Results of the New Mexico Primary February 4, 2008 - History

Results of the New Mexico Primary February 4, 2008 - History

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The NM Political Report - New Mexico's best political reporting. Period.

On May 18, a judge overseeing the historic Yazzie-Martinez case ordered the New Mexico Public Education Department to take stock of the massive digital divide in the state and finally identify the roughly 76,000 students who lacked Internet connections they desperately needed for school.

One of PED’s responses was to create a Google survey for students and staff to fill out online, an action that left advocates and school leaders mystified. “It doesn’t make sense for a lot of different reasons — most of all because people who don’t have internet aren’t going to fill out an online survey,” pointed out Michael Noll, community schools coordinator at Peñasco Independent School District, whose students are among the plaintiffs in the suit. The survey is just the latest back-and-forth in a seemingly endless seven-year legal battle over inequitable education in New Mexico, where vulnerable students receive such an inadequate education that they’re in danger of being irreparably harmed, the First Judicial District Court found in 2108. The court has retained jurisdiction over the Yazzie-Martinez case ever since, to make sure the state implements a litany of comprehensive, mandated reforms.

Three years later, the state has barely made any progress, critics argue.

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TCR Key Provisions

To comply with the monthly MCL for total coliforms (TC), PWSs must not find coliforms in more than five percent of the samples they take each month to meet EPA’s standards. If more than five percent of the samples contain coliforms, PWS operators must report this violation to the state and the public.

If a sample tests positive for TC, the system must collect a set of repeat samples located within 5 or fewer sampling sites adjacent to the location of the routine positive sample within 24 hours.

When a routine or repeat sample tests positive for total coliforms, it must also be analyzed for fecal coliforms or E. coli, which are types of coliform bacteria that are directly associated with fresh feces. A positive result for fecal coliforms or E. coli can signify an acute MCL violation, which necessitates rapid state and public notification because it represents a direct health risk.

At times, an acute violation due to the presence of fecal coliform or E. coli may result in a “boil water” notice. The system must also take at least 5 routine samples the next month of operation if any sample tests positive for total coliforms.

Provision Category

Key Provisions

Contaminant Level

  • Addresses the presence of total coliforms and E. coli in drinking water.
  • For E. coli (EC), the Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG) is set at zero. The Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) is based on the occurrence of a condition that includes routine and repeat samples.
  • For total coliforms (TC), PWSs must conduct a Level 1 or Level 2 assessment of their system when they exceed a specified frequency of total coliform occurrences.
  • An MCL violation or failure to take repeat samples following a routine total coliform-positive sample will trigger a Level 1 or Level 2 assessment.
  • Any sanitary defect identified during a Level 1 or Level 2 assessment must be corrected by the PWS. These are the treatment technique requirements of the RTCR.
  • Develop and follow a sample siting plan that designates the PWS's collection schedule. This includes location of routine and repeat water samples.
  • Collect routine water samples on a regular basis (monthly, quarterly, annually). Have samples tested for the presence of total coliforms by a state certified laboratory.
  • Analyze all routine or repeat samples that are total coliform positive (TC+) for E. coli.
  • Collect repeat samples (at least 3) for each TC+ positive routine sample.
  • For PWSs on quarterly or annual routine sampling, collect additional routine samples (at least 3) in the month after a TC+ routine or repeat sample.
  • Seasonal systems must monitor and certify the completion of a state-approved start-up procedures.

Level 1 and Level 2 Assessments and Corrective Actions

  • PWSs are required to conduct a Level 1 or Level 2 assessment if conditions indicate they might be vulnerable to contamination. PWSs must fix any sanitary defects within a required timeframe.

Reporting and Recordkeeping

  • PWSs are required to report certain items to their states. These reporting and recordkeeping requirements are essentially the same as under TCR. The addition to the Requirements is the Level 1 and Level 2 requirements.

Violations, Public Notification (PN) and Consumer Confidence Report (CCR)

Additional Background Information

With the defeat of its army and the fall of the capital, Mexico City, in September 1847 the Mexican government surrendered to the United States and entered into negotiations to end the war. The peace talks were negotiated by Nicholas Trist, chief clerk of the State Department, who had accompanied General Winfield Scott as a diplomat and President Polk's representative. Trist and General Scott, after two previous unsuccessful attempts to negotiate a treaty with Santa Anna, determined that the only way to deal with Mexico was as a conquered enemy. Nicholas Trist negotiated with a special commission representing the collapsed government led by Don Bernardo Couto, Don Miguel Atristain, and Don Luis Gonzaga Cuevas of Mexico.

