January 27 day 7 of year 1 - History

January 27 day 7 of year 1 - History

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January 27, 2017 Day 7 of the First Year

10:15AM THE VICE PRESIDENT meets with staff

The White House

12:15PM THE VICE PRESIDENT offers remarks at the March for Life

The National Mall

1:40PM THE VICE PRESIDENT joins THE PRESIDENT to participate in a working luncheon with Theresa May, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom

State Dining Room

3:30PM THE VICE PRESIDENT participates in briefing with THE PRESIDENT and the Joint Chiefs of Staff

Department of Defense, Tank

4:00PM THE VICE PRESIDENT offers remarks and joins THE PRESIDENT to partake in ceremonial swearing-in of the Secretary of Defense, General James Mattis

Department of Defense, Hall of Heroes

4:30PM THE VICE PRESIDENT joins THE PRESIDENT as he signs Executive Orders Order on Immigration

Department of Defense, Hall of Heroes

5:00PM THE VICE PRESIDENT meets with staff

The White House

When we talk about the Holocaust

WATCH: Israelis pause in silence as siren sounds for Holocaust Remembrance Day

Welcome to the 'New High Holy Days of Israel'

Thoughts from the concentration camps

The Holocaust is marked in Israel on the 27th day of the Jewish month of Nisan. This date was reached after much deliberation.

The Holocaust spanned years, from before the start of World War II in 1939 and through to its end in 1945. As Jews and other victims of Nazi brutality were harassed, tortured and murdered on every single day of the year, it was impossible to single out a single date as the "most appropriate" Holocaust Remembrance Day. Also, due to the unprecedented nature of the horror – industrialized genocide – the question arose of how to mark the Holocaust on the chosen day.

The following describes how Israel and other nations went about answering this question in the aftermath of this calamity.

The systematic destruction of Jewish life in Europe became widely known before the war's end, but it was only when the war ended and the death camps were liberated by Allied troops in 1945 that the true dimensions of the calamity became apparent.

In 1947, the Chief Rabbinate of Mandatory Palestine set up a committee to think of possible dates for an annual memorial. This committee thought the date should be related to the annihilation of Warsaw’s Jewish community, which before the war was 500,000 persons strong and the second-largest Jewish community in the world (after New York).

One proposed date was the 8th of Av, because on that date in 1942, the Nazis began sending Warsaw’s Jews to death camps. Another was the date of the Warsaw Ghetto uprising, which began on the eve of Passover in 1943. Both dates were rejected: Av 8 is a day before Tisha B'av, a day of mourning over the destruction of the Temple, and the holiday of Passover was not considered an appropriate time.

In December 1949, the Rabbinate decreed that Holocaust Remembrance Day would be the 10th of Tevet, a day of mourning and fasting commemorating the beginning of the siege of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylonia in the 6th century BCE.

The first Holocaust Remembrance Day

The first Holocaust Remembrance Day took place on December 28th, 1949, a year-and-a-half after Israel's independence. The ashes and bones of thousands of Jews were brought over from the Flossenbürg Concentration Camp near Munich. They were placed in a crypt, together with decorated Torah scrolls, in a Jerusalem cemetery. A rabbi appointed by the Rabbinate presided over the religious ceremony. The public was invited to an overnight vigil at the crypt and in the morning a prayer service and Talmudic study session were held in honor of the victims.

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That evening, a special radio program on the Holocaust was broadcast at 9:30 P.M.

The following year, in December 1950, some 70 ceremonies were held around the country. The events were organized by the Rabbinate, organizations of former European Jewish communities and the Israeli Defense Forces. They mostly took the form of funerals, in which artifacts and the ashes and bones of the dead brought over from Europe were interred. The Israeli parliament, the Knesset, did not have a special ceremony.

But in March 1951, the Knesset decided to take an active role, and set about choosing a new date for Holocaust Remembrance Day. Three were proposed: again 10 Tevet Passover and September 1, the date the war broke out on.

In April the Knesset approved the 27th of Nissan, a week after Passover. It remains the date until today.

