Clinton APA-144 - History

Clinton APA-144 - History


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Clinton II

(APA-144: dp. 6,720; 1. 455'; b. 62'; dr. 24'; s. 17 k.;
cpl. 546; a. 1 5"; cl. Haskell)

The second Clinton (APA-144) was launched 29 November 1944 by California Shipbuilding Co., Wilmington, Calif., under a Maritime Commission contract sponsored by Mrs. L. N. Green; transferred to the Navy 1 February 1945; converted at U.S. Naval Station Astoria, Oreg., and commissioned 1 February 1945 Commander J. A. Tvaldi, USNR, in command

Clinton cleared San Francisco 17 April 1945 and sailed to land Marine replacement troops and equipment on Okinawa between 27 and 31 May. She transferred battle casualties to Guam where she embarked ground forces of the 7th Bomber Command for transportation to Okinawa, arriving 2 July. When she sailed 6 days later she was carrying over 1,000 Okinawan and Korean prisoners of war for internment in the Hawaiian Islands. Clinton cleared Honolulu 5 August carrying replacement troops to Saipan.

She sailed on to Manila to embark Army occupation troops whom she landed at TsingLao, China, 11 October

1945. Arriving at Elaiphong, French Indo-China, 26 October, she loaded Chinese troops and equipment and carried them to Chinwangtao and Taku for the reoccupation of northern China. Assigned to "Magic Carpet" duty, Clinton embarked homeward-bound servicemen at Manila and sailed 28 November for San Pedro, Calif., arriving 18 December. She continued to the east coast, arriving at Norfolk 2 February 1946. Clinton was decommissioned 2 May 1946 and transferred to the Maritime Commission for disposal 1 October 1958.

Clinton received one battle star for World War II service.


Remembering Vice Admiral Donald Custis (1917-2021), the 26th Surgeon General of the Navy

On March 18, 2021, Vice. Adm. Donald Custis, the 26th Surgeon General of the Navy died. He was 103.

For those who served in Navy Medicine during his tenure in office his passing marks the end of an era—the last surviving World War II veteran Surgeon General.

And for all those who had the great privilege of knowing him it is a loss of an accomplished physician, a true gentleman in the classic sense and an individual who was always known to be gracious.

The Indiana-native entered the Navy on a reserve commission in December 1941. After graduating medical school at Northwestern and then completing his internship at Presbyterian Hospital in 1944, Custis was called into active duty. He served briefly at the Naval Hospital San Leandro, Calif., before being assigned as the junior medical officer aboard USS Clinton (APA-144), a ship ordered to transport replacement troops to Okinawa.

“The first exposure to combat we had to combat was Okinawa, the kamikazes, the ships that were sunk, and the people we fished out of the ocean who were survivors of those ships,” Custis later recalled in a 1992 oral history. Many of the casualties he treated aboard the ship were survivors of Kamikaze attacks suffering from fractures, penetrating wounds and burns. The job of a junior medical officer was to treat the wounded and, as necessary, perform major and stabilization surgery.

Custis briefly remained aboard the Clinton after the war as it repatriated American POWs and transported Chinese troops from Chiang Kai-shek’s army from Haiphong to Tientsin and Tsingtao.

In 1946, Custis left the Navy to complete a general surgery residency at Virginia Mason Hospital in Seattle, Wash. He and fellow residents later operated a private surgical practice that marked the beginning of the Bellevue Clinic. Although thriving in his practice, thoughts of returning to the Navy stayed with Custis during these years.

After leaving private practice in 1955, Custis took a job with the American Medical Association (AMA) Council on Medical Education in Chicago. While conducting an accreditation survey of Georgetown Medical School he met Capt. George Raines, an active duty Navy psychiatrist who was also serving as the school’s Chief of Psychiatry. Raines laid on “quite a Navy recruiting effort” for Custis inspiring his to return service.

Appointed a Commander in October 1956, Custis soon embarked on a series of surgical tours at naval hospitals CONUS and OCONUS. He served as part of the surgical staff at Naval Hospital Portsmouth, Va. (1956-1958) Chief of Surgery, Naval Hospital Guantanamo Bay, Cuba (1958-1960) Assistant Chief of Surgical Service, Naval Hospital Great Lakes (1960-1963) Chief of Surgical Service, Beaufort, S.C. (1963-1965) Chief of Surgery and Executive Officer, Naval Hospital Philadelphia, Penn. (1965-1967).

In May 1969, Custis deployed to the Naval Station Activity (NSA) Da Nang, Republic of Vietnam as the senior medical officer. Until it was decommissioned in 1970, the hospital at NSA Da Nang was the largest and busiest Navy medical facility in theater. Unlike other Navy facilities, Da Nang had urologists, neurosurgeons, plastic surgeons, Navy nurses, an infectious disease laboratory and even a frozen blood bank. His tireless leadership, dedication and meritorious conduct in theater later earned Custis a Legion of Merit with Combat “V.” It also was while on deployment that the future Chief of Naval Operations Admiral Elmo “Bud” Zumwalt and future Secretary of the Navy John Warner both met him and recognized his many talents.

After Custis returned stateside, he received orders to serve as the Commanding Officer of Naval Hospital Bethesda, Md., with additional duty as Deputy Commander of the National Naval Medical Center (NNMC). In less than two years on this job, Custis was promoted from Captain to Rear Admiral. A mere six months later, Custis took the helm as Surgeon General in February 1973 and promoted to Vice Admiral. Never before or since has a Navy Medical Corps officer risen through the ranks so rapidly.

Admiral Custis served as Surgeon General of the Navy in the midst of the Vietnam wind-down and the transition of a peacetime force. Navy Medicine was losing a lot of its corporate memory and facing decreasing resources. Custis fought for implementation of bonus pay and he worked with the board of governors of the new Uniformed Services University in building a foundation for the medical school. He gave the first Medical Service Corps officers hospital command established the Health Sciences Education and Training Command (HSETC) following the deactivation of the Naval Medical School established the Naval Medical Research and Development Command (NMRDC) as a central hub for all R&D issues expanded regionalization of medical and dental facilities and was a strong proponent of graduate medical education and research.

Custis retired from his role as Surgeon General on August 1, 1976. During his three and a half year tenure, Custis earned a reputation as an innovative executive and dynamic leader.

Following retirement from his service he served as the Assistant Chief Medical Director for Academic Affairs and later Chief Medical Director of the Veterans Administration.

Vice Admiral Custis stayed connected to Military Medicine until the very end of his life and if you were to ask him if he would have done it over again, his answer would undoubtedly have been “yes.” In his oral history, Custis remarked: “I can’t remember the time when I didn’t want to be a physician, and if I’m ever reincarnated, I would want to be the same thing.”

Custis, Donald (Oral History conducted by Jan K. Herman on October 29 and November 19, 1992. BUMED Oral History Collection.

Custis, Donald, Biography of. VADM Donald Custis Collection. BUMED Archives.

Custis Distinguished Service Medal Citation, 1 August 1976. VADM Donald Custis Collection. BUMED Archives.


Completed -HIS-144.T-2.Darwinism and American Society

Gobineau – Gobineau was a French aristocrat known for the book he wrote called An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Race. He believed that the white race was a superior race and all great advances in history were derived from the white race. This division of races was natural and had always been this way from the start of time and that we should not mix races because this would lead to the eradication of civilization. Interracial marriages would cause destruction and the breakdown of civilization. He had concluded that race was the most important factor in deciding weather or not you would be a successful civilization. Although his thoughts sound antisemitic, Gobibeau was not necessarily himself an antisemitic. Hitler took his writings and twisted them and misused them which ultimately lead to world war 2(Arthur de Gobineau - New World Encyclopedia, N.D)

Chamberlain – Chamberlain was a geologist that co-authored a book he came up with planetesimal hypothesis. The planetesimal hypothesis is the theory that a star was close to the sun and when it went away from the sun it took with it matter that then later formed into planets. He developed one of the world leading geology centers.

Darwin – Darwin was an English naturalist that came up with the theory of evolution. In the theory of evolution, it is believed that humans have evolved from animals and survive through natural selection. He developed his theory after he traveled the world during a job as naturalist. He was meant to chart the coasts of South America, while he was on his voyage off the coast he collected fossils and samples. When he returned, he wrote a book called On the origin of species in 1859. Darwin believed that all species have a common ancestor and that over a long time they changed and evolved. Only the ones that survived through natural selection passed on their genes. This made him convinced that the world was actually much older than what was originally thought. His reasoning for thinking the world was much older was because he that the evolution of species took a long time(Wiker, 2020). Creationism became popular around the 19th century.

Spencer- Herbert Spencer was British philosopher that followed the writings of Darwin and applied them to a philosophy. He came up with the phrase “survival of the fittest.” Even though many thought that Spencer just took pieces Darwin’s theory of evolution and made them fit into his own, he actually had his own thoughts of evolution. Spencer thought, unlike Darwin, that there was an end state to evolution. That there were two kinds of knowledge, the kind that was learned socially and that which was unconsciously learned through race. He did see the need to change your view along with science as it advances. He was influenced by Robert Nozick a liberaltarian that lead him to stand up for natural rights(Sweet, n.d).