President Polk had recalled Trist under the belief that negotiations would be carried out with a Mexican delegation in Washington. In the six weeks it took to deliver Polk's message, Trist had received word that the Mexican government had named its special commission to negotiate. Against the president's recall, Trist determined that Washington did not understand the situation in Mexico and negotiated the peace treaty in defiance of the president. In a December 4, 1847, letter to his wife, he wrote, "Knowing it to be the very last chance and impressed with the dreadful consequences to our country which cannot fail to attend the loss of that chance, I decided today at noon to attempt to make a treaty the decision is altogether my own."

Ignoring the president's recall command with the full knowledge that his defiance would cost him his career, Trist chose to adhere to his own principles and negotiate a treaty in violation of his instructions. His stand made him briefly a very controversial figure in the United States.

Under the terms of the treaty negotiated by Trist, Mexico ceded to the United States Upper California and New Mexico. This was known as the Mexican Cession and included present-day Arizona and New Mexico and parts of Utah, Nevada, and Colorado (see Article V of the treaty). Mexico relinquished all claims to Texas and recognized the Rio Grande as the southern boundary with the United States (see Article V).

The United States paid Mexico $15,000,000 "in consideration of the extension acquired by the boundaries of the United States" (see Article XII of the treaty) and agreed to pay American citizens debts owed to them by the Mexican government (see Article XV). Other provisions included protection of property and civil rights of Mexican nationals living within the new boundaries of the United States (see Articles VIII and IX), the promise of the United States to police its boundaries (see Article XI), and compulsory arbitration of future disputes between the two countries (see Article XXI).

Trist sent a copy to Washington by the fastest means available, forcing Polk to decide whether or not to repudiate the highly satisfactory handiwork of his discredited subordinate. Polk chose to forward the treaty to the Senate. When the Senate reluctantly ratified the treaty (by a vote of 34 to 14) on March 10, 1848, it deleted Article X guaranteeing the protection of Mexican land grants. Following the ratification, U.S. troops were removed from the Mexican capital.

To carry the treaty into effect, commissioner Colonel Jon Weller and surveyor Andrew Grey were appointed by the U.S. Government, and General Pedro Conde and Sr. Jose Illarregui were appointed by the Mexican government, to survey and set the boundary. A subsequent treaty, the Gadsen Purchase, of December 30, 1853, altered the border from the initial one by adding 47 more boundary markers to the original six. Of the 53 markers, the majority were rude piles of stones a few were of durable character with proper inscriptions.

As time passed, it became difficult to determine the exact location of the markers, with both countries claiming the originals had been moved or destroyed. To solve the problem, a convention between the two countries was concluded in the 1880s and a survey was done that verified the need for definite demarcation of the boundary. The International Boundary Commission was created to relocate the monuments and mark the boundary line. The U.S. commissioners employed a survey photographer to record various views of each monument located and erected by the U.S. Section.

This text was adapted from an article written by Tom Gray, a teacher at DeRuyter Central Middle School in DeRuyter, NY.

/> Materials created by the National Archives and Records Administration are in the public domain.

Results of the New Mexico Primary February 4, 2008 - History

Barack Obama 58
John McCain 41

New Mexico is a candidate to be the state with the largest turnaround in its voting pattern relative to 2004. Barack Obama is blowing out John McCain in this place that went red just four years ago.

Obama is doing very well with two key groups of the state's voters. Among independents he has a 66-28 lead, and with Hispanics he's up 62-37.

This may begin to sound like a broken record, but he's also banked a huge lead with those who have already filled out their ballots. 56% of poll respondents reported having done that, and within that group Obama is leading 64-36. He is up by a much more modest 50-47 tally with those who have yet to vote.

We interviewed 1,537 people in New Mexico. 866 of them said they already voted, and 550 of those people said they voted for Obama. That means that if this was an accurate sampling of the population, Obama would need to win the votes of only 219 of the remaining 671 people polled who had not actually filled out their ballot. It seems a good bet that 33% is something they can handle.

Tom Udall is up 58-39 in his Senate bid.


wow this is great! Thank you tom!

Obama's lead is almost as big as Udall's lead, wow I wasn't expecting that, lol.

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Rainy day funds

Overall, states learned a lesson from the 2007-09 downturn, when tax revenue losses far outstripped savings, and they pumped up the total amount set aside in rainy day funds almost every year over the past decade. When the pandemic hit, they had enough money to cover 28.9 days&rsquo worth of operating costs at the end of fiscal 2019 compared with just 17.3 days in fiscal 2007, on the brink of the Great Recession.

However, some states had far more set aside than others to deal with potential revenue downturns, natural disasters, or other emergencies, such as COVID-19. At least 36 states by the start of fiscal 2020 had saved enough to cover a greater share of government operating costs than in the last full budget year before the previous recession.