The 10th of Tevet: A date to honor loved ones whose date of death is unknown

Nonetheless, the Rabbinate instructed people to continue observing the 10th of Tevet as a memorial day for Holocaust victims whose date of death is unknown. Though over the years the association of this day with the Holocaust diminished, it is still observed in that way.

Thus on Nissan 27, which in 1951 worked out to be May 3 (the Jewish and Gregorian calendars do not coincide), a Holocaust Remembrance Day took shape as a more official, and less religious, ceremony.

The main event remained at the Holocaust Crypt on Mount Zion, but in addition to the religious services, Zionist leaders gave speeches. The Israel Post Office issued a special commemorative envelope and a bronze statue of Mordechai Anielewicz, the leader of the Warsaw Ghetto revolt, was unveiled in Yad Mordechai, a kibbutz named for the hero. The Israeli government also held a Holocaust Memorial Day ceremony in New York.

The following year the events included planting a memorial forest and lighting six beacons in memory of the six million Jews killed by the Nazis. The beacons have become a regular feature of Holocaust Memorial Day.

Yad Vashem is established

In 1953, the Knesset passed a law creating Yad Vashem, the official Israeli memorial institution for the Holocaust victims. On that year’s Holocaust Remembrance Day, schools were instructed, for the first time, to discuss the subject with their pupils.

In 1955 Yad Vashem began documenting the victims of the Holocaust. Israel's entire leadership - the government, judges, parliamentarians and other dignitaries – took part in that year's memorial event, in the memorial forest planted outside Jerusalem.

In 1959, the Knesset passed a law officially establishing Holocaust Memorial Day in law and sanctioning official ceremonies throughout the country as well as a two-minute moment of silence, indicated by sirens.

Since 1959, non-solemn entertainment has been banned in theaters and movie theaters on the 27th of Nissan (in the Jewish sense of the day - meaning, from sundown the day before to sundown on the actual day). From that year on, flags were lowered to half-mast. Another innovation added in 1959 was a WWII veteran parade in Tel Aviv, a tradition that didn’t last. Also, schools began holding ceremonies.

In 1961 the Knesset amended the law, to close down cafes, restaurants and clubs on the 27th of Nissan.

On the Holocaust Remembrance Day of that year, New York Governor Nelson Rockefeller announced that from then on April 19 would be Warsaw Ghetto Remembrance Day in the State of New York.

A noteworthy event happened on the Holocaust Remembrance Day of 1966, which saw protests against the establishment of diplomatic relations with Germany a year earlier.

In 1971, Israeli television began broadcasting special programming for Holocaust Remembrance Day. Today, most channels don’t broadcast on Holocaust Remembrance Day and those few that stay on air, show only Holocaust-related programming.

On November 1, 1978 President Jimmy Carter signed an executive order making April 28 and 29 official “Days of Remembrance of Victims of the Holocaust.” The date was chosen as the date in which U.S. troops liberated the Dachau Concentration Camp in 1945. The first of these days of remembrance was held in 1979 in a ceremony at the Capitol Rotunda, led by Carter.

Marking the Holocaust in the United States, France and Germany

That autumn, a presidential commission called for an establishment of a United States Holocaust Memorial Council, which was to oversee the observation of a Holocaust Remembrance Day in each of the 50 states and establish a national memorial in Washington DC. The United States Holocaust Memorial Council was established in 1980. Since then the eight Days of Remembrance of Victims of the Holocaust are set from the Sunday before the Israeli Holocaust Remembrance Day.

The first national memorial held under this new council took place in the White House on April 30, 1981, with President Ronald Reagan making his first public appearance following a recent assassination attempt.

In 1981, the Knesset amended the law to push Holocaust Remembrance Day back or forward a day if it fell on the weekend.

Since 1988, on Holocaust Remembrance Day, people from around the world have participated in "The March of the Living" from Auschwitz to Birkenau, in Poland.

In 1993, French President François Mitterrand proclaimed July 16 as a national day of remembrance for the Jewish victims of the pro-Nazi Vichy government. July 16 was chosen as on that date in 1943 the French police and gendarmerie rounded up the Jews of Paris and its suburbs and deported them to the Nazi death camps, where most of them perished.