Sumner – Sumner was a professor at Yale and is most known for his work Folkways which he wrote in 1907. He thought that individual liberty and protestant ethic work which was the

2) How are these theories used to classify some people as inferior and justify actions against them? What is the effect of doing this? (200-300 words) These theories have been used to classify some people as inferior and justify actions against them by promoting the idea that due to survival of the fittest some people become are in a place of power because they are inherently better than others. Many it to rationalize racism, social imbalance, and genetics. Hitler took what was written in Darwinism and twisted it. They targeted Jews, Polish, Soviets and people who were genetically un pure with disabilities. Darwin looked at how animals and plants changed over a long period of time to become better and more adapt to their environment. Social Darwinist took this rational and turned it into improving the human race by knocking out the weak or unsatisfactory humans. Another effect can be the thoughts that they were above people who did not have wealth and that those people should be eliminated. (History.com Editors, 2018)

. Explain these three ways in which ‘survival of the fittest’ was applied to society. Provide specific examples. (200-300 words)

Eugenics- Eugenic is the thought that you can improve the quality of the human race by discouraging the reproduction of anyone that has unsatisfactory traits. For Example, Hitler and the belief that a he was superior race, that was above other races and that other races should be eliminated to achieve purity. Another example is how they prevented some people from having children all together. Some states even passed laws that forced sterilization of many Americans. Galton pushed to eliminate the lower- or second-rate people that were in places like asylums or

mental housing. He wanted to push for British elite. All this was done in the hopes to create a race that was superior.

Social Gospel- The social gospel is thought to have started in the late 19th century after the civial war and when the urban industrialization. They pushed that Jesus was the answer of capitalism. The message was of Jesus and that He said to love your neighbor, so people that were living in poverty in America were in need of attention. The goal was to create social justice for everyone. They focused on different areas of concern like civil rights, addictions, politics, and poverty.

Gospel of Wealth- The gospel of Wealth was originally called just Wealth and was written by Andrew Carnegie. He believed that people should not keep their wealth but instead give it away. He believed if you died rich then you die with disgrace. He thought that people of influence and power should not live extravagantly, but instead show a life of example of modest living.

3.What do Fundamentalist Christians believe? Why are these beliefs opposed Darwinism? Fundamentalist Christians wanted to push the mission of Jesus Christ. They saw that the Christian beliefs had changed to accommodate the beliefs of biological evolution. They wanted to go back to the core beliefs of Christianity. Darwinism said that the world is much older than what is taught in the literal teaching in the Bible in the book of Genesis. This is against the teaching that the world was formed by spontaneous combustion. The Bible teaches that God created man in his image and this was done with Adam and Eve in the beginning of time. This


Contents

Clinton cleared San Francisco, California, 17 April 1945 and sailed to land Marine replacement troops and equipment on Okinawa between 27 and 31 May. She transferred battle casualties to Guam where she embarked ground forces of the 7th Bomber Command for transportation to Okinawa, arriving 2 July. When she sailed 6 days later she was carrying over 1,000 Okinawan and Korean prisoners of war for internment in the Hawaiian Islands. Clinton cleared Honolulu 5 August carrying replacement troops to Saipan.

End-of-war operations

She sailed on to Manila to embark Army occupation troops whom she landed at Tsingtao, China, 11 October 1945. Arriving at Haiphong, French Indo-China, 26 October, she loaded Chinese troops and equipment and carried them to Chinwangtao and Taku for the reoccupation of northern China. Assigned to "Operation Magic Carpet" duty, Clinton embarked homeward-bound servicemen at Manila and sailed 28 November for San Pedro, California, arriving 18 December. She continued to the U.S. East Coast, arriving at Norfolk, Virginia, 2 February 1946.


NavWeaps Forums

1846 - During the Mexican-American War, a detachment of Marines and Sailors, led by Arm. Col. John C. Fremont from sloop USS Cyane, commanded by Cmdr. Samuel F. DuPont, lands and takes possession of San Diego and raises the U.S. flag.

1898 - During the Spanish-American War, gunboat USS Helena, commanded by Cmdr. William T. Swinburne, captures Spanish steamer Manati at Cienfuegos, Cuba.

1920 - USS St. Louis (CA-20) is ordered to Turkish waters to protect American nationals and citizens during the Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922).

1947 - Nine crew are killed and two injured in a failed take-off attempt by B-29-45-MO Superfortress, 44-86307, from Eglin Field (now Eglin AFB), Florida, at 0813 hrs., the bomber coming down

300 yards N of the main base near Valparaiso, Florida and burning. Killed were instructor pilot Capt. Gordon W. Barrett, of Pittsfield, Massachusetts, a West Point graduate who was awarded the DFC while flying Boeing B-29 Superfortresses in World War II pilot 1st Lt. Huddie C. Bagley of Braufield, Texas co-pilot Capt. Robert M. Seldomridge of Lancaster, Pennsylvania navigator 1st Lt. Joseph A. Anderson, Shalimar, Florida navigator 1st Lt. Milton Rose, Fort Walton, Florida engineer Master Sgt. Michele Aulicino, Mary Esther, Florida scanner Staff Sgt. Hugh T. Mulholland of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania scanner Cpl. Ashley W. Odom, McBee, South Carolina and scanner Pfc. Donald D. Crawford from Fort Worth, Texas. Injured were scanner S/Sgt. Jeremiah W. Conlon of Worthington, Kentucky, admitted to the Eglin hospital with abrasions of the face and head, and ankle injuries and radio operator S/Sgt. Lloyd D. Farris of Pensacola, Florida, with minor injuries but admitted for observation. The Superfortress apparently failed to gain much altitude before coming down, said Capt. Robert Gaughan, base public relations officer.

1953 - An US Air Force RB-50G Superfortress (47-145) “Little Red Ass” of the 343rd Strategic Reconnaissance Squadron, 55th Strategic Reconnaissance Wing, temporarily attached to the 91 st Strategic Reconnaissance Squadron based at Yokota Air Base, Japan, was shot down south of Askold Island near Vladivostok, by Soviet pilots Aleksandr D. Rybakov and Yuri M. Yablonskii, flying MiG-17 Frescos. The RB-50's tail gunner James E. Woods was able to fire a brief burst at the MiG-17s, but the fighters were able to avoid this fire and quickly downed the plane, shooting its left wing off. The co-pilot of the RB-50, John E. Roche, was the sole survivor of the 18-man crew, though as many as seven crew members might have successfully bailed out. After spending about 12 hours in the water, an SB-29 dropped an A-3 survival raft to Roche and the RB-50's pilot, Stanley K. O'Kelley. Roche was able to crawl into the survival raft, but O'Kelley succumbed to hypothermia.
After another 10 hours in the survival raft, Roche was rescued by USS Picking (DD-685). The remains of Stanley K. O'Kelley and Francis L. Brown were later recovered on the coast of Japan. The other crew, James G. Keith, Francisco J. Tejeda, Warren J. Sanderson, Robert E. Stalnaker, Lloyd C. Wiggins, Roland E. Goulet, Earl W. Radlein Jr., Charles J. Russell Jr., James E. Woods, John C. Ward, Edmund J. Czyz, Frank E. Beyer, Donald W. Gabree, Donald G. Hill and an unnamed Russian, were never found.

1964 – Test pilot Joseph Engle flew X-15 #3 on a flight to check heat transfer and ablative materials, reaching 23,773 meters (78,000 feet) and Mach 5.38. Flight time was 7’49”.

1967 - On the flight deck of USS Forrestal (CVA-59), a Zuni 5-inch rocket accidentally fires from a (F-4B) Phantom II aircraft into a parked and armed (A-4E) Skyhawk, setting off a series of explosions that kill 134 of her crew and injure 161 crewmembers.
Among lost airframes are Douglas A-4E Skyhawk, BuNos 149996, 150064, 150068, 150084, 150115, 150118, 150129, 152018, 152024, 152036, 152040 McDonnell Douglas F-4B Phantom II, 153046, 153054, 153060, 153061, 153066, 150069, 150912 and North American RA-5C Vigilantes of RVAH-11, 148932, 149284, and 149305.
Video
Excerpt from a book on the incident

1988 – Former USS Aeolus (T-ARC-3) was sunk as an artificial reef 21 nm (39 km) S by W of the Cape Lookout Lighthouse, NC. When the explosives were detonated, 4, 2-foot holes were blown in the hull. Two of the charges on the port side were knocked loose before they were detonated, which caused Aeolus to come to rest on her starboard side.
While the ship was a nice wreck and visited by many divers, she had yet to reach her full potential as an artificial wreck. In September of 1996, Hurricane Fran passed over Aeolus. Even at a depth of 120 feet, the churning waters affected her. As the first charters returned to her after the hurricane, the wreck didn´t return the signature she had always given. As the divers descended to the ocean floor, they saw a different wreck. Aeolus was now in three pieces. The bow was still on its starboard side, the middle section was at a 60-degree angle, and the stern was completely upright. The wreck was also in an L-shape, instead of a straight line. Because of the breakage, the decks are more visible and Aeolus is a much more interesting wreck.

2003 – Former USS Ingersoll (DD-990) was sunk as a target some 56 nm (104 km) NW by N of Kauai, Hawaii.

2005 – Former USS Hoga (YTM-146), the last of all surviving ships at Pearl Harbor, 7 Dec 1941, was donated to the city of North Little Rock, AR., as a museum. Some say the donation was performed the day before.
Arkansas Inland Maritime Museum

Jul 29, 2019 #1472 2019-07-29T23:18

1918 - Headquarters Company and Squadrons A, B, and C of the First Marine Aviation Force arrive at Brest, France, on board USS DeKalb (ID #3010), as U.S. enters European Theater of World War I.

1919 - During an inspection by a six-man maintenance crew, decommissioned submarine USS G-2 (SS-27) suddenly floods and sinks at her moorings in Two Tree Channel, near Niantic Bay off the Connecticut coast. She goes down in 13 1/2 fathoms, drowning three of the inspection crew.

1935 - The prototype Northrop 3A, (XP-948) c/n 44, intended for the 1935 U.S. Army Air Corps competition for a new single-seat fighter, is lost over Santa Monica Bay, California, out of Jack Northrop Field (now Hawthorne Municipal Airport), Hawthorne, California, during spin stall trials. Pilot killed. No trace of the pilot, 1st Lt. Frank Scare, or wreckage was found. Design rights sold in 1936 to Vought, becoming the V-141. Pilot's name also reported as Arthur H. Skaer, Jr.

