal, natural gas, petroleum,
sand, stone.

clothing, electronics, food processing,
machinery, metal products, paper
products, printing, rubber, tobacco,

Kentucky Geography

Total Area: 82,282 sq. miles
Land area: 81,823 sq. miles
Water Area: 459 sq. miles
Geographic Center: Barton
15 mi. NE of Great Bend
Highest Point: Mount Sunflower
(4,039 ft.)
Lowest Point: Verdigris River
(679 ft.)
Highest Recorded Temp.: 121˚ F (7/24/1936)
Lowest Recorded Temp.: –40˚ F (2/13/1905)

Kentucky is a flat state, whose altitude ranges from 750 feet above sea level at the mouth of the Missouri River, to 4,000 feet on the western border of the state. The Missouri River forms nearly 75 miles of the northeast border of the state.


Louisville/Jefferson County, 620,118
Bowling Green, 68,401
Owensboro, 59,809
Covington, 40,366
Hopkinsville, 31,021
Richmond, 31,364
Florence, 29,951
Georgetown, 29,098
Henderson, 28,757

Kentucky History

1736 The first village is established in Kentucky by French traders.
1769 Daniel Boone explored Kentucky.
1774 The first permanent white settlement was established at Harrodsburg.
1776 During the Revolutionary War Daniel Boone and other settlers successfully
defend the territory from the British and Indians
1792 Kentucky joined the union as the 15th state.
1861-65 During the Civil War the state was officially neutral.
1862 The Battle of Shiloh took place.
1926 Mammoth Cave National Park was established.
1986 Toyoto Motor company opens a car assembly plant near Lexington.

Famous People

Muhammad Ali
Daniel Boone
Louis Brandeis
Henry Clay
Jefferson Davis
John Marshall Harlan
Abraham Lincoln

Kentucky National Sites

1) Abraham Lincoln National Historic Site
This 116 acre site is the birth place of Abraham Lincoln.

2) Cumberland Gap National Historic Park
This 20,000 acre celebrates the natural break in the Appalachian mountains through which the Daniel Boone first crossed.

3) Mammoth Cave National Park
This park has the mammoth cave, which stays at a constant temperature of 54 degree Fahrenheit. The cave system is 360 miles long and as such is ranked the longest known cave system in the world. The park itself cover 52, 830 acres.


Kentucky ( US: / k ə n ˈ t ʌ k i / ( listen ) kən- TUK -ee, UK: / k ɛ n -/ ken-), [5] officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state in the Upland South region of the United States, bordered by Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio to the north West Virginia and Virginia to the east Tennessee to the south and Missouri to the west. The bluegrass region in the central part of the commonwealth contains the commonwealth's capital, Frankfort, as well as its two largest cities, Louisville and Lexington. Together they comprise more than 20% of the commonwealth's population. Kentucky is the 37th most extensive and the 26th most populous of the 50 United States.

Kentucky was admitted into the Union as the 15th state on June 1, 1792, splitting from Virginia in the process. [6] It is known as the "Bluegrass State", a nickname based on Kentucky bluegrass, a species of grass found in many of its pastures, which has supported the thoroughbred horse industry in the center of the state. [7] It is home to the world's longest cave system: Mammoth Cave National Park, as well as the greatest length of navigable waterways and streams in the contiguous United States and the two largest man-made lakes east of the Mississippi River. The state is also known for horse racing, bourbon, moonshine, coal, "My Old Kentucky Home" historic state park, automobile manufacturing, tobacco, bluegrass music, college basketball, Louisville Slugger baseball bats, Kentucky Fried Chicken, and the Kentucky colonel.

People from all walks of life, from peasants and laborers to kings and queens, answered the call. Even the King of Germany, Frederick I Barbarossa, went on multiple Crusades. Women were encouraged to give money and stay out of the way, but some went on crusade anyway. When nobles crusaded, they often brought huge retinues, whose members may not necessarily have wanted to go along. At one time, scholars theorized that younger sons more frequently went crusading in search of estates of their own however, crusading was an expensive business, and recent research indicates it was lords and elder sons who were more likely to crusade.

Historians have numbered eight expeditions to the Holy Land, though some lump the 7th and 8th together for a total of seven crusades. However, there was a steady stream of armies from Europe to the Holy Land, so it is nearly impossible to distinguish separate campaigns. In addition, some crusades have been named, including the Albigensian Crusade, the Baltic (or Northern) Crusades, the People's Crusade, and the Reconquista.

Everything you wanted to know about Kentucky, history, economy people and more - History

NOTE:  Some of the quotes on this page were submitted to me by visitors, and not all have been verified for original source or wording. I'm working hard to confirm everything, but in the meantime please be aware of the possibility for errors.  

History ain't what it is. It's what some writer wanted it to be.

History is a cyclic poem written by Time upon the memories of man.

If you want to understand today, you have to search yesterday.

History is philosophy teaching by examples.

Thucydides, The History of the Peloponnesian War

People are trapped in history, and history is trapped in them.

James Baldwin, Notes of a Native Son

How these curiosities would be quite forgot, did not such idle fellows as I am put them down!

John Aubrey (1626&ndash1697), Lives of Eminent Men  [spelling modernized

The great eventful Present hides the Past but through the din
Of its loud life hints and echoes from the life behind steal in.

Until lions have their historians, tales of the hunt shall always glorify the hunters.

The memories of men are too frail a thread to hang history from.

John Still, The Jungle Tide

[T]here certainly is no useful or entertaining history but the history of the day. All ancient histories, as one of our wits has observed, are only fables that men have agreed to admit as true and with regard to modern history, it is a chaos out of which it is impossible to make anything.

François-Marie Arouet de Voltaire (1694&ndash1778), "Jeannot et Colin," 1764, translated from French by William Walton, 1900   [The wit has been identified as Bernard Le Bovier, sieur de Fontenelle. Et merci, Monsieur R.J.J., pour l'observation de la grammaire.

History isn't made by remarkable people. It's made by unremarkable people doing remarkable things. How are you going to make history today?

Making History, "Pilot," 2017, written by Julius Sharpe  [S1, E1, Chris]

Professor Johnston often said that if you didn't know history, you didn't know anything. You were a leaf that didn't know it was part of a tree.

Michael Crichton, Timeline

No volume of history is insignificant, even the worst chapters. Especially the worst chapters.

We used to root for the Indians against the cavalry, because we didn't think it was fair in the history books that when the cavalry won it was a great victory, and when the Indians won it was a massacre.

History in the final analysis is the clock people use to tell the cultural and political time of day and it is the compass they use to find themselves on the map of human geography. History tells a people where they have been and what they have been where they are and what they are. Most important, history tells a people where they still must go and what they still must be.