Since 1996, Germany has observed January 27 as Tag des Gedenkens an die Opfer des Nationalsozialismus (“Day of Remembrance of the Victims of National Socialism.”) January 27 was chosen as it is the anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz-Birkenau by the Red Army in 1945. The day is marked by a ceremony at the German parliament and cultural events around the country.

Sweden observes its Holocaust memorial day - Förintelsens minnesdag - on January 27th too. The Swedes first began holding an annual memorial for the victims of the Holocaust in 1999.

In 2001, January 27 became Holocaust Remembrance Day in the United Kingdom. Greece followed suit in 2004.

That same year, Romania began holding its National Day of Commemorating the Holocaust, but decided to do so on October 9th, a date chosen because on that date Romanian Jewry began to be deported to death camps in 1942.

In 2005 the United Nations General Assembly passed Resolution 60/7, marking January 27 as International Holocaust Remembrance Day. The European Union adopted January 27 as its official Holocaust Remembrance Day that same year as did Italy and the Czech Republic.

In 2004 Israel officially made January 27th its official Day of Struggle against Anti-Semitism. Holocaust Remembrance Day continues to be celebrated on Nisan 27th, which this year is from Sunday evening to Monday evening.

January 27 day 7 of year 1 - History

On 8 May 1945 a State commission compiled by the Soviets with advice from Polish, French and Czechoslovak experts revealed the full horror of conditions at the camp.

Nearly 3,000 survivors of various nationalities were questioned and on the basis of their evidence the report estimated 4,000,000 people had perished there between 1941 and early 1945.

The dead included citizens from the Soviet Union, Poland, France, Belgium, Holland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Hungary, Italy and Greece.

The commission, which had previously investigated conditions at Majdanek, Treblinka and other camps, described Auschwitz as the worst in its experience.

It found evidence of experiments carried out on humans "of a revolting character".

According to the evidence, the commission said the Germans had moved out up to 60,000 inmates - those still fit enough to walk - when they retreated. The few thousand who were left behind were freed by the Russians.

They also found seven tons of women's hair, human teeth, from which gold fillings had been extracted and tens of thousands of children's outfits.

The final death toll was later revised downwards, by the Auschwitz Museum, to between 1 and 1.5 million, including almost 1m Jews.

Vietnam War formally ends: This Day in History

On this day in history, in 1973, the United States, South Vietnam, the Viet Cong and North Vietnam signed the Paris Peace Accords, which formally brought an end to the Vietnam War.

The Paris Peace Accords, or “An Agreement Ending the War and Restoring Peace in Vietnam,” brought an end to direct U.S. involvement in the war.

Representatives from the four factions of the Vietnam War meet in Paris to sign a peace agreement. (Getty Images)

By that time, the United States had been waging war in Vietnam for more than a decade, having ramped up operations in 1965.

To appease South Vietnam, who was unwilling to recognize the Viet Cong as a legitimate partner in negotiating the terms of a cease-fire, references to it were omitted from the signing document.

The agreement established a cease-fire throughout Vietnam, and the United States agreed to remove all of its troops and advisors (totaling nearly 24,000) and dismantle its bases within two months. The North, in turn, agreed to release U.S. troops and other prisoners of war.

The following month, in what became known as “Operation Homecoming," North Vietnam returned more than 590 American prisoners of war, including future Sen. John McCain, R-Ariz.

In January 1975, President Gerald R. Ford, who became president following Richard Nixon’s resignation over the Watergate scandal, ruled out any further U.S. military involvement in Vietnam.

Four months later, communist forests seized South Vietnam’s capital, Saigon, and the government surrendered. The U.S. Marines and Air Force transported more than 1,000 American civilians and nearly 7,000 South Vietnamese refugees out of Saigon in a mass-evacuation effort.

In the summer of 1976, the North and South unified as the Socialist Republic of Vietnam under communist rule that continues today.

By the end, 58,000 U.S. service members were killed in the Vietnam War, including more than 1,200 in Cambodia and Laos.