1942 - President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs the act establishing WAVES (Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service). During World War II, more than 80,000 officers and enlisted women serve in the WAVES.

1942 – While proceeding from Cape Town, South Africa, to Trinidad, BWI, American steamer Cranford was torpedoed and sunk by U-155. The master proceeded on a non-evasive course because of a lack of fuel and daylight conditions. About 265 nm (480 km) E by S of Barbados, a single torpedo struck the vessel on the starboard side between the #2 and #3 holds. The nature of the cargo (mostly chrome ore) caused the ship to sink within three minutes. The armed guard contingent manned the gun, but the stem rose so rapidly that they could not take any offensive action. The ship's complement of ten officers, twenty-seven men, and eleven armed guards began leaving the ship within two minutes of the explosion.
The survivors managed to launch one boat, and others swam to two rafts after diving overboard. U-155 surfaced close to the ship and circled the boats and rafts. The Germans asked if they could do anything for the crew and questioned them about the ship and cargo. They also treated two injured men on board the U-boat and gave the survivors water, supplies, and directions to land before leaving. Spanish tanker Castillo Alemenara rescued the survivors several hours after the sinking. Six officers, three men, and two of the gun crew died in the attack.

1942 – U. S. passenger-freighter Robert E. Lee sailed from Port-of-Spain, Trinidad, BWI, to New Orleans, Louisiana, escorted by PC-566. When some 56 nm (105 km) SE of the Mississippi Delta, lookouts spotted a torpedo fired by U-166, 200 yards before it struck just aft of the engine room. The explosion destroyed the #3 hold and vented through the B and C decks and wrecked the engines, the radio equipment, and the steering gear. PC-566 began dropping depth charges as the ship plunged stem first in fifteen minutes.
The complement of 8 officers, 122 men, and 6 armed guards, as well as 268 passengers, the last mostly survivors of other sinkings, abandoned ship in six lifeboats, eight life rafts, and five life floats. One officer, nine of the merchant crew, and fifteen passengers died. Escorts PC-566, SC-519, and tug Underwriter rescued the survivors and landed them in Venice, Louisiana.
PC-566 sank U-166 with all hands lost.

1943 - On 9 July, Liberty Ship William Ellery sailed from Basra, Iraq, to Durban, South Africa. When about 284 nm (526 km) ESE of Durban, U-197 fired a torpedo that struck the ship on the port side at the #4 hatch. The explosion caused the ship to swerve to port and created a 450-square-foot hole. The general alarm sounded immediately, and the complement of eight officers, thirty-one men, and twenty-seven armed guards raced to their boat stations. Lookouts spotted a second torpedo that passed along the port side and under the stem. The chief engineer reported that the ship could be kept afloat and running if a damage control party made immediate repairs. As the ship maintained nine knots, the crew helped the chief engineer shore up the bulkhead between the #4 and #5 holds and strengthen the watertight door separating the shaft alley and the engine room.
The crew suffered no casualties, and the ship made Durban under her own power on 1 August. On 30 August, the ship went into dry dock and later returned to service.

1953 - A Sikorsky H-19 Chickasaw helicopter, 51-3896, crashed near O'Neill, NE., when a central rotor blade came loose during flight and struck the rear rotor. The entire crew of 6 was killed. The aircraft had flown cross-country from Bedford, Massachusetts and was conducting high-altitude turbulence research. The aircraft carried Dr. Guenter Loeser, a German meteorological scientist, A2C Donald Eddy, A2C Francis "Jerry" Mapes, Capt Charles A. Johnson of San Gabriel, Calif., the co-pilot, Lt. Francis L. Gasque, of Conway, SC, and the crew chief Sgt. Robert Ide of Scranton, PA.

1966 - Lockheed A-12, 60–6941, Article 135, modified as an M-21, D-21 drone carrier for Project Tagboard, is lost during the fourth test over the Pacific Ocean off the coast of California when the D-21 drone, 504, suffers asymmetrical unstart as it passes through bow wake of the mothership during launch at Mach 3.25, strikes the Blackbird, destroying right rudder, engine nacelle and most of the outer wing during separation. Lockheed employees, pilot Bill Park and launch control officer Ray Torrick, both successfully eject, but Torrick tragically drowns in a feet-wet landing. Skunk Works head Clarence "Kelly" Johnson subsequently scrubs M-21 launch program, saying "I will not risk any more test pilots or Blackbirds. I don't have either to spare." D-21s are modified to D-21B standard for air launch from underwing pylons of a pair of mission-adapted Boeing B-52H Stratofortress bombers.
Video
Accident at 2:55.

1970 - USMC Lockheed KC-130F Hercules, BuNo 150685, c/n 3728, of VMGR-152, crashed at Marine Corps Air Station El Toro (now Orange County Great Park), Lake Forest, California during misjudged maximum effort landing – wings broke, fuselage ended up overturned, burned.

1982 - USCG HC-130H CG1600, c/n 4757, assigned Kodiak CGAS, crashed 4 kilometers south of Attu, Aleutian Islands, in bad weather landing – killing two Coast Guardsmen aboard, one crewman and one passenger. The remaining 6 crewmen and 1 passenger survived, some with significant injuries.

2004 – Former USS Nicholson (DD-982) was sunk as a target some 57 nm (106 km) NE by N of Kauai, Hawaii.

2007 – F/A-18C Block 46 Hornet (Lot 17), 164977, from VFA-195 crashed after the pilot inadvertently ejected while on emergency night approach to USS Kitty Hawk (CV-63). The aircraft continued to fly for nearly 20 minutes before crashing into the sea, 400 miles SE of Guam. The pilot was safely recovered.

2008 - A U.S. Air Force McDonnell-Douglas F-15D Eagle, 85-0131, crashed on the Nevada Test and Training Range

50 miles (80 km) E of Goldfield, Nevada, at

1130 hrs. The F-15D, of the 65th Aggressor Squadron, 57th Aggressor Training Group, Nellis Air Force Base, was participating in a combat training mission as part of Exercise Red Flag 08-03. Air Force officials identified the pilot who died as Lt. Col. Thomas A. Bouley, commander of the 65th AS at Nellis. A United Kingdom Royal Air Force Tornado F.3 pilot assigned to the USAF's 64th AGRS was with him and was taken to Mike O'Callaghan Federal Hospital at Nellis. The pilot arrived

1330 hrs. Wednesday, the Air Force said. The pilot was in stable condition and under observation. The Royal Air Force pilot's name was withheld while the investigation into the crash continues.

Jul 31, 2019 #1473 2019-07-31T00:55

1865 - The East India Squadron, later known as Asiatic Squadron, is established under Commodore Henry H. Bell, USN, to operate from Sunda Strait to Japan. The squadron consists of steam sloops USS Hartford, USS Wachusett, USS Wyoming and supply ship USS Relief.

1874 – Spar torpedo boat USS Intrepid is commissioned, the first U.S. warship equipped with torpedoes.

1912 - An attempt by the U.S. Navy to catapult launch the Navy's first seaplane, a Curtiss A-3 (AH-3) pusher, at the Washington Navy Yard, Washington, D.C., fails when a crosswind catches the aircraft halfway along the catapult and tosses it into the Anacostia River. Pilot uninjured.
A different source lists the location of the launch attempt as Annapolis, Maryland, the aircraft as the Curtiss A-1 (AH-1), and the pilot as Lt. Theodore G. Ellyson, noting that the catapult was powered by compressed air, was fabricated by the Naval Gun Factory at the Washington Navy Yard from a design by Capt. Washington I. Chambers, and that the aircraft, not being secured to the catapult, reared up at mid-stroke where it was caught by the crosswind. This account, from an official U.S. Navy history, may be the more credible of the two versions.
An accompanying photo (No. 650864 Poster’s note: Couldn’t find it) dated July 1912 showing the A-1 on the catapult at Annapolis supports the latter description. The first successful launch was accomplished on 12 November 1912 at the Washington Navy Yard by Ellyson in the A-3, according to this source, possibly accounting for the confusion.

1917 - USS Chingachgook (SP 35) was destroyed by an on-board gasoline tank explosion in New York.

1917 - World War I: American tanker Motano was torpedoed and sunk in the English Channel, 20 nm (37 km) south east of Start Point, Devon, United Kingdom by SM UC-47 with the loss of 24 of her crew.

1918 - USS C. F. Sargent (ID 3027), used to transport coal along the East Coast, sank at Cape Henlopen, at the mouth of Delaware Bay.

1941 - The Japanese government reports that the bombing of USS Tutuila (PR-4), which happened the previous day during the bombing raid on Chungking, China, was just an accident, pure and simple. USS Tutuila’s motorboats were badly damaged and motor sampan was cut loose when one bomb fell eight yards astern of the vessel. There were no causalities.

1943 - "Topeka, Kan. (AP) - The army air base reported today five men, all of those aboard the plane, were killed in the crash of a four-engine bomber near Boone, Iowa. The plane was flying with a short crew, Major Forrest Moore, public relations officer at the base, said." Consolidated B-24E-20-CF Liberator, 41-29052, c/n 44, of the 579th Bombardment Squadron, 392d Bombardment Group, operating out of Topeka Army Air Base (now Topeka Regional Airport), en route to Duluth, Minnesota, on a navigation training flight, crashes (41°57’06”N, 93°58’11”W) 10 miles SW of Boone, after losing part of starboard wing in a thunderstorm.
Killed were:
1st Lt. Melvin S. Meeker, Pilot
2nd Lt. Samuel Levitt, Copilot
2nd Lt. Mathew J. Radosvich, Bombardier
T/Sgt. James M. Parker, Engineer
T/Sgt. Thomas J. Leyshon, Radioman
A memorial marker was erected by the landowner, who has also preserved the three impact craters from the crash.
Joe Baugher cites crash date as 18 July 1945.