John Henrik Clarke, "African People in World History," 1982

A history in which every particular incident may be true may on the whole be false.

Thomas Babington Macaulay

More and more, I tend to read history. I often find it more up to date than the daily newspapers.

Joe Murray, "History updates current events," Spartanburg Herald-Journal, May 10th 1992

History with its flickering lamp stumbles along the trail of the past, trying to reconstruct its scenes, to revive its echoes, and kindle with pale gleams the passion of former days.

In that delightful land embosomed in the Mediterranean sea, there once stood in its pride and strength one of the most splendid cities of the world. Since then, many centuries have rolled away and are lost in oblivion.&mdash They have gone, and O how many millions of men have gone with them to the shoreless ocean of eternity. [T]his city. [h]er palaces have crumbled, and the owl builds her nest within the mouldering chambers of her kings. The poet's lyre is broken. The voice of eloquence is forever hushed. The wine-cup is in the dust. The voice of their merriment has long since ceased. The good, the brave, the noble, the wealthy and the poor, are all forgotten. Spirit of change! these mighty revolutions are thine. Thou art the eldest-born of time thy lessons are precious to the soul, and ever should they be treasured in the memory.

Charles Lanman, "Musings," 1840

History is a mighty dramos, enacted upon the theatre of times, with suns for lamps and eternity for a background.

      Our perception of life is always far more abrupt than the objective reality. History presents continuities, but thinking about history always runs in terms of Golden Ages and cataclysms, of Eden and the fall. Our tendency to make a cataclysm out of the coming of fascism is all the sharper since we have the Great War to set as the cleavage-line between civilization and chaos. But actually history is an unbroken web. The Great War represented the explosion of dynamite that had been stored up in the European powder-house for decades in the form of imperialist rivalries. Nor is the new age of fascist tyrants a sudden visitation to the world. It is not a brand-new weapon that the capitalists have discovered for maintaining their power. The weapon has been in use for some time.
      No, it is not in our stars but in ourselves that we are fodder for fascism.

Max Lerner, It Is Later Than You Think: The Need for a Militant Democracy, 1938–1943

History is a novel for which the people is the author.

Alfred de Vigny, Réflexions sur la Vérité dans l'Art

History is a kind of introduction to more interesting people than we can possibly meet in our restricted lives let us not neglect the opportunity.

History was a trash bag of random coincidences torn open in a wind. Surely, Watt with his steam engine, Faraday with his electric motor, and Edison with his incandescent light bulb did not have it as their goal to contribute to a fuel shortage some day that would place their countries at the mercy of Arab oil.

Joseph Heller, Good as Gold

Very few things happen at the right time, and the rest do not happen at all: the conscientious historian will correct these defects.

Herodotus, The History of Herodotus

Elbert Hubbard, The Roycroft Dictionary

History is a symphony of echoes heard and unheard. It is a poem with events as verses.

If one could make alive again for other people some cobwebbed skein of old dead intrigues and breathe breath and character into dead names and stiff portraits. That is history to me!

George Macaulay Trevelyan

The history of the world is the record of a man in quest of his daily bread and butter.

Hendrik Wilhelm van Loon, The Story of Mankind

Historians are gossips who tease the dead.

Voltaire, Scribbling Books

History is filled with the sound of silken slippers going downstairs and wooden shoes coming up.

We are the prisoners of history. Or are we?

Robert Penn Warren, Segregation

History never looks like history when you are living through it.

Legend: A lie that has attained the dignity of age.

God cannot alter the past, though historians can.

Samuel Butler, "Prose Observations"

History is the sum total of the things that could have been avoided.

Might does not make right it only makes history.

Jim Fiebig, as quoted in The Reader's Digest, 1981

That man was a philosopher, who said that the history of the world was a history of ruin. It is so.&mdash Wherever we turn our eyes, we cannot fail to behold some magnificent ruin. Our daily footsteps are imprinted in the dust of things which were once the admiration of men. They are the hieroglyphics of time. Silent and holy are all their teachings. Sometimes they remind us of beauty and peace, and sometimes of terror, tumult and woe. They have nothing to do with the future and present, but the past is their all and yet how wise, how important their counsels!

Charles Lanman, "Musings," 1840

Then, Sir, you would reduce all history to no better than an almanack, a mere chronological series of remarkable events.

The very ink with which all history is written is merely fluid prejudice.

Mark Twain, Following the Equator

Poetry is nearer to vital truth than history.

History is a vast early warning system.

Historian: an unsuccessful novelist.

Oh, God. The Sixties are coming back. Well I've got a 12-gauge double-barreled duck gun chambered for three-inch Magnum shells. And - speaking strictly for this retired hippie and former pinko beatnik - if the Sixties head my way, they won't get past the porch steps. They will be history. Which, for chrissakes, is what they're supposed to be.

Historian: A broad-gauge gossip.

Ambrose Bierce, The Devil's Dictionary

History is a great dust heap.

Thomas Carlyle, Obiter Dicta

Most history is guessing, and the rest is prejudice.

Will and Ariel Durant, Our Oriental Heritage

A lot of history is just dirty politics cleaned up for the consumption of children and other innocents.

History is past politics, and politics present history.

John Robert Seeley, The Growth of British Policy

Bound as our lives are to the tyranny of time, it is through what we know of history that we are delivered from our bonds and escape - into time.

A.L. Rowse, The Use of History

The lovers of romance can go elsewhere for satisfaction but where can the lovers of truth turn if not to history?

Man is a history-making creature who can neither repeat his past nor leave it behind.

W.H. Auden, The Dyer's Hand

Neither a wise man nor a brave man lies down on the tracks of history to wait for the train of the future to run over him.

Each time history repeats itself, the price goes up.

History is full of the dead weight of things which have escaped the control of the mind, yet drive man on with a blind force.

Frederick Maurice Powicke, History, Freedom & Religion

Political history is far too criminal and pathological to be a fit subject of study for the young. All teachers know this. In consequence, they bowdlerize, but to bowdlerize political history is not to simplify but to falsify it. Children should acquire their heroes and villains from fiction.

W. H. Auden, A Certain World: A Commonplace Book, 1970

In the Cornell Library of 40,000 volumes there are no novels. There is, however, plenty of fiction in the histories and philosophies.

Mary Wilson Little, Reveries of a Paragrapher, 1897

More history's made by secret handshakes than by battles, bills, and proclamations.

John Barth, The Sot-Weed Factor

If an historian were to relate truthfully all the crimes, weaknesses and disorders of mankind, his readers would take his work for satire rather than for history.