Estimates of the number of Vietnamese killed range from about 2 million to nearly twice that number. The Vietnamese regarded the war as a continuation of their fight for independence from French colonial masters, and it was quickly followed by a border war with China in 1979.

January 2021 Monthly Holidays

January 2021 Weekly Holidays

January 2021 Daily Holidays

*Copyright Law Day: 1
*Commitment Day: 1 Link
*Ellis Island Day: 1
*Euro Day: 1
*First Foot Day: 1 Link
*Global Family Day: 1 Link
*Humane Day: 1 Link
*Mummer's Parade: 1 Cancelled
*New Years Day: 1
*New Year's Dishonor List Day: 1
*Polar Bear Plunge or Swim Day: 1 Link (Cony Island NY & Vancouver, BC) Cancelled
*Public Domain Day: 1 Link
Rose Bowl Game: 1 (Virtual)
St. Basil's Day: 1
Tournament of Roses Parade Day: 1 Cancelled for live public. TV only.
*World Day of Peace: 1 Link
*Z Day: 1

*55-MPH Speed Limit Day: 2
Earth at Perihelion Day: 2
*Happy Mew Year for Cats Day: 2
*National Buffet Day: 2 Link
*National Motivation and Inspiration Day: 2 Link
*National Personal Trainer Awareness Day: 2
*National Science Fiction Day: 2 Link
National Play Outside Day: 2 Link (First Saturday)
*Pet Travel and Safety Day: 2
*World Introvert Day: 2 Link

*Drinking Straw Day: 3
*Festival of Sleep Day: 3 Link
*J.R.R. Tolkien Day: 3
*Memento Mori "Remember You Die" Day: 3
*National Chocolate Covered Cherry Day: 3 Link
No Pants Subway Ride Day: 3 Link (First Sunday) Cancelled

Blue Monday: 4 (First Monday of the Year. But It Can't Fall on New Years Day.) NOTE: Some say it's the 3rd Monday.
Congress Assembles: 4 (Unless on weekend, then following Monday)
*Dimpled Chad Day: 4
Divorce Monday: 4 Link (First Monday of year which is when most feel that divorces are filed.
Handsel Day: 4 Link (First Monday)
National Weigh-In Day: 4 (Always First Monday after New Years)
*Pop Music Chart Day: 4
"Thank God It's Monday" Day: 4 (First Workday Monday. Holidays don't count.)
*Tom Thumb Day: 4
*Trivia Day: 4
*World Braille Day: 4 Link
*World Hypnotism Day: 4 Link

*Bird Day: 5 Link
Earth at Perihelion: 5
Golden Globes: 5
*Kappa Alpha Psi Day: 5

*National Keto Day: 5 Link
*National Screenwriters Day: 5 Link
*Monopoly Game Day: 5 Link (See also Feb. 6)
*Twelfth Night: 5
*Whipped Cream Day: 5 Link

*Armenian Christmas: 6
*Epiphany: 6
*National Shortbread Day: 6 Link
*National Technology Day: 6 Link

*Three Kings Day: 6

*Harlem Globetrotter's Day: 7
I Am A Mentor Day: 7 Link
*I'm Not Going To Take It Anymore Day: 7
*International Programmers' Day: 7 Link (Also Sept. 13 aka the 256th day of the year. Or Sept. 12 if it's Leap Year)
*Old Rock Day: 7 Link
*Orthodox Christmas: 7
*National Bobblehead Day: 7 Link
*National Tempura Day: 7 Link

*Argyle Day: 8
*Bubble Bath Day: 8 Link
*Earth's Rotation Day: 8
I Am A Mentor Day: 8 Link
*National English Toffee Day: 8 Link
*Midwife's Day or Women's Day: 8
*National Joy Germ Day: 8
*National Winter Skin Relief Day: 8 Link
*Show and Tell Day at Work: 8
*War on Poverty Day: 8