1944 - On 29 July, U. S. merchantman Exmouth sailed from Hull, England, to Loch Ewe, Scotland. She joined a northbound convoy for a while and then proceeded independently. In dense fog, about 46 nm (86 km) due East of St. Andrews, Scotland, the ship struck two mines.
The first hit at the # 1 hold on the starboard side, and a minute later a second mine struck the #2 hold, port side. The #1 hold filled quickly, and the freighter began to settle by the head. The second explosion broke the "Hog Islander" in two, forward of the bridge. The complement of eight officers, thirty-five men, and twenty-seven armed guards abandoned ship in four lifeboats as the foredeck settled beneath the water. The vessel sank at 0820. The boats remained in the vicinity, and the fog lifted at 1030. At 2120 the Royal Air Force rescue launch #2731 saved all hands and landed them at Dundee, Scotland, at 2300.

1945 - Eight crew and International News Service correspondent John Cashman, 27, are killed when their Consolidated B-24 Liberator explodes on take-off from Okinawa. Cashman, who lost his left arm to an ammunition explosion while on Navy sea duty in the Atlantic in May 1942, was honorably discharged in December 1942. He later became a sportswriter and then a correspondent for the INS, being sent to Guam in February 1945 and then covering the invasion of Borneo. Cashman was en route from Borneo to Guam to cover the experiences of XXI Bomber Command crews over Japan when he was killed.

1947 – Former USS Chewink (ASR-3) was sunk as a target off New London, CT.

1948 – Former USS Nevada (BB-36) was used as the target ship for the air-dropped Shot Able in Operation Crossroads nuclear tests. The bomb missed the ship and detonated 518 feet above the water, 615 yards distant, two points on the ship’s port quarter. Another source says 1,700 yards distant, while yet another says 326 yards.
Also surviving Shot Baker, ex-Nevada was very radioactive and was disposed of as a gunnery target for USS Iowa (BB-61), USS Pasadena (CL-56), USS Springfield (CL-66) and USS Astoria (CL-90). Still afloat, she was sunk by an aerial torpedo and went down 53 nm (99 km) SW of Barber’s Point, Oahu, Hawaii.

1952 - While conducting a patrol mission, a US Navy PBM-5S2 Mariner (BuNo 59277), of VP-731, based from Iwakuni, Japan, was attacked by two People's Republic of China MiG-15 Fagots over the Yellow Sea. Two crew members were killed and two were seriously wounded. The PBM suffered extensive damage, but was able to make it safely to Paengyong-do Korea.

1962 – Former USS Ira Jeffery (APD-44) was sunk during tests of the experimental Mk 16 torpedo from USS Sennet (SS-408). She went down 229 nm (458 km) due East of Jacksonville Beach, FL.

1974 - A U.S. Navy Grumman TE-2A Hawkeye, BuNo 150530, c/n 10, 'GE 725', of RVAW-120, based at NAS Norfolk, Virginia, crashed on take-off from Coast Guard Air Station Elizabeth City (now co-located with Elizabeth City Regional Airport), North Carolina, during a touch-and-go when the port engine's auto-feather system failed. The pilot lost directional control, the aircraft failed to gain altitude, and struck a maintenance facility, triggering a fire in a fiberglass and upholstery shop. Instructor pilot, trapped in wreckage, three civilians killed, student pilot, and 12–18 others injured.

1980 – Former USS Duncan (DDR-874) was sunk as a target some 172 nm (319 km) SW by W of Point Loma, San Diego, CA.

1992 - A US Navy Grumman E-2C Hawkeye, 162617, of VAW-126 on a training flight crashes in the Atlantic Ocean

75 miles N of Puerto Rico while returning to USS John F. Kennedy (CV-67), killing all five crew. The Navy reported on 1 August that the aircraft radioed that it was in trouble before coming down

4 miles from the carrier, the second aircraft loss of that air wing in less than a fortnight.

2019 - A US Navy F/A-18E crashes at Star Wars Canyon, in Death Valley National Park.
Early news release

Aug 01, 2019 #1474 2019-08-01T00:10

1801 - Schooner USS Enterprise, commanded by Lt. Andrew Sterett, encounters Barbary corsair, Tripoli, west of Malta. After a three-hour battle, Enterprise broadsides the vessel, forcing Tripoli’s surrender.

1849 - Pope Pius IX and King Ferdinand of the Two Sicilies, briefly visit frigate USS Constitution and marks the first time that a Roman Catholic pope steps foot on American territory.

1861 – American Civil War: Union 126-ton sternwheel paddle steamer Kanawha Valley was burned by Union forces at Cannelton, Virginia (now West Virginia). Confederate gunfire from shore killed one person on board.

1862 - American Civil War, Union blockade: Carrying a cargo of arrowroot, caustic acid, blankets, sheet tin, and soda ash, British 41-ton sloop Lizzie was captured and destroyed by gunboat USS Penobscot off New Inlet, North Carolina.
Another source says USS Peterhoff.

1906 – USS Nero (AC-17) ran aground off Block Island, Rhode Island. She was refloated and served until 1922.

1921 - A high-altitude bombsight, mounted on a gyroscopically stabilized base was successfully tested at Torpedo Station (now Navy Submarine Torpedo Facility Yorktown), Va. This test was the first phase of Carl L. Norden’s development of an effective high-altitude bombsight, which became known as the Norden Bombsight.

1943 - During a demonstration flight of an "all St. Louis-built glider", a WACO CG-4A-RO, 42-78839, built by sub-contractor Robertson Aircraft Corporation, loses its starboard wing due to a defective wing strut support, plummets vertically to the ground at Lambert Field (now St. Louis Lambert International Airport), St. Louis, Missouri, killing all on board, including St. Louis Mayor William D. Becker, Maj. William B. Robertson and Harold Krueger, both of Robertson Aircraft, Thomas Dysart, president of the St. Louis Chamber of Commerce, Max Doyne, director of public utilities, Charles Cunningham, department comptroller, Henry Mueller, St. Louis Court presiding judge, Lt. Col. Paul Hazleton, pilot Capt. Milton C. Klugh, and co-pilot/mechanic PFC Jack W. Davis, of the USAAF 71st Troop Carrier Squadron.
The failed component had been manufactured by Robertson subcontractor Gardner Metal Products Company, of St. Louis, who, coincidentally, had been a casket maker. The War Department announces on 11 August that a summary of conclusions by three air forces investigating groups "indicated 'that faulty manufacture by a sub-contractor, faulty inspection by the prime manufacturer, and inadequate enforcement of inspection procedures, combined to produce a fatal hidden defect in a wing strut metal fitting.' The air forces have acted to prevent any recurrence of such parts failure, including the grounding of all similar gliders manufactured in the St. Louis area because they might contain fittings from the same sub-contractors. The glider which crashed Aug. 1 was manufactured by Robertson Aircraft Corp., the Army said, and approximately 100 craft were grounded Aug. 4."

1943 - A Boeing B-17F-95-BO Flying Fortress, 42-30326, c/n 5440, of the 541st Bomb Squadron, 383d Bomb Group, piloted by Roy J. Lee, was headed north up the Oregon coast on a routine patrol flight. The plane had left Pendleton Field (now Eastern Oregon Regional Airport at Pendleton), Oregon, at 0900 and was tasked with flying to Cape Disappointment on the Oregon coast. They were then to fly 500 miles out to sea, followed by a direct flight back to Pendleton Field. On arriving at the coast, the crew found the entire area hidden in overcast clouds which extended to an elevation of 8000 feet. The pilot decided to locate Cape Disappointment by flying below the overcast. The overcast proved to reach almost to the level of the sea. The plane was flying at about 50–150 feet above the waves. Deciding that the risk was too great the crew began to climb back up into the overcast. Unfortunately, the plane crashed into the side of Cape Lookout at about 900 feet in elevation. The Aviation Archeological Investigation & Research website lists the crash date as 2 August.

1944 – U. S. merchantman Extavia sailed from New Georgia Island en route to the Treasury Islands. During the trip an explosion occurred near the stem, but damaged Extavia only slightly. The vessel proceeded under her own power to her destination. None of the ship's complement of 9 officers, 64 men, 81 armed guards, and 845 troops were killed or injured.

1945 - A USAAF Canadian Vickers OA-10A Catalina, 44-34096, en route from Hunter Field (now Hunter Army Airfield), Savannah, Georgia, to Mather Field (now Sacramento Mather Airport), California, crashes in the Cibola National Forest, 25 miles SW of Grants, New Mexico, after apparent engine failure, killing the seven crew, Lt. Wilson Parker, Lt. William Bartlett, Lt. James Garland, Sgt. Irwin Marcus, Sgt. Robert Crook, Sgt. Harold Post and Sgt. John Jackson. The airframe was so heavily damaged that no determination of the cause could be made.

1946 - President Harry S. Truman approves legislation establishing the Office of Naval Research (ONR), charging ONR to ". plan, foster and encourage scientific research in recognition of its paramount importance as related to the maintenance of future naval power, and the preservation of national security. "

1947 - "McCHORD FIELD (now McChord Air Force Base), WASH., Aug. 1 (AP) - The Army Air Force day observance was marred today by the deaths of Capt. W. L. Davidson, pilot, and Lt. Frank M. Brown, co-pilot, in the crash of their flaming B-25 bomber near Kelso, Wash., shortly after taking off on a night flight to Hamilton field (now The Hamilton Wetland Restoration Project), Novato, California. T/Sgt. Woodrow D. Matthews, crew chief, and Sgt. Elmer L. Taff, 24, Mertzon, Texas, a hitchhiker making his first plane flight, parachuted to earth several miles from the wreck scene. Matthews was critically injured."
TB-25J-30/32-NC, 44-31316, of the 400th AAF Base Unit, was based at Hamilton Field, and was piloted by William L. Davidson.