Pierre Bayle, Historical and Critical Dictionary

Too many historical writers are the votaries of cults, which, by definition are dedicated to whitewashing warts and hanging halos.

A historian is often only a journalist facing backwards.

Karl Kraus, translated from German by Harry Zohn

If you think you have it tough, read history books.

Histories are a kind of distilled newspapers.

Thomas Carlyle, Heroes and Hero Worship

People think too historically. They are always living half in a cemetery.

Happy the people whose annals are blank in history-books.

Thomas Carlyle, Life of Frederick the Great

Sin writes histories, goodness is silent.

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Table - Talk

[History is] the story of the magnificent rear-guard action fought during several thousand years by dogma against curiosity.

History begins in novel and ends in essay.

Thomas Babington Macaulay

[W]hen a historian enters into metaphysics he has gone to a far country from whose bourne he will never return a historian.

Shailer Mathews, The Spiritual Interpretation of History

It is part of my creed that the only poetry is history, could we tell it right.

[T]he Present is the living sum-total of the whole Past.

Thomas Carlyle, Characteristics

History: An account mostly false, of events mostly unimportant, which are brought about by rulers mostly knaves, and soldiers mostly fools.

Ambrose Bierce, The Devil's Dictionary

Every age has a keyhole to which its eye is pasted.

Mary McCarthy, On the Contrary

What is the fire in our belly but the eternal flame of a thousand ancestors.

As soon as histories are properly told there is no more need of romances.

Walt Whitman, Leaves of Grass

Oscar Wilde, Lady Windermere's Fan

Anybody can make history. Only a great man can write it.

Some write a narrative of wars and feats,
Of heroes little known, and call the rant
A history.

William Cowper, The Task, The Garden

The writing of histories - as Goethe once noted - is one way of getting rid of the weight of the past. The writing of history liberates us from history.

Benedetto Croce, History as the Story of Liberty

Historians are like deaf people who go on answering questions that no one has asked them.

The challenge of history is to recover the past and introduce it to the present.

If you go back through 2000 years, I guess luck, Marx, and God have made history, the three of them together.

Princes should have more to fear from historians than have ugly women from great painters.

Antonio Pérez, Aforismos

Historical investigation has for its aim to fix the order and character of events throughout past time and in all places. The task is frankly superhuman.

George Santayana, The Life of Reason

Man watches his history on the screen with apathy and an occasional passing flicker of horror or indignation.

The South creates the civilizations, the North conquers them, ruins them, borrows from them, spreads them: this is one summary of history.

Will and Ariel Durant, Lessons of History

History is the transformation of tumultuous conquerors into silent footnotes.

Paul Eldridge, Maxims for a Modern Man

The Past lies upon the Present like a giant's dead body.

Nathaniel Hawthorne, The House of Seven Gables

[T]ruly great history is not subtle. It smacks you in the face. You know it at the time you're watching it &mdash you're seeing something that's for the ages.

Tom Verducci  [said at the finish of the 2014 World Series, about Madison Bumgarner's pitching, 2014 October 29th

Historians of literature like to regard a century as a series of ten faces, each grimacing in a different way.

History is never antiquated, because humanity is always fundamentally the same.

History maketh a young man to be old, without either wrinkles or gray hairs privileging him with the experience of age, without either the infirmities or inconveniences thereof.

I see History as a relay race in which one of us, before dropping in his tracks, must carry one stage further the challenge of being a man.

Perhaps history is a thing that would stop happening if God held His breath, or could be imagined as turning away to think of something else.

Herbert Butterfield, Christianity and History

I would endeavor to show you New England in its seed-bed, before the hot suns of modern progress had developed its sprouting germs into the great trees of .

Harriet Beecher Stowe, Oldtown Folks, 1869

Crimes of which a people is ashamed constitute its real history. The same is true of man.

When a history book contains no lies it is always tedious.

Anatole France, The Crime of Sylvestre Bonnard

Men have need of history because, without it, the past threatens to overwhelm them.

Guy Fregault, La guerre de la conquête

Isn't it amazing the way the future succeeds in creating an appropriate past?

History is never above the melee. It is not allowed to be neutral, but forced to enlist in every army.

Allan Nevins, The Gateway to History

History, like a vast river, propels logs, vegetation, rafts, and debris it is full of live and dead things, some destined for resurrection it mingles many waters and holds in solution invisible substances stolen from distant soils.

Jacques Barzun, Clio and the Doctors

History is the action and reaction of these two, nature and thought - two boys pushing each other on the curbstone of the pavement.

Ralph Waldo Emerson, The Conduct of Life: Fate

All that the historians give us are little oases in the desert of time, and we linger fondly in these, forgetting the vast tracks between one and another that were trodden by the weary generations of men.

John Alfred Spender, The Comments of Bagshot

A boy who hears a lesson in history ended by the beauty of peace, and how Napoleon brought ruin upon the world and that he should be forever cursed, will not long have much confidence in his teacher. He wants to hear more about the fighting and less about the peace negotiations.

William Lee Howard, Peace, Dolls and Pugnacity

[H]istory is a melodrama on the theme of parasitism, characterized by scenes that are exciting or dull, as the case may be, and many a sudden stagetrick.

Max Nordau, The Interpretation of History

History is but the record of the public and official acts of human beings. It is our object, therefore, to humanize our history and deal with people past and present people who ate and possibly drank people who were born, flourished and died not grave tragedians, posing perpetually for their photographs.

Bill Nye, History of the United States

History fades into fable fact becomes clouded with doubt and controversy the inscription molders from the tablet: the statue falls from the pedestal. Columns, arches, pyramids, what are they but heaps of sand and their epitaphs, but characters written in the dust?

Washington Irving, The Sketch Book: Westminster Abbey

For what is history, but. huge libel on human nature, to which we industriously add page after page, volume after volume, as if we were holding up a monument to the honor, rather than the infamy of our species.

Washington Irving, History of New York

Take from the altars of the past the fire - not the ashes.

The middle sort of historians (of which the most part are) spoil all they will chew our meat for us.

Michel de Montaigne, translated

Perhaps nobody has changed the course of history as much as the historians.

Woe unto the defeated,
whom history treads
into the dust.

Arthur Koestler, Darkness at Noon

The obscurest epoch is today.

Robert Louis Stevenson, Across the Plains

A mere compilation of facts presents only the skeleton of History we do but little for her if we cannot invest her with life, clothe her in the habiliments of her day, and enable her to call forth the sympathies of succeeding generations.

Hannah Farnham Lee, The Huguenots in France and America

It is a great pity that every human being does not, at an early stage of his life, have to write a historical work. He would then realize that the human race is in quite a jam about truth.