*Balloon Ascension Day: 9 Link
Eagle Day: 9 (2nd Saturday)
*Law Enforcement Appreciation Day: 9 Link Link
*National Cassoulet Day: 9
*National Static Electricity Day: 9 Link
National Vision Board Day: 9 (2nd Saturday)
*Panama's Martyr Day: 9 Link
*Phi Beta Sigma Day: 9

*League of Nations Day: 10
*National Cut Your Energy Costs Day: 10
*National Oysters Rockerfeller Day: 10 Link
National Sunday Supper Day: 10 Link (2nd Sunday)

*Cigarettes Are Hazardous To Your Health Day: 11
*Learn Your Name in Morse Code Day: 11 Link
National Clean Off Your Desk Day: 11 (2nd Monday)
*National Human Trafficking Awareness Day: 11 Link
Plough Monday: 11 Link (First Monday After Jan. 6)

Asarah B'Tevet: 12-14
*Kiss A Ginger Day: 12 Link (Red Heads)
*National Hot Tea Day: 12
National Poetry at Work Day: 12 (2nd Tuesday)
National Shop For Travel Day: 12 (2nd Tuesday) Link

*Delta Sigma Theta Day: 13
*Korean American Day: 13 Link
*Make Your Dream Come True Day: 13 Link
*National Sticker Day: 13 Link
*Public Radio Broadcasting Day: 13
*Rubber Ducky Day: 13 (According to a 1973 Calendar, this is Rubber Ducky's Birthday. But, others say it's February 25, the date Rubber Ducky first appeared on Sesame Street. I also have it
below on Jan. 28 for Ernie's birthday. It's boggling.)
* Stephen Foster Day: 13

*Caesarean Section Day: 14
*Dress Up Your Pet Day: 14 Link
*International Kite Day: 14
*Organize Your Home Day: 14 Link
*Ratification Day: 14
*World Logic Day: 14

*Alpha Kappa Alpha Day: 15
Bean Day: 15-16 ? Link
*Humanitarian Day: 15 (Martin Luther King Jr.'s Birthday. Started in 2009
by a committee for King Days of Respect. Different than World Humanitarian Day in August.) International Fetish Day: 15 (3rd Friday)
*National Bagel Day: 15 Link (Note: Bagelfest Day is July 26)
*National Booch Day: 15 Link

*National Hat Day: 15
*Thank Your Mentor Day: 15 Link

*Appreciate A Dragon Day: 16
Bald Eagle Appreciation Days: 16-17
*Civil Service Day: 16
*Fig Newton Day: 16 Link Link
*National Nothing Day: 16
*National Quinoa Day: 16
National Use Your Gift Card Day: 16 (3rd Saturday) Link
*Religious Freedom Day: 16 Link
*Without A Scalpel Day: 16 Link Link
*Zeta Phi Beta Day: 16

*Cable Car Day: 17
*Hot Heads Chili Days: 17-18
*International Mentoring Day: 17 Link (Muhammad Ali's birthday)
*Judgment Day: 17
*Kid Inventors' Day: 17
*National Bootleggers Day: 17 Link
National Sanctity of Human Life Day (or Pro-Life Day): 17 (3rd Sunday) Link
*Popeye Day: 17
World Religion Day: 17 Link (3rd Sunday)
World Snow Day: 17 Link (3rd Sunday)

Martin Luther King Day: 18 (3rd Monday)
National Crowd Feed Day: 18
(Always on Martin Luther King Day)
National Day of Service: 18 Link (3rd Monday)
*National Disc Jockey Day: 18 Link or Link (Go to 1958)
*Pooh (Winnie The) Day: 18
Rid The World of Fad Diets and Gimmicks Day: 18 (3rd Monday)
Robert E. Lee Day: 18 Link (3rd Monday)
*Thesaurus Day: 18 Link

*Popcorn Day: 19 Link (Alternate date: Super Bowl Sunday)
*Tin Can Day: 19
*World Day of Migrants and Refugees: 19
*World Quark Day: 19 Link

Bodhi Day (Rohatsu) : 20 [Observed] (See also Dec. 8)
*Camcorder Day: 20
*Inauguration Day: 20
*National Cheese Lovers Day: 20 Link Link
*Penguin Awareness Day: 20 Link