1952 - During the Korean War, USS Carmick (DMS-33) is fired on by enemy shore guns in the vicinity of Songjin lighthouse. Returning fire, Carmick’s battery fire silences the guns.

1959 - In what was intended to be a routine NACA flight but turns out to be the final flight ever of a North American F-107A, the second accident involving the type occurs when pilot Scott Crossfield cannot get 55-5120 to lift off of the dry lakebed at Edwards AFB, California due to improperly set stabilizer trim. Nosewheel tires blow, pilot aborts take-off, tries to taxi airframe into the wind when the left main gear catches fire, airframe suffers fire damage, F-107 flight program ends. Airframe of 55–5120 cut up at Edwards, fuselage shipped to Sheppard AFB, Texas, for use as fire training aid.

1974 – Former USS Ramsden (DE-382) was sunk as a target some 14 nm (26 km) SSW of the Naval Auxiliary Landing Field, San Clemente Island, CA.

1984 – Former USS Clinton (APA-144) was sunk as a target off the Virginia Capes.

1993 – Former USS Inaugural (MSF-242) was a museum ship at the Gateway Arch in the Mississippi River at St. Louis. During flooding of the River, Inaugural broke loose from her moorings. The ship suffered a breach in her hull, took on water, and rolled on her port side. She sank on the Missouri side of the river, half a mile south of the Poplar Street Bridge. She has since remained in that position, partially submerged. When river levels are low, she is plainly visible above water.

2003 – Former USS Leftwich (DD-984) was sunk as a target some 61 nm (113 km) NW of Kauai, Hawaii.

2003 – Former USS Merrill (DD-976) was sunk as a target some 55 nm (155 km) NW of Kauai, Hawaii.

2013 - Two Virginia Air National Guard (VANG) General Dynamics F-16C Fighting Falcon Aircraft collided off the coast of Virginia. One crashed while the other was able to fly back to base. Crew from both aircraft survive.
Another source says F-16C Block 30E, 86-0357, District of Columbia ANG, collided with “another F-16.” The DCANG pilot ejected. This source had no information on the other aircraft.

Aug 02, 2019 #1475 2019-08-02T01:52

1865 – Commerce raider CSS Shenandoah, commanded by James I. Waddell, encounters British merchant bark Barracouta, in the Pacific Ocean and receives the first firm report the Civil War ended in April with the defeat of the Confederacy. Shenandoah rounds Cape Horn in mid-September and arrives at Liverpool in early November, becoming the only Confederate Navy ship to circumnavigate the globe. There she hauls down the Confederate ensign and turns over to the Royal Navy.

1917 - USS Arvilla (SP-752) collided with fishing vessel Higo at San Diego, California and sank. She was later raised, repaired and returned to service.

1917 - "Captain Ralph L. Taylor, U. S. R., instructor of the Government Aviation Training School at Mineola, L. I., was killed when the military biplane under his control fell from a height of 800 feet, Aug. 2. Sergt. Thomas F. Pell, a student aviator with Captain Taylor, was injured." The Aviation Archeology database has no listing for this accident.
Poster’s note: The Government Aviation Training School at Mineola, L. I., was later named Roosevelt Field. Charles Lindbergh took off from there on his way to Paris. Now it’s a civilian commercial center. On Google Earth, no trace of an airfield exists.

1924 - One of the three surviving Douglas World Cruiser aircraft, the "Boston", 23-1231, c/n 147, loses oil pressure while flying west over the North Atlantic, has to alight on the open sea. Crew is rescued, but during an attempt to tow the float aircraft by USS Richmond (CL-9), the aircraft capsizes in rough seas and has to be abandoned near the Faroe Islands.

1943 - "Phoenix, Ariz., Aug. 2 (UP) - Second Lt. Arthur C. Collins, 22, and Aviation Cadet Wayne B. Bowers, 22, were killed today when their twin-engine training plane crashed 10 miles west of Chandler, Ariz." They went down in Lockheed RP-322 Lightning, AF162, of the 535th Twin Engine Flying Training Squadron, Williams Field (now Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport), Arizona. One source gives the accident date as 1 August and gives the location as eight miles W of Chandler. P-322s were non-turbocharged Lightning Is, originally ordered by France, the order being taken over by the Royal Air Force (hence, the RAF AF162 serial), but only three were retained by Great Britain, the rest being used as trainers by the U.S. Army Air Force.

1943 - Boeing B-17E Flying Fortress, 41-2463, "Yankee Doodle", of the 19th Bomb Group, then to 394th Bomb Squadron, 5th Bomb Group, crashes on takeoff due mechanical failure at Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides. Bombardier Sgt. John P. Kruger and navigator Lt. Talbert H. Woolam are killed. Pilot was Gene Roddenberry, future creator of Star Trek. The airframe was stricken on 13 August 1943.

1943 - PT 109, commanded by Lt. j.g. John F. Kennedy, is rammed by Japanese destroyer Amagiri, which cuts through the vessel at Blackett Strait near Kolombangara Island. Abandoning ship, Kennedy leads his men to swim to an island some miles away. With the aid of a Coastwatcher and local residents, they return to Rendova PT base on 8 Aug.
Navy History Article

1945 - Lockheed YP-80A Shooting Star, 44-83029, c/n 080-1008, of the 1st Fighter Group, as of April 1945, crashes near Brandenburg, Kentucky, killing pilot Major Ira Boyd Jones, 25, of Lancaster, South Carolina. The plane left Wright Field (now Wright-Patterson AFB), Ohio, shortly after 1400 hours, on a routine test flight to an unspecified army airfield in Texas, said Brig. Gen. Joseph T. Morris, commanding general of Wright Field.
"Eight-year-old Chester and Martha Smedley, 14, of near Brandenburg, said they saw a 'big explosion' in the sky. Their father, Sheriff Alex Smedley of Meade County, added that the explosion blew the wings loose from the fuselage, landing 200 or 300 feet apart. Maj. Jones' body, the sheriff said, was found about a quarter of a mile from the wreckage."
Maj. Jones, a fighter pilot with 11 months service in the China-Burma-India theatre, was attached to the fighter test branch at Wright Field. This airframe was one the test P-80s shipped to Foggia, Italy, in December 1944, for tests by Wright Field personnel under combat conditions.

1956 - U.S. Navy F2H-3 Banshee, BuNo 126341, of VF-64, out of NAS Alameda (now Alameda Point), California, crashes at 1535 hrs. at the

11,000 foot level on Mt. Pinchot in the Eastern Sierra Nevadas near Bishop while on a practice strafing run, pilot LTJG Tulane Oden Phillips is killed.

1962 – Test pilot Joe Walker flew X-15 #3 on a “Fixed gain evaluation” flight that reached 44,041 meters (144,500 feet) and Mach 5.07. Flight time was 5’27”.

1964 - USS Maddox (DD 731) engages three North Vietnamese motor torpedo boats. In the resulting torpedo and gunfire, Maddox hit all the boats, while she was struck only by a single 14.5-millimeter machine gun bullet. Air support arrives from USS Ticonderoga (CVA 14) and her planes strafe the three boats. Both sides then disengage.
USNI article

1967 - A US Navy LTV A-7 Corsair II BuNo 152652 on a service test flight crashed at the south end of Lake Stanley Draper, OK. The aircraft was home stationed at NATC Patuxent River, MD and was flown by Captain Alec Gillespie who ejected. The aircraft had a total of 427 flight hours.

1997 – Former USS Southerland (DD-743) was sunk as a missile target some 67 nm (125 km) WSW of Morro Bay, California.

2016 - United States Navy McDonnell Douglas F/A-18C Hornet, BuNo 165192, c/n 1333, 'WT-04', crashes during a training mission near Naval Air Station Fallon in Nevada. The aircraft was assigned to Marine Strike Fighter Squadron 232, based at Marine Corps Air Station Miramar in California, and had been on temporary assignment to the Strike Fighter Wing Pacific Detachment at Naval Air Station Fallon. The pilot ejects and is taken to Banner Churchill Regional Medical Center.

Aug 02, 2019 #1476 2019-08-02T23:23

1804 - Commodore Edward Preble’s Mediterranean Squadron launches the first of a series of bombardments on the harbor of Tripoli. Designed to destroy the defending batteries and sink enemy ships, the bombardments are part of the blockade that Preble established in 1803.

1861 - Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles calls for designers to submit plans for ironclad warships to the Navy Department. The design, by inventor John Ericsson, is chosen for USS Monitor, a revolutionary armored ship, carrying her guns in a rotating turret.

1862 - American Civil War, Union blockade: An unidentified Confederate sloop was burned at Smithfield Creek in Virginia by armed sidewheel paddle steamer USS Delaware.

1918 - World War I: U. S. cargo ship Berwind was sunk 3 nm (5.5 km) WSW of Palud Trebanec, Brittany, France, by SM UB-88 with the loss of six of her crew.

1918 - World War I: American cargo ship Lake Portage was sunk some 6 nm (12 km) South of Pointe du Raz, Brittany, France by SM UB-88 with the loss of three of her crew.

1918 – World War I: SM U-156 sank American fishing vessels Muriel, Rob Roy, Annie Perry and Sydney B. Atwood within 40 nm (74 km) of Seal Island, Nova Scotia. No crew were lost with Muriel, Annie Perry and Rob Roy. Losses among the crew of Sydney B. Atwood are unknown.