For me there is no greater subject than history. How a man can study it and not be forced to become a philosopher, I cannot tell.

Our history is every human history a black and gory business, with more scoundrels than wise men at the lead, and more louts than both put together to cheer and follow.

Philip Wylie, Generation of Vipers

What would constitute useful history? That which should teach us our duties and our rights, without appearing to teach them.

Voltaire, Philosophical Dictionary

It might be a good idea if the various countries of the world would occasionally swap history books, just to see what other people are doing with the same set of facts.

Whose game was empires and whose stakes were thrones,
Whose table earth, whose dice were human bones.

George Gordon, Lord Byron, "The Age of Bronze"

Histories used often to be stories: the fashion now is to leave out the story. Our histories are stall-fed: the facts are absorbed by the reflexions, as the meat is sometimes by the fat.

Augustus William Hare and Julius Charles Hare, Guesses at Truth, by Two Brothers, 1827

History is man's best guess as to what the past would look like if everything had happened in chronological order.

A look at the past reminds us of how great is the distance, and how short, over which we have come. The past makes us ask what we have done with us. It makes us ask whether our very achievements are not ironical counterpoint and contrast to our fundamental failures.

Knowledge of history frees us to be contemporary.

The past actually happened but history is only what someone wrote down.

A. Whitney Brown, The Big Picture

History is a pack of lies about events that never happened told by people who weren't there.

The longer you can look back, the farther you can look forward.

The past is really almost as much a work of the imagination as the future.

History is a gallery of pictures in which there are few originals and many copies.

Alexis de Tocqueville, 1856

Whosoever, in writing a modern history, shall follow truth too near the heels, it may haply strike out his teeth.

Walter Raleigh, History of the World

History in general is a collection of crimes, follies, and misfortunes among which we have now and then met with a few virtues, and some happy times.

History. is, indeed, little more than the register of the 'crimes, follies, and misfortunes' of mankind. But what experience and history teach is this - that peoples and governments have never learned anything from history, or acted on principles deduced from it.

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, The Philosophy of History, "Introduction," 1807

History balances the frustration of "how far we have to go" with the satisfaction of "how far we have come." It teaches us tolerance for the human shortcomings and imperfections which are not uniquely of our generation, but of all time.

The dead hand has too long hampered the freedom of the living.

The historian has before him a jigsaw puzzle from which many pieces have disappeared. These gaps can be filled only by his imagination.

Gaetano Salvemini, Historian and Scientist

History knows that it can wait for more evidence and review its older verdicts it offers an endless series of courts of appeal, and is ever ready to reopen closed cases.

Skepticism is history's bedfellow.

The effects of human wickedness are written on the page of history in characters of blood: but the impression soon fades away so more blood must be shed to renew it.

Augustus William Hare and Julius Charles Hare, Guesses at Truth, by Two Brothers, 1827

History does not unfold: it piles up.

Robert M. Adams, Bad Mouth

The day before yesterday always has been a glamour day. The present is sordid and prosaic. Time colors history as it does a meerschaum pipe.

Vincent Starrett, Buried Caesars

History is a pageant and not a philosophy.

Augustine Birrell, Obiter Dicta: The Muse of History

History, like thermodynamics, won't let you out.

The only person who calls him by his full name is Minerva, because it reminds her of the history of Greece. Gee whiz, I don't want to be reminded about that. History and practical bookkeeping — good night.

Percy Keese Fitzhugh, Roy Blakeley: Lost, Strayed or Stolen, 1921

Radical historians now tell the story of Thanksgiving from the point of view of the turkey.

History is nothing but a problem of mechanics applied to psychology.

History: the category of human phenomena which tends to catastrophe.

Jules Romains, Men of Good Will

The public history of all countries, and all ages, is but a sort of mask, richly colored. The interior working of the machinery must be foul.

History &mdash that little sewer where man loves to wallow.

History: a collection of epitaphs.

Elbert Hubbard, The Roycroft Dictionary

Unfortunately, it is also true that the age's interests often color the past with unhistoric hues.

Every great writer is a writer of history, let him treat on almost any subject he may.

Walter Savage Landor, Imaginary Conversation: Diogenes and Plato

[T]he historian must serve two masters, the past and the present.

Fritz Stern, The Varieties of History

[History is] a damn dim candle over a damn dark abyss.

[W]hat mountains of dead ashes, wreck and burnt bones, does assiduous pedantry dig up from the past time and name it History.

No one can really know the life of his own day, let alone that of times long past. Always the historian sees as in a mirror darkly, the reds and the golds rendered drab by the shadows of time.

Earl R. Beck, On Teaching History in Colleges and Universities

When we skim along the surface of history we see little but the rough barren rocks that rise out of it.

Augustus William Hare and Julius Charles Hare, Guesses at Truth, by Two Brothers, 1827

Man is an historical animal, with a deep sense of his own past and if he cannot integrate the past by a history explicit and true, he will integrate it by a history implicit and false.

Geoffrey Barraclough, History in a Changing World

The idea of history in any age, like the idea of property, or of progress, is an unstable compound it is put together as needed, by historians or by philosophers, out of the irreconcilable opinions of men.

F. Smith Fussner, The Historical Revolution

Even the most painstaking history is a bridge across an eternal mystery.

Bruce Catton, Prefaces to History

Almost the whole of history is but a sequence of horrors.

Nicolas Chamfort, Maxims and Considerations

One of the deepest impulses in man is the impulse to record, - to scratch a drawing on a tusk or keep a diary, to collect sagas and heap cairns. This instinct as to the enduring value of the past is, one might say, the very basis of civilization.

John Jay Chapman, Memories and Milestones

History is not the past, but a map of the past drawn from a particular point of view to be useful to the modern traveler.

A history in which every particular incident may be true may on the whole be false.

Thomas Babington Macaulay

History, that excitable and unreliable old lady.

Guy de Maupassant, Sur l'Eau

Wars usually have the effect of speeding up the process of history.

Pieter Geyl, Debates With Historians

You can't pick up a phone and call the future and tell them about our times. You have to pick up a piece of paper.

Garrison Keillor, "How to write a personal letter," 1987, from Power of the Printed Word advertising campaign by Billings S. Fuess, Jr. at Ogilvy & Mather for International Paper Company

[I]t was that there are no simple lessons in history, that it is human nature that repeats itself, not history.

[History] is fallible as every man is fallible. But it is likewise trustworthy, as a man is trustworthy who has looked into himself and come to know how blended are dust and fire in the innermost recesses of the human heart.

There is nothing more dangerous than history used as a defense, or history used for preaching history used as a tool is no longer history.