Get to Know Your Customers Day: 21 ( January 21, April 15, July 15 and October 21 = 3rd Thurs. of Each Quarter)
*International Sweatpants Day: 21
*National Cheesy Socks Day: 21

*National Hugging Day: 21 Link (also May 27) Cancelled
*National Hug Your Puppy Day: 21
Women's Healthy Weight Day: 21 ( Thursday of 3rd Full Week aka Healthy Weight Week)

*Answer Your Cat's Questions Day: 22
*Roe vs. Wade Day: 22

Eagle Day: 23
Local Quilt Shop Day: 23 (4th Saturday)
*National Handwriting Day: 23 Link
*National Pie Day: 23 Link Link (Not to be confused with Pi Day on March 14)
*Paul Pitcher Day: 23 Link
*Snowplow Mailbox Hockey Day: 23

*Beer Can Day: 24 Link Link
*Belly Laugh Day: 24
Celebration of Life Day: 24 (Sunday of Last Full Wk.)
*International Day of Education: 24
International Mobile Phone Recycling Day: 24 Link (Moved from December)
National Bible Sunday: 24 (4th Sunday)
*National Compliment Day: 24
*National Peanut Butter Day: 24 Link
*Talk Like A Grizzled Prospector Day: 24 Link
*World Day for African and Afrodescendant Culture: 24

*A Room of One's Own Day: 25
Bubble Wrap Appreciation Day: 25 (Always Last Monday) Link
*Macintosh Computer Day: 25 Link
(Note: On Jan. 22, 1984 in a Super Bowl ad the Macintosh got introduced. Steve Jobs then presented it to the world on Jan. 24, 1984 and it went on saleto the public the next day on Jan. 25, 1984. There is a big 30th Anniversary event on Jan. 25, 2014. Since Apple considers Jan. 25 the anniversary day for celebration, this is why I am listing it on the 25th also and not the other dates. )
*National Irish Coffee Day: 25 (Also observed on March 17)
*Opposite Day: 25 Link
*Robert Burns Day: 25 Link Link

*Dental Drill Appreciation Day: 26
*Lotus 1-2-3 Day: 26
*National Green Juice Day: 26 Link
*National Peanut Brittle Day: 26 Link
National Plan For A Vacation Day: 26 Link (Last Tuesday)
*Toad Hollow Day of Encouragement: 26

*Auschwitz Liberation Day: 27
*Holocaust Memorial Day: 27
*International Day of Commemoration in Memory of the Victims of the Holocaust: 27 Link
Library Shelfie Day: 27 Link (4th Wednesday)
*National Geographic Day: 27
*Thomas Crapper Day: 27
Tu B'Shavat: 27 (sundown)
*Viet Nam Peace Day: 27

*Data Privacy Day: 28 Link Link
*National Kazoo Day: 28 Link
*National Pediatrician Day: 28
*Rubber Ducky Day: 28 Link Link (Also here due to Sesame Street saying it's on the 28th. Because the general belief is that this is on Ernie's birthday. So, there are 3 dates for this. Rather boggling.)
*Thank A Plugin Developer Day: 28 Link

*Curmudgeons Day: 29
Fun at Work Day: 29 (Last Friday)
*Freethinkers Day: 29
National Big Wig Day: 29 Link (Last Friday)
National Pre-school Fitness Day: 29 (Last Friday) Link
*National Puzzle Day: 29
*Seeing Eye Dog Day: 29
Thank Your Mentor Day: 29 Link
*Thomas Paine Day: 29

A.F.R.M.A. Fancy Rat & Mouse Day: 30 ?
*Croissant Day: 30 Link
Fruitcake Toss Day: 30 Link (Last Saturday)
*Inane Answering Message Day: 30
National Seed Swap Day: 30 (Last Saturday)

*Appreciate Your Social Security Check Day: 31
Grammy Awards: 31
*Inspire Your Heart with Art Day: 31
*Street Children Day: 31 Link Link (Note: Different than one on April 12)
World Leprosy Day: 31 (Last Sunday)

Record Weekend

The chart below contains the top 10 movies based on domestic revenue recorded on a weekend where Friday, Saturday or Sunday was January 7.