1918 - "When the motor of his airplane stopped 300 feet up and the machine fell during his first flight, C. B. Lambert of Welch, W. Va., a student at the West Virginia Aviation School at Beech Bottom (no evidence of which exists today), was killed August 3. E. L. Frey, a member of the British Royal Flying Corps, an instructor at the school, was accompanying Lambert and sustained serious injuries." The Aviation Archeology database has no listing for this accident.

1942 - Mildred H. McAfee takes the oath of office to become the first female line officer. She is commissioned a lieutenant commander in the Naval Reserve and simultaneously undertakes the duties of being the first director of the newly-established WAVES ("Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service").

1943 - On 2 August, American merchantman Yankee Arrow traveled with Convoy KMS-20 from Bone, Algeria, to Bizerte, Tunisia. The ship sailed in convoy station #48. The convoy began forming a single column to enter the narrow Bizerte Harbor Channel. When only some 1.2 nm (2.2 km) NE by E off El Haouaria, Tunisia, a mine struck the tanker about eight feet below the waterline on the port side at the forward deep tank. The explosion drove the ship up and back and blew a large hole in the hull. The blast threw fuel oil over the vessel and started a fire in the forward portion of the ship. The helmsman turned the ship away from the wind, and the crew brought the fire under control about thirty minutes later. The surviving members of the complement of eight officers, thirty-five men, and twenty-five armed guards, along with ten in the Navy communications detail, did not abandon ship. The force of the explosion, however, carried several men overboard. Quick thinking men on deck released a raft for these men. Two members of the gun crew and five merchant seamen died from the explosions or fire. The ship got under way and steamed into Bizerte Harbor. The mine extensively damaged the ship, and naval engineers judged her too weakened for sea duty. WSA bought the ship and chartered her to the Navy as a storehouse.

1945 - Four USAAF crewmen are killed as two Douglas A-26 Invaders collide and crash in a field three miles NE of Bennettsville, South Carolina. "The planes were flying formation with 10 others en route to the Florence Army Airfield (now Florence Regional Airport) when the accident occurred, Police Chief John L. Watson reported."
A-26B-10-DL, 41-39130, piloted by 2d Lt. William D. Napier, of Sultana, California, and A-26B-20-DT, 43-22432, flown by 1st Lt. Julian A. Benson, of Philadelphia, both of the 127th Base Unit, Florence Army Airfield, are also described as coming down five miles NE of Bennettsville. Also killed are Sgt. James Collins, Jr., Fort Dodge, Iowa, and Sgt. Robert L. MacNeil, Roxbury, Massachusetts. It is unclear from news accounts which enlisted man was in which plane.

1956 – Test pilot Iven Kincheloe flew X-2 #1 to 26,764 meters (87,812 feet) in a high-speed test flight that reached over Mach 2.5.

1958 - USS Nautilus (SSN 571) becomes the first submarine to cross the "top" of the world during Operation Sunshine when the boat passes under an arctic ice cap at the North Pole. "For the world, our country, and the Navy - the North Pole," declared the boat's commanding officer, Cmdr. William R. Anderson. The mission had been personally authorized by President Eisenhower as a response to the USSR's Sputnik program.

1963 - An Eglin Air Force Base, Fla., North American T-28 Trojan assigned to Swift Strike III maneuvers crashed south of Winnesboro, S.C., seriously injuring the pilot, Capt. Clyde G. Evans of Fort Walton Beach, Fla. The other occupant, Capt. Frank Dubee, of Eglin Air Force Base, was uninjured. The aircraft was on a mission from Shaw Air Force Base, S.C., and was cruising at 500 feet when its engine apparently failed.

1965 – Test pilot Robert Rushworth flew the X-15A-2 on a “Star Tracker, Altitude buildup, Reaction Augmentation System checkout” flight reaching 63,608 meters (208,700 feet) and Mach 5.16. Flight time was 9’32”. This flight covered 249 nm (461 km), the farthest flight for aircraft #2.

1966 – Test pilot Pete Knight flew the X-15A-2 on a “Star Tracker navigation system and Alternate pitot-static system” check-out flight reaching 75,891 meters (249,000 feet) and Mach 5.03. Flight time was 9’05”. This was the first time Knight exceeded 200,000 feet and the highest altitude achieved by the #2 aircraft.

1967 - A U.S. Air Force de Havilland Canada C-7B Caribou, 62-4161, c/n 99, 'KE' tailcode, of the 459th TAS, 483d TAW, plunges to earth minus its tail from low altitude after being hit by US 155 mm artillery "friendly fire" on approach to Đức Phổ Special Forces camp, Vietnam. Three crew killed, pilot Capt. Alan Eugene Hendrickson, co-pilot John Dudley Wiley, and loadmaster TSgt. Zane Aubry Carter. Dramatic photo of plunging aircraft taken by Japanese combat photographer Hiromichi Mine, who was himself killed in the line of duty 5 March 1968 from injuries suffered from a landmine.
Photo

1970 - A Lockheed P-3A-55-LO Orion, BuNo 152159, c/n 185-5129, 'ZE-06', of VP-17, NAS Barbers Point (now Kalaeloa Airport), Hawaii, explodes in flight after takeoff from Nellis AFB, Nevada, crashing near Searchlight, Nevada, killing all ten aboard. The cause of the accident was never determined.

2016 - U.S. Navy Chief Dominique Saavedra becomes the first woman to earn the silver submarine pin that represents a fully trained submariner.

Aug 04, 2019 #1477 2019-08-04T00:16

1790 - The Revenue Cutter Service is established by Congress, authorizing the construction of 10 vessels to enforce federal tariff and trade laws and prevent smuggling. The service receives its present name, U.S. Coast Guard, in 1915 under an act of Congress that merges the Revenue Cutter Service with the Life-Saving Service, thereby providing the nation with a single maritime service dedicated to saving life at sea and enforcing the nation's maritime laws.

1846 - During the Mexican-American War, Marines and Sailors led by Commodore Robert Stockton from frigate USS Congress land to capture Santa Barbara, Calif.

1898 - During the Spanish-American War, USS Monterey (BM 6) becomes the first monitor to cross the Pacific, reaching Manila Bay, Philippines, from San Francisco, Calif.

1918 - World War I: American tanker O. B. Jennings was sunk in the Atlantic, 97 nm (181 km) E by S of Virginia Beach, VA., by SM U-140 with the loss of two crew. One of the survivors was taken as a prisoner of war.

1918 - USS SC-187 was sunk in a collision with Norwegian steamship Capto, 20 nm (38 km) ENE of the Cape Charles Lighthouse, VA.

1939 - USS Yorktown (CV 5) and USS Enterprise (CV 6) use hydraulic flush-deck catapults to launch SBC-3 and O3U-3 aircraft from flight and hangar decks.

1943 - North American XB-28A-NA, 40-3058, c/n 67-3417, crashes into the Pacific Ocean off California after the crew bails out. Project not proceeded with.

1943 – Liberty Ship Harrison Grey Otis sailed from Tripoli en route to the United States via Gibraltar. After the ship anchored in Gibraltar, a fantail lookout spotted an exhausted swimmer one hundred yards off the stem. A cadet engineer saved the man who proved to be in the Italian Navy. Suspecting an Italian limpet mine, the master had the engines turned over to wash away any bombs or mines. A British lieutenant took the prisoner away and promised to send a diver, however, no diver ever returned to examine the vessel. About three hours after the discovery of the swimmer, a violent explosion rocked the ship on the port side at the #3 hold. The blast damaged the engines and boilers and flooded the engine room and the #3 hold. The ship's crew slipped her anchor cable, and the master beached the vessel. The ten officers, thirty-five men, and twenty-three armed guards on board remained on the ship. The explosion damaged the vessel severely enough for her to be declared a CTL. The owners eventually towed the vessel to Spain to be scrapped. The blast injured eight men and killed one of the ship's crew on watch below.

1945 - On 17 July, Liberty Ship William J Palmer sailed from New York bound for Yugoslavia via Trieste, Italy. The vessel struck a mine 7.5 nm (14 km) SW by W out of Trieste and about two nm from shore. The explosion occurred on the starboard side at the #4 hold, causing a 5° list. The ship began to sink by the stem, and when the bulkhead separating the engine room gave way, the master ordered the ship abandoned. The complement of eight officers, thirty-five men, three armed guards, and eighteen workaways, who were signed on to take care of the horses, left the ship in four lifeboats. Ten minutes after the explosion all hands safely left the ship. The master boarded a British cutter that circled the Palmer but could not save the horses. Only six of the horses, those tethered on the deck, were saved by local fishermen. A tugboat towed the four lifeboats into Trieste. Palmer rolled over on her starboard side and sank at 1300.

1960 – Test pilot Joe Walker flew X-15 #1 on a “maximum speed, heating data, stability and control” flight, reaching 23,807 meters (78,112 feet) and Mach 3.31. Flight time was 10’22”. The canopy seal burned.

1964 – Former USS Spikefish (AGSS-404) was sunk as a target off Long Island, NY.

1966 – Test pilot Bill Dana flew X-15 #3 on a “pilot checkout, Lear Panel, Boundary Layer Noise, Tail Loads,” flight, reaching 40,444 meters (132,700 feet) and Mach 5.34. Flight time was 8’27”. This was Dana’s first flight above 100,000 feet and Mach 5.

1973 - First of two prototype Boeing YQM-94A Compass Cope B long-range remotely piloted vehicles (RPV), possibly serial 70-1839, crashed during its second test flight. The U.S. Air Force decides not to order the Compass Copes into production. Second prototype is now on display at the National Museum of the United States Air Force, Dayton, Ohio.