We are never completely contemporaneous with our present. History advances in disguise it appears on stage wearing a mask of the preceding scene, and we tend to lose the meaning of the play.

Régis Debray, Revolution in the Revolution?

. the snail trail of history.

History is the open Bible: we historians are not priests to expound it infallibly: our function is to teach people to read it and to reflect upon it for themselves.

George Macaulay Trevelyan

Delusion about history is a serious matter it can gravely affect the history that is waiting to be made.

History supplies little beyond a list of those who have accommodated themselves with the property of others.

Voltaire, Philosophical Dictionary

The real history does not get written, because it is not in people's brains but in their nerves and vitals.

Alfred North Whitehead, Dialogues of Alfred North Whitehead

Clio may be the most austere and chaste of the Muses, but she has been known to come down informally from Mount Helicon in a mood so raffish that there are those who claim to have seen her with her slip showing.

Willis Thornton, Fable, Fact and History

And how fascinating history is - the long, variegated pageant of man's still continuing evolution of this strange planet, so much the most interesting of all the myriads of spinners through space.

George Macaulay Trevelyan, An Autobiography

No modern idea has affected history more than the passion of nationalism.

Charles R. Poinsatte, Understanding History Through the American Experience

A nation that forgets its past can function no better than an individual with amnesia.

The good historian is like the giant of the fairy tale. He knows that wherever he catches the scent of human flesh, there his quarry lies.

Marc Bloch, The Historian's Craft

The historian has been the hearth at which the soul of the country has been kept alive.

John Morley, Notes on Politics and History

It has become too easy to see that the luckless men of the past lived by mistakes, even absurd beliefs, so we may well fail in a decent respect for them, and forget that historians of the future will point out that we too lived by myths.

Herbert J. Muller, Freedom in the Western World

You don't change the course of history by turning the faces of portraits to the wall.

The best portraits are perhaps those in which there is a slight mixture of caricature and we are not certain that the best histories are not those in which a little of the exaggeration of fictitious narrative is judiciously employed. Something is lost in accuracy but much is gained in effect. The fainter lines are neglected but the great characteristic features are imprinted on the mind forever.

Thomas Babington Macaulay, Machiavelli

History is a tattoo of a moment in time.

No man is truly great who is great only in his own lifetime. The test of greatness is the page of history.

William Hazlitt, Table Talk, 1822

History is the story of events, with praise or blame.

If history were a photograph of the past it would be flat and uninspiring. Happily, it is a painting and, like all works of art, it fails of the highest truth unless imagination and ideas are mixed with the paints.

A recorded past is no more than a bygone present composed of the footprints made by human beings actually going somewhere but not knowing (in any extended sense), and certainly not revealing to us, how, they came to be afoot on these particular journeys.

Michael Oakeshott, On History

Historians are themselves products of history.

Paul K. Conkin and Roland N. Stromberg, Heritage and Challenge

History is politics projected into the past.

The tapestry of history that seems so full of tragedy when viewed from the front has countless comic scenes woven into its reverse side. In truth, tragedy and comedy are the twin masks of history - its mass appeal.

José Ortega y Gasset, Historical Reason

It is striking how history, when resting on the memory of men, always touches the bounds of mythology.

Leopold von Ranke, History of the Popes

It is with nations as it is with individuals. A book of history is a book of sermons.

Arthur Conan Doyle, Micah Clarke

History portrays everything as if it could not have come otherwise. History is on the side of what happened.

Elias Canetti, The Human Province

In a certain sense all men are historians.

Thomas Carlyle, Essays: On History

It is pleasant to be transferred from an office where one is afraid of a sergeant-major into an office where one can intimidate generals, and perhaps this is why history is so attractive to the more timid among us. We can recover self-confidence by snubbing the dead.

E.M. Forster, Abinger Harvest

The lesson of history is rarely learned by the actors themselves.

The amazing thing since so many variables enter into historical judgments, is not that historians disagree but that they agree as often as they do.

Louis Gottschalk, Understanding History

History is written by the winners.

[History is] that terrible mill in which sawdust rejoins sawdust.

History is the daughter of time.

Lucien Febvre, The Problem of Unbelief in the Sixteenth Century

History paints the human heart.

Events in the past may roughly be divided into those which probably never happened and those which do not matter.

W.R. Inge, Assessments and Anticipations

It takes a great deal of history to produce a little literature.

Henry James, Life of Nathaniel Hawthorne

History is an argument without end.

This is my history like all other histories, a narrative of misery.

History is a bath of blood.

William James, Memories and Studies

History. is an aggregation of truths, half-truths, semi-truths, fables, myths, rumors, prejudices, personal narratives, gossip, and official prevarications. It is a canvas upon which thousands of artists throughout the ages have splashed their conceptions and interpretations of a day and an era. Some motifs are grotesque and some are magnificent.

We proceed out of history into history again.

The game of history is usually played by the best and the worst over the heads of the majority in the middle.

Eric Hoffer, The True Believer

[H]istory gives answers only to those who know how to ask questions.

Hajo Holborn, History and the Humanities

There is no such thing as a neutral or purely objective historian. Without an opinion a historian would be simply a ticking clock, and unreadable besides.

History offers some consolation by reminding us that sin has flourished in every age.

Will and Ariel Durant, Lessons of History

[T]he historian and the detective have much in common.

Mark M. Krug, History and the Social Sciences

History is the synthesis of all social sciences turned towards the past.

Civilization is a stream with banks. The stream is sometimes filled with blood from people killing, stealing, shouting and doing the things historians usually record, while on the banks, unnoticed, people build homes, make love, raise children, sing songs, write poetry and even whittle statues. The story of civilization is the story of what happened on the banks. Historians are pessimists because they ignore the banks for the river.

The present is the past rolled up for action, and the past is the present unrolled for understanding.

Will and Ariel Durant, The Reformation

[T]he historian lays humanity on the couch.

History is the most dangerous product which the chemistry of the mind has concocted. Its properties are well known. It produces dreams and drunkenness. It fills people with false memories, exaggerates their reactions, exacerbates old grievances, torments them in their repose, and encourages either a delirium of grandeur or a delusion of persecution. It makes whole nations bitter, arrogant, insufferable and vainglorious.

Paul Valéry, Regards sur le Monde Actuel

The study of history is the playground of patriotism.

History, as long as it continues to happen, is always another chance.

History being the record of human action is a richly variegated material, and it is not easy to give a true impression of the stuff by snipping off an inch or two for a pattern.

Cicely Veronica Wedgwood, Truth and Opinion

History is the propaganda of the victors.