Year Title Weekend Domestic
Box Office
2018 Jumanji: Welcome to the Jungle $37,233,653 $404,508,916
2012 The Devil Inside $33,732,515 $53,262,945
2018 Insidious: The Last Key $29,581,355 $67,745,330
2005 Meet the Fockers $28,498,160 $279,167,575
2005 White Noise $24,113,565 $56,094,360
2007 Night at the Museum $23,743,960 $250,863,268
2018 Star Wars Ep. VIII: The Last Jedi $23,728,944 $620,181,382
2017 Hidden Figures $22,800,057 $169,607,287
2001 Cast Away $22,220,725 $233,632,142
2017 Rogue One: A Star Wars Story $22,063,570 $532,177,324

Resource Center

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Date1 mo2 mo3 mo6 mo1 yr2 yr3 yr5 yr7 yr10 yr20 yr30 yr

* The 2-month constant maturity series begins on October 16, 2018, with the first auction of the 8-week Treasury bill.

30-year Treasury constant maturity series was discontinued on February 18, 2002 and reintroduced on February 9, 2006. From February 18, 2002 to February 8, 2006, Treasury published alternatives to a 30-year rate. See Long-Term Average Rate for more information.

Treasury discontinued the 20-year constant maturity series at the end of calendar year 1986 and reinstated that series on October 1, 1993. As a result, there are no 20-year rates available for the time period January 1, 1987 through September 30, 1993.

Treasury Yield Curve Rates: These rates are commonly referred to as "Constant Maturity Treasury" rates, or CMTs. Yields are interpolated by the Treasury from the daily yield curve. This curve, which relates the yield on a security to its time to maturity is based on the closing market bid yields on actively traded Treasury securities in the over-the-counter market. These market yields are calculated from composites of indicative, bid-side market quotations (not actual transactions) obtained by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York at or near 3:30 PM each trading day. The CMT yield values are read from the yield curve at fixed maturities, currently 1, 2, 3 and 6 months and 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 20, and 30 years. This method provides a yield for a 10 year maturity, for example, even if no outstanding security has exactly 10 years remaining to maturity.

Treasury Yield Curve Methodology: The Treasury yield curve is estimated daily using a cubic spline model. Inputs to the model are primarily indicative bid-side yields for on-the-run Treasury securities. Treasury reserves the option to make changes to the yield curve as appropriate and in its sole discretion. See our Treasury Yield Curve Methodology page for details.

Negative Yields and Nominal Constant Maturity Treasury Series Rates (CMTs): At times, financial market conditions, in conjunction with extraordinary low levels of interest rates, may result in negative yields for some Treasury securities trading in the secondary market. Negative yields for Treasury securities most often reflect highly technical factors in Treasury markets related to the cash and repurchase agreement markets, and are at times unrelated to the time value of money.

At such times, Treasury will restrict the use of negative input yields for securities used in deriving interest rates for the Treasury nominal Constant Maturity Treasury series (CMTs). Any CMT input points with negative yields will be reset to zero percent prior to use as inputs in the CMT derivation. This decision is consistent with Treasury not accepting negative yields in Treasury nominal security auctions.

In addition, given that CMTs are used in many statutorily and regulatory determined loan and credit programs as well as for setting interest rates on non-marketable government securities, establishing a floor of zero more accurately reflects borrowing costs related to various programs.

Important Days InJune

Check out the list of National and International Days of June given below:

List of Important Days (June)
4 June International Day of Innocent Children Victims of Aggression
5 June World Environment Day
7 June International level crossing awareness day
8 June World ocean day
12 June World day against Child Labour
14 June World blood donor day
17 June World day to combat desertification and drought
20 June World Refugee day
21st June (3rd Sunday) Father’s Day
21 June World Music Day, International Yoga Day
23 June United Nation’s public service day
23 June International Widow’s day
26 June International Day against Drug abuse & Illicit Trafficking

How to Observe International Holocaust Remembrance Day

Visit a Holocaust Museum

Holocaust Museums are located throughout the world with several in the U.S. The United States Holocaust Museum is located in the National Mall in Washington D.C.