Article One of the United States Constitution (section II) directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College. The Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every ten years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population estimates and projections. [6]

In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education, transportation and more. [7] The Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, and economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.

The Census Bureau also conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, crime, health, consumer expenditures, and housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial (10-year) population counts. The Census Bureau also conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail, service, and other establishments and of domestic governments.

Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts. [8] The Census Act of 1840 established a central office [9] which became known as the Census Office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses, typically at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, and in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor. The department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. [10]

An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years. [11] In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. [11] In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the U.S. Code. [12]

By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U.S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year.

Census regions and divisions Edit

The United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. [13] The Census Bureau regions are "widely used. for data collection and analysis". [14] The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. [15] [16] [17]

Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: [18]

  • Region 1: Northeast
    • Division 1: New England (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont)
    • Division 2: Mid-Atlantic (New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania)
    • Division 3: East North Central (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin)
    • Division 4: West North Central (Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota)
    • Division 5: South Atlantic (Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, Washington D.C., and West Virginia)
    • Division 6: East South Central (Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee)
    • Division 7: West South Central (Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas)
    • Division 8: Mountain (Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming)
    • Division 9: Pacific (Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington)

    Uses of census data Edit

    Many federal, state, local and tribal governments use census data to:

    • Decide the location of new housing and public facilities,
    • Examine the demographic characteristics of communities, states, and the US,
    • Plan transportation systems and roadways,
    • Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, and
    • Create localized areas for elections, schools, utilities, etc.
    • Gathers population information every 10 years

    Data stewardship Edit

    The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality and guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U.S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment.

    The Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone, including the United States or foreign governments, or law enforcement agencies such as the IRS or the FBI or Interpol. "Providing quality data, for public good—while respecting individual privacy and, at the same time, protecting confidentiality—is the Census Bureau's core responsibility" "Keeping the public's trust is critical to the Census's ability to carry out the mission as the leading source of quality data about the Nation's people and economy." [19] Only after 72 years does the information collected become available to other agencies or the general public. [20] Seventy-two years was picked because usually by 72 years since the census is taken, most participants would be deceased. [20]

    Despite these guarantees of confidentiality, the Census Bureau has some history of disclosures to other government agencies. In 1918, the Census Bureau released individual information regarding several hundred young men to the Justice Department and Selective Service system for the purpose of prosecutions for draft evasion. [21] [22] During World War II, the United States Census Bureau assisted the government's Japanese American internment efforts by providing confidential neighborhood information on Japanese-Americans. The Bureau's role was denied for decades but was finally proven in 2007. [23] [24]

    United States census data are valuable for the country's political parties Democrats and Republicans are highly interested in knowing the accurate number of persons in their respective districts. [25] These insights are often linked to financial and economic strategies that are central to federal, state and city investments for locations of particular populations. [26] Such apportionments are designed to distribute political power across neutral spatial allocations however, "because so much is at stake, the census also runs the risk of being politicized." [27]

    Such political tensions highlight the complexity of identity and classification some argue that unclear results from the population data "is due to distortions brought about by political pressures." [28] One frequently used example includes ambiguous ethnic counts, which often involves underenumeration and/or undercounting of minority populations. [28] Ideas about race, ethnicity and identity have also evolved in the United States, and such changes warrant examination of how these shifts have impacted the accuracy of census data over time. [29]

    The United States Census Bureau began pursuing technological innovations to improve the precision of its census data collection in the 1980s. Robert W. Marx, the Chief of the Geography Division of the USCB teamed up with the U.S. Geological Survey and oversaw the creation of the Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (TIGER) database system. [30] Census officials were able to evaluate the more sophisticated and detailed results that the TIGER system produced furthermore, TIGER data is also available to the public. And while the TIGER system does not directly amass demographic data, as a geographic information system (GIS), it can be used to merge demographics to conduct more accurate geospatial and mapping analysis. [31]

    In July 2019 the Census Bureau deprecated American FactFinder, which was decommissioned in March 2020 after 20 years of being the agency's primary tool for data dissemination. [32] The new platform is [33]

    Ongoing surveys Edit

    A survey is a method of collecting and analyzing social, economic, and geographic data. It provides information about the conditions of the United States, states, and counties. Throughout the decade between censuses, the bureau conducts surveys to produce a general view and comprehensive study of the United States' social and economic conditions.

    Staff from the Current Surveys Program conduct over 130 ongoing and special surveys about people and their characteristics. [34] A network of professional field representatives gathers information from a sample of households, responding to questions about employment, consumer expenditures, health, housing, and other topics. Surveys conducted between decades:

    Other surveys conducted Edit

    The Census Bureau collects information in many other surveys and provides the data to the survey sponsor for release. These sponsors include:

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