And looking back upon history (which in reality, of course, has never stopped happening, even during our brief halcyon days), one can see that in almost every age in almost every part of the world, human beings have had to live their normal lives and do their normal business under conditions of uncertainty, danger, and distress &mdash conditions that could have driven them to distraction if they had not been ashamed of being so childish and weak as to rebel against the elementary law of life: "Man is born unto trouble, as the sparks fly upward."

Arnold J. Toynbee (1889&ndash1975), "You Can Pack Up Your Troubles," 1952   [Job.

Every true history must force us to remember that the past was once as real as the present and as uncertain as the future.

George Macaulay Trevelyan, Clio, A Muse

There is a timelessness about this night
There must be old ghosts riding on this wind,
Old words and old eternal songs and slight
Old whispers that no crowding years have dimmed.

Gerald Raftery (1905–1986), "Ancient Night," 1936

People tend to forget that the word "history" contains the word "story".

The past is malleable and flexible, changing as our recollection interprets and re-explains what has happened.

History is a tool used by politicians to justify their intentions.

The notion that any one person can describe 'what really happened' is an absurdity. If ten - or a hundred - people witness an event, there will be ten - or a hundred - different versions of what took place.

Every major horror of history was committed in the name of an altruistic motive. Has any act of selfishness ever equaled the carnage perpetrated by disciples of altruism?

Ayn Rand, The Fountainhead

[H]istorians have powerful imaginations, which are essential and dangerous.

As Geography without History seemeth a carkasse without motion so History without Geography wandreth as a Vagrant without a certaine habitation.

History:  memories speaking.

Terri Guillemets, 2019, blackout poetry created from Helena Hunting, Inked Armor, 2014, page 253

The historian reports to us, not events themselves, but the impressions they have made on him.

Revolutions are not made: they come. A revolution is as natural as an oak tree. It comes out of the past its foundations are laid far back.

Wendell Phillips, Address, Anti-Slavery Society, 1852

History is stained with the bloody ink of truth — beware historians who whitewash.

If the past has been an obstacle and a burden, knowledge of the past is the safest and the surest emancipation.

History provides neither compensation for suffering nor penalties for wrong.

History studies not just facts and institutions, its real subject is the human spirit.

Fustel de Coulange, La Cité antique, 1864

Real history is a candid shot. The history of textbooks poses for its pictures.

All other forms of history - economic history, social history, psychological history, above all sociology - seem to me history with the history left out.

Too many so-called historians are really 'hysterians' their thinking is more visceral than cerebral. When their duties as citizens clash with their responsibilities as scholars, Clio frequently takes a back seat.

History is principally the inaccurate narration of events which ought not to have happened.

Earnest Albert Hooten, The Twilight of Man

[T]hat is the triumph of history - truth absolute is not at hand the original with which to match the copy does not exist.

Jacques Barzun, Clio and the Doctors

Without philosophy, history seems to me to be deaf and dumb.

Ferdinand Baur, Symbolik und Mythologic

He wrote victories with the national pen.

The past remains integral to us all, individually and collectively. We must concede the ancients their place, as I have argued. But their place is not simply back there in a separate and foreign country it is assimilated in ourselves, and resurrected into an ever-changing present.

David Lowenthal, The Past Is a Foreign Country

For the rubble of history, which is undigested and therefore goes on blindly, does not lie so thickly on the ground as in our own consciousness.

Unlike poetry and music, the art of history is cumulative.

John Clive, Not By Fact Alone

In studying history we are finding out about ourselves, and in the last resort the natural sciences and even mathematics have the same final end.

Vivian Hunter Galbraith, An Introduction to the Study of History

History is the record of what one age finds worthy of note in another.

The entire history of mankind is, in any case, nothing but a prolonged fight to the death for the conquest of universal prestige and absolute power.

Albert Camus, The Rebel

The prime deaths of history star the textbooks like constellations of power.

History is concerned primarily with human phenomena, not with natural and history is doubly human because, as an idea, it is man's creation, challenging him to transcend the limits of information about himself and to discover what he is by finding meaning in what he has done. In short, it is man's commentary on man.

John Barker, The Superhistorians

For me, in fact, the mark of the historic is the nonchalance with which it picks up an individual and deposits him in a trend, like a house playfully moved by a tornado.

Mary McCarthy, On the Contrary

The unrecorded past is none other than our old friend, the tree in the primeval forest which fell without being heard.

Our historic imagination is at best slightly developed. We generalise and idealise the past egregiously. We set up little toys to stand as symbols for centuries and the complicated lives of countless individuals.

John Dewey, Characters and Events

[History is] a tyranny over the souls of the dead - and so the imagination of the living.

The mists remain of the false glory that erupts from history.

Miguel de Unamuno, En Gredos

History is the discipline closest to life and life is rarely free of contradictions.

Karl J. Weintraub, Visions of Culture

History is who we are and why we are the way we are.

History is the myth, the true myth, of man's fall made manifest in time.

The historian amputates reality.

Gaetano Salvemini, Historian and Scientist

History is a jangle of accidents, blunders, surprises and absurdities, and so is our knowledge of it, but if we are to report it at all we must impose some order upon it.

Henry Steele Commanger, The Nature and the Study of History

History is not a pattern-book of fossilized ideologies.

Frederick Maurice Powicke, Three Lectures

History. is a nightmare from which I am trying to awake.

History is but the nail on which the picture hangs.

Alexandre Dumas, Catherine Howard

The future is dark, the present burdensome. Only the past, dead and buried, bears contemplation.

G.R. Elton, The Practice of History

All history becomes subjective in other words there is properly no history, only biography.

Ralph Waldo Emerson, Essays: History

History is the essence of innumerable biographies.

Thomas Carlyle, On History

History only exists, in the final analysis, for God.

Albert Camus, The Rebel

[History is] petrified imagination.

It is the true office of history to represent the events themselves, together with the counsels, and to leave the observations and conclusions thereupon to the liberty and faculty of every man's judgment.

Francis Bacon, Advancement of Learning

[History is a] mixture of error and violence.

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

No less than the tourist, the writer of history profits from maps.

Man simply cannot live as the time-animal and the art-animal that he is, without history.

To many of the modern generations, history, like God, is dead.

[H]istory is the sextant of states which, tossed by wind and current, would be lost in confusion if they could not fix their position.

Allan Nevins, The Gateway to History

No other discipline has its portals so wide open to the general public as history.

Johan Huizinga, Men and Ideas

A mind devoid of prepossessions is likely to be devoid of all mental furniture. And the historian who thinks that he can clean his mind as he would a slate with a wet sponge, is ignorant of the simplest facts of mental life.