Donate to a Holocaust Museum

Museums of any kind are valuable parts of any society. Supporting Holocaust Museum with donations helps ensure their important information stays available to all.

Help a Holocaust Survivor

According to The Blue Card, a nonprofit organization for survivors, one third of the 100,000 survivors in the US live below the poverty line. Any survivor will be elderly and needing help. Give someone a hand and buy them some groceries or fix their fence. Show then the kindness they never knew before.

Antarctica, a vast, elevated, snow-covered continent at the South Pole is one of the most favorable regions in the world for extremely low temperatures. Several stations there now have records dating back through 1957. A new world-record low temperature was observed at�.6ଏ and was recorded at Vostok (Russian station) on July 21,1983. At the Amundsen-Scott station (elevation 9,186 ft), located on a snow plain within a few hundred yards of the geographical South Pole, the average annual temperature from 1957 to 1964 was�ଏ. For July, the average maximum temperature was�ଏ, the minimum�ଏ and for January, these values were�ଏ and�ଏ, respectively. The average temperature at Vostok for the two-year period 1958� was�ଏ. Even colder locations may exist on the continent.

Other regions favorable for unusually low winter extremes include Greenland, a high snow-covered area located mostly in the north polar regions and north central Siberia, part of a great land mass at high latitudes. Minima of�ଏ (Verhoyansk�.7ଏ, February 5 and 7, 1892 and Oimekon�.9ଏ, February 6, 1933) in the latter region stood as the world's lowest temperatures prior to observations in Antarctica. The lowest temperature on the Greenland Icecap,�.8ଏ was observed at Northice January 9,1954. Canada's lowest temperature,�ଏ, was observed at Snag, Yukon Territory, near the border of Alaska at an altitude of 2,120 ft on February 3, 1947.

In the United States, the lowest temperature on record,�.8ଏ, was recorded on January 23, 1971, at Prospect Creek Camp, which is located in the Endicott Mountains of Northern Alaska at latitude 66° 48′N, longitude 150° 40′W. The lowest temperature in the contiguous 48 states,�.7ଏ, occurred on January 20, 1954, at Rogers Pass, in Lewis and Clark County, Montana. This location is in mountainous and heavily forested terrain, about 0.5 mi east of and 140 ft below the summit of the Continental Divide.

The lowest average annual temperature recorded in the United States is 9.4ଏ at Barrow, Alaska, which lies on the Arctic coast. Barrow also has the coolest summers (June, July, August) with an average of 41.9ଏ. The lowest average winter (December, January, February) temperature is�.1ଏ at Barter Island on the Arctic coast of northeast Alaska. In Hawaii, average annual temperatures range from 44ଏ at Mauna Loa Slope Observatory (elevation 11,146 ft) on the island of Hawaii to 77.2ଏ at Honolulu on the island of Oahu.

In the contiguous 48 states, Mt. Washington, New Hampshire (elevation 6,262 ft) has the lowest mean annual temperature, 26.5ଏ, and the lowest mean summer (June, July, August) temperature, 51.6ଏ. A few stations in the Northeast and upper Rockies have mean annuals in the high 30s, and at the same stations in the latter area, summers may average in the high 40s. Winter (December, January, February) mean temperature are lowest in northeastern North Dakota where the average is 5.9ଏ at the Langdon Experiment Farm and northwestern Minnesota where the average is 6.1ଏ at Hallock.

In continental areas of the temperate zone, 40�ଏ temperature falls in a few hours caused by advection of cold air masses are not uncommon. Sometimes, following these large drops due to advection, radiation may cause a further temperature fall resulting in remarkable changes. Some outstanding extreme temperature falls are:

24 hours: 100ଏ, Browning, MT, Jan. 23�, 1916, from 44ଏ to�ଏ.

12 hours: 84ଏ, Fairfield, MT, Dec. 24, 1924, from 63ଏ at noon to�ଏ at midnight.

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