1992 - A Lockheed F-117A Nighthawk, 85-801, "The Perpetrator", goes out of control after take-off for a night training mission from Holloman AFB, New Mexico. The pilot from the 416th Fighter Squadron, ejects safely, suffering only minor cuts. The aircraft came down in sparsely populated area near a trailer park. Investigators believed that an improperly reinstalled bleed air duct led to control failure.

1992 – Former USS Indra (ARL-37/LST-1147) was sunk as an artificial reef, 16 nm (30 km) W by S of the Cape Lookout Lighthouse, NC.

Aug 04, 2019 #1478 2019-08-04T23:20

1832 – Frigate USS Potomac becomes the first U.S. Navy ship to entertain royalty, King and Queen of Sandwich Islands.

1858 - The last bit of cable is laid by steam sloop USS Niagara and British ship Agamemnon to complete the first trans-Atlantic cable. Niagara's boats carried the end of the cable ashore at Brills Mouth Island, Newfoundland, and the same day Agamemnon landed her end of the cable at England. The first message flashed across August 16 when Queen Victoria sent a cable to President James Buchanan.

1861 - American Civil War, Union blockade: Confederate bark Alvarado, taken as a prize by the privateer Jefferson Davis on 21 July, was run ashore and burned by sloop-of-war USS Jamestown near Fernandina, Florida.

1862 - American Civil War, Battle of Baton Rouge: Screw ironclad CSS Arkansas became disabled and ran aground while maneuvering to engage ironclad river gunboat USS Essex in the Mississippi River at Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Her crew set her on fire and abandoned ship. She slipped off the riverbank, drifted downstream, exploded, and sank at 30°29′14″N 91°12′5″W (which, on Google Earth, is 2.5 nm (4.6 km) upstream from Port Allen, on the opposite bank of Baton Rouge).
Some sources say this key engagement occurred on 6 August, although the same GPS coordinates are given.

1863 - American Civil War: Union 702-ton sidewheel paddle steamer Ruth was set afire by Confederate agents on the Mississippi River at Lucas Bend, 4 mi (6.4 km) below Norfolk, Missouri. She was engulfed in flames within five minutes and burned for five hours before sinking in 18 feet (5.5 meters) of water. Thirty lives were lost. Her wreck was blown up with gunpowder on October 19, 1863.

1864 - American Civil War, Battle of Mobile Bay: Sidewheel gunboat CSS Gaines grounded in a sinking condition at the mouth of Mobile Bay, Alabama, within 500 yards of Fort Morgan, after suffering heavy damage, with two crew members killed.

1864 – American Civil War, Battle of Mobile Bay: Sidewheel gunboat USS Philippi was set afire by Confederate artillery and sank in Mobile Bay, Alabama, 6.6 nm (12.1 km) south of Gaillard Island after suffering heavy damage.

1864 - American Civil War, Battle of Mobile Bay: Monitor USS Tecumseh sank in less than 30 seconds with the loss of 94 lives at Fort Morgan, at the mouth of Mobile Bay, Alabama, after striking a Confederate mine.
Battle of Mobile Bay

1882 - The first US Navy steel warships, cruisers USS Atlanta, USS Boston and USS Chicago, plus dispatch vessel USS Dolphin, are authorized by Congress, beginning the New Navy.
Subsequently known as the A, B, C, D ships, they are built at Chester, Pa. Dolphin is commissioned first in 1885, followed by Atlanta (1886), Boston (1887), and Chicago (1889).

1918 - World War I: American trawler Agnes G. Holland was sunk in the Western Atlantic by SM U-156.

1918 - World War I: U. S. sailing vessel Stanley M. Seamen was scuttled in the Atlantic Ocean, 110 nm (200 km) east of Cape Hatteras, Virginia by SM U-140. Her crew survived.

1921 - The Yangtze River Patrol Force is established as a command under the Asiatic Fleet. The force serves in the area until December 1941 when the force is disestablished with many of the ships captured, or scuttled, and the crews taken prisoner by the Japanese.

1943 - Lockheed B-34, 41-38116, that collided with American Airlines Flight 28 on 23 October 1942, was repaired and re-designated as an RB-34A-4 target tug. On 5 August 1943, this same aircraft suffered starboard engine failure during a ferry flight and crashed into Wolf Hill, a mile W of Farnum Pike, near Smithfield, Rhode Island, killing all three crew members.
"The pilot having insufficient altitude to recover properly, crashed on a wooded hill," states the accident investigation report, issued 19 August 1943. Killed are 2d Lt. Otis R. Portewig, 27, Richmond, Virginia, pilot, of the 1st Towing Squadron, Otis Field, Massachusetts T/Sgt. Herbert D. Booth, 21, Rahway, New Jersey, crew chief, also of the 1st Towing Squadron and 2d Lt. Saul Winsten, 25, Pawtucket, Rhode Island, of the 901 st Quartermaster Company, Aviation Service, Otis Field, passenger.
Wolf Hill Plane Crash

1943 – "Las Vegas, Nev., Aug. 6, (AP) - Four fliers attached to the Las Vegas Army Airfield (now Nellis AFB) were killed yesterday as their plane crashed eight miles northwest of here, base officials announced. The plane, a navigator trainer, was on a routine flight when it went into a spin from 3,000 feet. It burst into flames as it struck the ground."
Lockheed AT-18A-LO Hudson, 42-55494, c/n 414-7216, of the 50 th Flexible Gunnery Training Squadron, Las Vegas Army Airfield, piloted by Avalon L. Finlayson, was destroyed. The Aviation Archaelological Investigation and Research website lists the crash location as 10 miles WSW of the air base.

1944 - During test flight out of the Fisher plant at Cleveland, Ohio, third Fisher XP-75 Eagle, 44-32161, crashes at Fairfield Village, Ohio, three miles (5 km) N of Cleveland, after an explosion and fire at 23,000 feet (7,000 m) – pilot Russell Stuart Weeks bailed out at 4,000 feet (1,200 m).

1945 - First production Martin JRM-1 Mars flying boat, BuNo 76819, "christened "Hawaii Mars"", finished in overall dark blue, crashes on test flight in the Chesapeake Bay near Rock Hall, Maryland, after porpoising during landing – never delivered to the United States Navy. "Launched only two weeks ago, the Hawaii Mars was on a routine test flight over the bay when, a crewman said, the upper section of the plane's vertical fin broke away at an altitude of 6,000 feet. 'The ship began to flutter immediately and went out of control,' the crew member added, asking that his name not be used. 'The pilot cried out 'prepare to abandon ship.' But pilot William E. Coney, a navy flyer on loan to the Martin firm, regained partial control of the giant craft and some ten minutes later ordered 'stand by for crash.'
The plane struck the water about 500 yards offshore. The impact of the 125-mile-an-hour blow ripped open the metal hull, and the plane sank until only part of its tail and left wing remained visible. Two crew members trapped in the flight deck were rescued by companions who ignored the danger of a gasoline explosion. Small boats that sped to the crash scene took the ten to shore. R. S. Noble, flight test engineer, was taken to South Baltimore hospital with cuts, bruises and possible internal injuries. A navy announcement in Washington said the plane would be taken to the Martin plant." Noble was the only injury amongst the ten-man crew. "Witnesses said the plane, apparently having trouble with one of her four engines, came down 500 yards off-shore, parts of it remaining above water."

1945 - A Boeing TB-17G Flying Fortress, built as a B-17G-70-BO, 43-37700, of the 325th Combat Crew Training Squadron, Avon Park Army Airfield (now McDill AFB Auxiliary Field), Florida, crashes six miles S of Ridgeland, South Carolina, after the number 2 (port inner) engine catches fire at 10,000 feet during a flight from Stewart Field (now Stewart International Airport), New York, to its home base in Florida.
Pilot Lieutenant Dewey O. Jones orders the crew to abandon ship. An announcement released by the Hunter Field (now Hunter Army Airfield), Georgia, public relations office states that five parachuted safely, three were killed, and that two other men were missing. Listed as fatalities are Flight Officer Alfred Ponessa, of Newburgh, New York, a passenger, Sergeant Leo B. Bucharia, of Long Island, New York, and Technical Sergeant Edwin S. Salas, of Haverhill, Massachusetts, both members of the crew. The missing were listed as Lieutenant William Cherry and Corporal Sidney Podhoretz. The names of the other four survivors were not given.

1946 - Second (of only 14 built) Douglas C-74 Globemaster, 42-65403, c/n 13914, crashes at Torrance, California when it loses a wing during an overload dive test. All four crew bail out successfully.

1950 - A USAF Boeing B-29 Superfortress, 44-87651, of the 99th Bomb Squadron, 9th Bomb Group, 9th Bomb Wing, carrying a Mark 4 nuclear bomb, suffers runaway propellers and landing gear retraction problems during takeoff at Fairfield-Suisun Air Force Base, Fairfield, California concerned that the aircraft cannot clear rising terrain ahead, aircraft and mission commander Brig. Gen. Robert F. Travis orders a return to the airfield. The pilot completes a 180-degree turn, but he and the copilot are subsequently unable to correct a descending turn to the left, and the B-29 crashes along the airfield perimeter at a speed of 120 mph (190 km/h) in a wing-low attitude, breaking apart and catching fire. After emergency personnel arrive at the scene, a huge explosion occurs, killing 7 on the ground and 12 aboard the plane, including Travis the airfield is later renamed Travis Air Force Base in his honor. Numerous nearby mobile homes are severely damaged and dozens of civilians, firefighters, and USAF ground crew are injured. The USAF attributes the explosion to conventional 500-pound HE bombs aboard the B-29 and claims that the nuclear bomb's fissile pit was aboard a different aircraft, but admits that the bomb casing contained depleted uranium used as ballast, and later orders a public health assessment of the crash site. Investigators attribute the crash to improper maintenance and the USAF makes several changes to B-29 operating and maintenance procedures.