Allen Johnson, The Historian and Historical Evidence

The theologian may indulge the pleasing task of describing Religion as she descended from Heaven, arrayed in her native purity. A more melancholy duty is imposed on the historian. He must discover the inevitable mixture of error and corruption which she contracted in a long residence upon earth, among a weak and degenerate race of beings.

Edward Gibbon, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire

History attempts to provide society with an artificial collective memory.

Mark M. Krug, History and the Social Sciences

A morsel of genuine history is a thing so rare as to be always valuable.

History, in general, only informs us what bad government is.

History teaches us the mistakes we are going to make.

History is a living whole. If one organ be removed, it is nothing but a lifeless mass.

Frederic Harrison, The Meaning of History

A million thanks to Steve for sharing some of his fantastic collection with me!

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Everything you wanted to know about Kentucky, history, economy people and more - History

Ancient Greece was a civilization that dominated much of the Mediterranean thousands of years ago. At its peak under Alexander the Great, Ancient Greece ruled much of Europe and Western Asia. The Greeks came before the Romans and much of the Roman culture was influenced by the Greeks.

Ancient Greece formed the foundation of much of Western culture today. Everything from government, philosophy, science, mathematics, art, literature, and even sports was impacted by the Ancient Greeks.

The Acropolis of Athens by Salonica84
  1. Archaic Period - This period ran from the start of Greek civilization in 800 BC to the introduction of Democracy in 508 BC. This period included the start of the Olympic Games and Homer's writing of the Odyssey and the Illiad.
  2. Classical Period - This is the time that most of us think of when we think of Ancient Greece. Athens was governed by a democracy and great philosophers like Socrates and Plato arose. Also, the wars between Sparta and Athens were during this time. This period ended with the rise and then death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC.
  3. Hellenistic Period - The Hellenistic period lasted from the death of Alexander the Great until 31 BC when Rome defeated Egypt at the Battle of Actium. The name Hellenistic comes from the Greek word "Hellas", which is the original word for Greece.

Athens and Sparta were the two main city states that ruled much of ancient Greece. They were often rivals and fought each other in the Peloponnesian Wars. At other times they united together in order to protect the Greek lands from invaders. The cultures of the two cities were very different. Sparta was almost entirely focused on war and how to fight, while Athens focused on the arts and learning.


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Slavery, condition in which one human being was owned by another. A slave was considered by law as property, or chattel, and was deprived of most of the rights ordinarily held by free persons.

There is no consensus on what a slave was or on how the institution of slavery should be defined. Nevertheless, there is general agreement among historians, anthropologists, economists, sociologists, and others who study slavery that most of the following characteristics should be present in order to term a person a slave. The slave was a species of property thus, he belonged to someone else. In some societies slaves were considered movable property, in others immovable property, like real estate. They were objects of the law, not its subjects. Thus, like an ox or an ax, the slave was not ordinarily held responsible for what he did. He was not personally liable for torts or contracts. The slave usually had few rights and always fewer than his owner, but there were not many societies in which he had absolutely none. As there are limits in most societies on the extent to which animals may be abused, so there were limits in most societies on how much a slave could be abused. The slave was removed from lines of natal descent. Legally, and often socially, he had no kin. No relatives could stand up for his rights or get vengeance for him. As an “outsider,” “marginal individual,” or “socially dead person” in the society where he was enslaved, his rights to participate in political decision making and other social activities were fewer than those enjoyed by his owner. The product of a slave’s labour could be claimed by someone else, who also frequently had the right to control his physical reproduction.

Slavery was a form of dependent labour performed by a nonfamily member. The slave was deprived of personal liberty and the right to move about geographically as he desired. There were likely to be limits on his capacity to make choices with regard to his occupation and sexual partners as well. Slavery was usually, but not always, involuntary. If not all of these characterizations in their most restrictive forms applied to a slave, the slave regime in that place is likely to be characterized as “mild” if almost all of them did, then it ordinarily would be characterized as “severe.”

Slaves were generated in many ways. Probably the most frequent was capture in war, either by design, as a form of incentive to warriors, or as an accidental by-product, as a way of disposing of enemy troops or civilians. Others were kidnapped on slave-raiding or piracy expeditions. Many slaves were the offspring of slaves. Some people were enslaved as a punishment for crime or debt, others were sold into slavery by their parents, other relatives, or even spouses, sometimes to satisfy debts, sometimes to escape starvation. A variant on the selling of children was the exposure, either real or fictitious, of unwanted children, who were then rescued by others and made slaves. Another source of slavery was self-sale, undertaken sometimes to obtain an elite position, sometimes to escape destitution.

Slavery existed in a large number of past societies whose general characteristics are well known. It was rare among primitive peoples, such as the hunter-gatherer societies, because for slavery to flourish, social differentiation or stratification was essential. Also essential was an economic surplus, for slaves were often consumption goods who themselves had to be maintained rather than productive assets who generated income for their owner. Surplus was also essential in slave systems where the owners expected economic gain from slave ownership.

Ordinarily there had to be a perceived labour shortage, for otherwise it is unlikely that most people would bother to acquire or to keep slaves. Free land, and more generally, open resources, were often a prerequisite for slavery in most cases where there were no open resources, non-slaves could be found who would fulfill the same social functions at lower cost. Last, some centralized governmental institutions willing to enforce slave laws had to exist, or else the property aspects of slavery were likely to be chimerical. Most of these conditions had to be present in order for slavery to exist in a society if they all were, until the abolition movement of the 19th century swept throughout most of the world, it was almost certain that slavery would be present. Although slavery existed almost everywhere, it seems to have been especially important in the development of two of the world’s major civilizations, Western (including ancient Greece and Rome) and Islamic.

There have been two basic types of slavery throughout recorded history. The most common has been what is called household, patriarchal, or domestic slavery. Although domestic slaves occasionally worked outside the household, for example, in haying or harvesting, their primary function was that of menials who served their owners in their homes or wherever else the owners might be, such as in military service. Slaves often were a consumption-oriented status symbol for their owners, who in many societies spent much of their surplus on slaves. Household slaves sometimes merged in varying degrees with the families of their owners, so that boys became adopted sons or women became concubines or wives who gave birth to heirs. Temple slavery, state slavery, and military slavery were relatively rare and distinct from domestic slavery, but in a very broad outline they can be categorized as the household slaves of a temple or the state.

The other major type of slavery was productive slavery. It was relatively infrequent and occurred primarily in Classical Athenian Greece and Rome and in the post-Columbian circum-Caribbean New World. It also was found in 9th-century Iraq, among the Kwakiutl Indians of the American Northwest, and in a few areas of sub-Saharan Africa in the 19th century. Although slaves also were employed in the household, slavery in all of those societies seems to have existed predominantly to produce marketable commodities in mines or on plantations.

A major theoretical issue is the relationship between productive slavery and the status of a society as a slave or a slave-owning society. In a slave society, slaves composed a significant portion (at least 20–30 percent) of the total population, and much of that society’s energies were mobilized toward getting and keeping slaves. In addition the institution of slavery had a significant impact on the society’s institutions, such as the family, and on its social thought, law, and economy. It seems clear that it was quite possible for a slave society to exist without productive slavery the known historical examples were concentrated in Africa and Asia. It is also clear that most of the slave societies have been concentrated in Western (including Greece and Rome) and Islamic civilizations. In a slave-owning society, slaves were present but in smaller numbers, and they were much less the focus of the society’s energies.

Slavery was a species of dependent labour differentiated from other forms primarily by the fact that in any society it was the most degrading and most severe. Slavery was the prototype of a relationship defined by domination and power. But throughout the centuries man has invented other forms of dependent labour besides slavery, including serfdom, indentured labour, and peonage. The term serfdom is much overused, often where it is not appropriate (always as an appellation of opprobrium). In the past a serf usually was an agriculturalist, whereas, depending upon the society, a slave could be employed in almost any occupation. Canonically, serfdom was the dependent condition of much of the western and central European peasantry from the time of the decline of the Roman Empire until the era of the French Revolution. This included a “second enserfment” that swept over central and some of eastern Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries. Russia did not know the “first enserfment” serfdom began there gradually in the mid-15th century, was completed by 1649, and lasted until 1906. Whether the term serfdom appropriately describes the condition of the peasantry in other contexts is a matter of vigorous contention. Be that as it may, the serf was also distinguished from the slave by the fact that he was usually the subject of the law—i.e., he had some rights, whereas the slave, the object of the law, had significantly fewer rights. The serf, moreover, was usually bound to the land (the most significant exception was the Russian serf between about 1700 and 1861), whereas the slave was always bound to his owner i.e., he had to live where his owner told him to, and he often could be sold by his owner at any time. The serf usually owned his means of production (grain, livestock, implements) except the land, whereas the slave owned nothing, often not even the clothes on his back. The serf’s right to marry off his lord’s estate often was restricted, but the master’s interference in his reproductive and family life ordinarily was much less than was the case for the slave. Serfs could be called upon by the state to pay taxes, to perform corvée labour on roads, and to serve in the army, but slaves usually were exempt from all of those obligations.

A person became an indentured servant by borrowing money and then voluntarily agreeing to work off the debt during a specified term. In some societies indentured servants probably differed little from debt slaves (i.e., persons who initially were unable to pay off obligations and thus were forced to work them off at an amount per year specified by law). Debt slaves, however, were regarded as criminals (essentially thieves) and thus liable to harsher treatment. Perhaps as many as half of all the white settlers in North America were indentured servants, who agreed to work for someone (the purchaser of the indenture) upon arrival to pay for their passage. Some indentured servants alleged that they were treated worse than slaves the economic logic of the situation was that slave owners thought of their slaves as a long-term investment whose value would drop if maltreated, whereas the short-term (typically four years) indentured servants could be abused almost to death because their masters had only a brief interest in them. Practices varied, but indenture contracts sometimes specified that the servants were to be set free with a sum of money, sometimes a plot of land, perhaps even a spouse, whereas for manumitted slaves the terms usually depended more on the generosity of the owner.

Peons were either persons forced to work off debts or criminals. Peons, who were the Latin American variant of debt slaves, were forced to work for their creditors to pay off what they owed. They tended to merge with felons because people in both categories were considered criminals, and that was especially true in societies where money fines were the main sanction and form of restitution for crimes. Thus, the felon who could not pay his fine was an insolvent debtor. The debt peon had to work for his creditor, and the labour of the criminal peon was sold by the state to a third party. Peons had even less recourse to the law for bad treatment than did indentured servants, and the terms of manumission for the former typically were less favourable than for the latter.

Private or incognito mode

You don’t have to dress like this to use incognito mode, but you can if you want. IgorVetushko via Depositphotos

For those worrying about privacy, modern browsers allow you to surf in a mode called private or incognito. Simply open a window in private mode, browse as you please, and close it when you’re done. As soon as the window shuts, all the browsing history and stored cookies from that session will automatically disappear. So, if you want to secretly shop for presents on a family computer, incognito mode is a good way to do it without leaving a trace.

However, this mode won’t erase everything you do. If you log on to a site like Facebook or Amazon in incognito mode, those pages will recognize you and record your browsing activity. In other words, your browser won’t remember what you’ve been up to, but any sites you log into will. This means you might see evidence of your private browsing in ads that appear later. And if you download files, private mode won’t wipe them either, though it will clear out your download history.

In most cases, the satisfaction people get from consuming a certain good or service decreases as its supply increases. At some point, the marginal utility of consuming an additional unit may even become negative (i.e. completely unfavorable). This concept is often used by companies to set prices.

Economic growth is necessary to satisfy people’s desire for an ever increasing standard of living, to redistribute wealth, and to advance new technologies. It is measured by the change in GDP, the total value of all final goods and services produced within an economy over a set period of time.

Stuff You Missed in History Class iHeartRadio

Join Holly and Tracy as they bring you the greatest and strangest Stuff You Missed In History Class in this podcast by iHeartRadio.

Behind the Scenes Minis: Lola and Daphne

Tracy and Holly talk about Lola Montez's relationship with the truth and references to her in the show "Dickinson." They also discuss how du Maurier's novel "Rebecca" has often been mischaracterized as a romance.
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Daphne du Maurier became famous thanks to her books and the adaptations they inspired, and her life story is just as intriguing as any of her writing.
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Aside from her relationship with King Ludwig I, Lola Montez is one of those figures whose life is hard to pin down. That’s not because of a lack of documentation, but because that documentation repeats the completely fictional backstory she made up for herself.
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Introducing: Be Anti Racist with Dr. Ibram X. Kendi

Presenting a sneak peek of iHeart and Pushkin’s newest show, Be Antiracist with Ibram X. Kendi. On Be Antiracist, Dr. Kendi discusses policies and practices that sustain injustice in our society, and how we can dismantle racism to build a just, equitable world. Alongside guests like Julián Castro, Jemele Hill, Don Lemon, Heather C. McGhee, and Mariame Kaba, Dr. Kendi ties the past to the present, inviting listeners to consider what an antiracist future might look like, and laying out strategies to achieve one. An antiracist future depends on all of our actions and Be Antiracist will help us understand precisely how to build one.

Watch the video: 7 Facts about Kentucky


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