1952 - Convair B-36D-25-CF Peacemaker, 49-2661, c/n 121, on bailment to Convair, San Diego, California, crashes into San Diego Bay at 1430 PDT, while on a normal shakedown flight following completion of "San-San" project modification. The number 5 engine catches fire in flight and then falls off the wing. The aircraft is destroyed by impact and explosion. Four of the eight crewmembers, all Convair flight test employees, receive minor injuries, two are uninjured, and two are lost, first flight engineer W. W. Hoffman, by drowning, while the pilot, David H. Franks, 40, stays with the plane to maneuver it out to sea and away from occupied land. His body is never found. Coast Guard planes rescue four and Navy ships pick up two. The rescued, none seriously injured, are R. W. Adkins, co-pilot Kenneth Rogers, flight engineer, W. F. Ashmore, Roy E. Sommers, D. R. Maxion and W. E. Wilson, all of San Diego. The UB88 Project dive team determined that the bomber actually came down in the Pacific, 3.5 miles off Mission Beach.

1954 - As the first pre-production Douglas A2D-1 Skyshark, BuNo 125480, piloted by George Jansen, is flown on a test flight out of Edwards AFB, California, the temperamental gearbox transferring the Allison XT-40A power to counter-rotating propellers fails, and even though the powerplant continues to partially function, the props automatically feather. Unable to spot a reasonable landing spot, the pilot ejects, suffering back injuries that leave him a plaster cast for several months. The Skyshark program is cancelled one month later, with only six of ten pre-production A2D-1s completed ever being flown.

1970 - A U.S. Air Force McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II of the 36th TFW, Bitburg, Germany, TDY to Zaragoza Air Base, Spain, crashes on a gunnery range 25 miles from Zaragoza, killing pilot Capt. Charles A. Baldwin, 28, of Charleston, West Virginia, and navigator Capt. Stephen N. Smith, 27, of Pinebrook, New Jersey.

1990 - Operation Sharp Edge begins, with the Navy and Marines evacuating U.S. citizens and foreign nationals from Liberia during its civil war.

2013 - A USAF Sikorsky HH-60 Pave Hawk helicopter crashed near Camp Hansen Training Area on Okinawa. Three of the four personnel on-board survive.


The Dangerous Myth About The Bill Clinton Tax Increase

"The real lesson of the Clinton Presidency is the way back to prosperity lies not through increased . [+] taxes on “the rich,” but through tax and regulatory reform and a return to a rules based monetary policy that produces a strong and stable dollar."(Image credit: AFP/Getty Images via @daylife)

One of the most dangerous myths that has infected the current debate over the direction of tax policy is the oft repeated claim that the tax increases under President Bill Clinton led to the boom of the 1990s. In their Wall Street Journal Op-Ed last Friday, for example, Clinton campaign manager James Carville and Democratic pollster and Clinton advisor Stanley Greenberg write the increase in the top tax rate to 39.6% “produced the one period of shared prosperity in this past era (since 1980).”

While this myth is now a central part of liberal Democratic folklore, it is contradicted by the political disaster and poor economic results that followed the tax increase. The real lesson of the Clinton Presidency is the way back to prosperity lies not through increased taxes on “the rich,” but through tax and regulatory reform and a return to a rules based monetary policy that produces a strong and stable dollar.

The 1993 Clinton tax increase raised the top two income tax rates to 36% and 39.6%, with the top rate hitting joint returns with incomes above $250,000 ($400,000 in 2012 dollars). In addition, it removed the cap on the 2.9% Medicare payroll tax, raised the corporate tax rate to 35% from 34%, increased the taxable portion of Social Security benefits, and imposed a 4.3 cent per gallon increase in transportation fuel taxes.

If these tax increases were good for the middle class, then they should have been popular. Yet, in the 1994 elections, the Democratic Party suffered historic losses. Even though Senate Majority Leader George Mitchell had declared the unpopular HillaryCare dead in September of that year, the Republican Party gained 54 seats in the House and 8 seats in the Senate to win control of both the House and the Senate for the first time since 1952.

Second, Messrs. Carville and Greenberg are contradicted by their former boss. Speaking at a fund raiser in 1995, President Clinton said: "Probably there are people in this room still mad at me at that budget because you think I raised your taxes too much. It might surprise you to know that I think I raised them too much, too."

During the first four years of his Presidency, real GDP growth average 3.2%, respectable relative to today’s economy, but disappointing coming as it did following just one year of recovery from the 1991 recession, the end of the Cold War and the reduction in consumer price inflation below 3% for the first time (with the single exception of 1986) since 1965.

For example, it was a half a percentage point slower than under Reagan during the four years following the first year of the recovery from the 1982 recession.

Employment growth was a respectable 2 million a year. But real hourly wages continued to stagnate, rising only 2 cents to 7.43 an hour in 1996 from $7.41 in 1992. No real gains for the middle class there.

Federal government receipts increased an average of $90 billion a year while the annual increase in federal spending was constrained to $45 billion. That led to a $183 billion, four-year reduction in the budget deficit to $107 billion in 1996.

However, with his masterful 1995 flip-flop on taxes, President Clinton took the first step toward a successful campaign for re-election and a shift in policy that produced the economic boom that occurred during his second term.

  • Welfare reform, which he signed in the summer of 1996, led to a massive reduction in the effective tax rates on the poor by ameliorating the rapid phase out of benefits associated with going to work.
  • The phased reduction in tariff and non-tariff barriers between the U.S., Mexico and Canada under the North American Free Trade Agreement continued, leading to increased trade.
  • In 1997, Clinton signed a reduction in the (audible liberal gasp) capital gains tax rate to 20% from 28%.
  • The 1997 tax cuts also included a phased in increase in the death tax exemption to $1 million from $600,000, and established Roth IRAs and increased the limits for deductible IRAs.
  • Annual growth in federal spending was kept to below 3%, or $57 billion.
  • The Clinton Administration also maintained its policy of a strong and stable dollar. Over his entire second term, consumer price inflation averaged only 2.4% a year.

The boom was on. Between the end of 1996 and the end of 2000:

  • Economic growth accelerated a full percentage point to 4.2% a year.
  • Employment growth nudged higher, to 2.1 million jobs per year as the unemployment rate fell to 4.0% from 5.4%.
  • As the tax rate on capital gains came down, real wages made their biggest advance since the implementation of the Reagan tax rate reductions in the mid 1980s. Real average hourly earnings were (in 1982 dollars) $7.43 in 1996, $7.55 in 1997, $7.75 in 1998, $7.86 in 1999, and $7.89 in 2000.
  • Millions of Americans shared in the prosperity as the value of their 401(k)s climbed along with the stock market, which saw the price of the S&P 500 index rise 78%.
  • Revenue growth accelerated an astounding 59%, increasing on average $143 billion a year. Combined with continued restraint on government spending, that produced a $198 billion budget surplus in 2000.

Shared prosperity indeed! But one created not by raising tax rates on high income but not yet rich middle class families, and certainly not by raising the capital gains tax rate or by imposing the equivalent of the Buffett rule, a new alternative minimum tax of 30% on incomes over $1 million, nor by massively increasing federal spending.

Rather, it was a prosperity produced by freeing America’s poor from a punitive welfare system, lowering tariffs, reducing tax rates on the creators of wealth, limiting the growth of federal government expenditures, and providing a strong and stable dollar to businesses and families in America and throughout the world.

A shared prosperity can be achieved again. But to do so, the American people will have to overcome the envy feeding myth perpetrated by President Barack Obama and the spin-masters and leadership of the Democratic Party that raising tax rates on high incomes will somehow lead to more job creation, more opportunity and increased prosperity and security for the middle-class.


Bill Clinton and the Meaning of “Is”

Years from now, when we look back on Bill Clinton’s presidency, its defining moment may well be Clinton’s rationalization to the grand jury about why he wasn’t lying when he said to his top aides that with respect to Monica Lewinsky, “There’s nothing going on between us.” How can this be? Here’s what Clinton told the grand jury (according to footnote 1,128 in Starr’s report):

“It depends on what the meaning of the word ‘is’ is. If the—if he—if ‘is’ means is and never has been, that is not—that is one thing. If it means there is none, that was a completely true statement. … Now, if someone had asked me on that day, are you having any kind of sexual relations with Ms. Lewinsky, that is, asked me a question in the present tense, I would have said no. And it would have been completely true.”

The distinction between “is” and “was” was seized on by the commentariat when Clinton told Jim Lehrer of PBS right after the Lewinsky story broke, “There is no improper relationship.” Chatterbox confesses that at the time he thought all these Beltway domes were hyperanalyzing, and in need of a little fresh air. But it turns out they were right: Bill Clinton really is a guy who’s willing to think carefully about “what the meaning of the word ‘is’ is.” This is way beyond slick. Perhaps we should start calling him, “Existential Willie.”


USS Southard (DD-207/ DMS-10)

USS Southard (DD-207/ DMS-10) was a Clemson class destroyer that fought at Guadalacanal, Bougaunville, the Palaus, the Philippines and Okinawa, before being damaged beyond repair by typhoons after the end of the war.

The Southard was named after Samuel Lewis Southard, Secretary of the Navy from 1823 until 1829.

The Southard was laid down by Cramp&rsquos at Philadelphia on 18 August 1918, launched on 31 March 1919 and commissioned on 24 September 1919. After her shake down cruise she was one of seven destroyers that escorted HMS Renown as she carried Edward, Prince of Wales, home from a visit to the United States. On 19 November 1919 she left Newport heading for the eastern Mediterranean, where she joined the US fleet operationg in the Adriatic. She spent about a year operating in the Adriatic, before heading east to the Philippines, passing through the Suez Canal on her way. She reached Cavite in the Philippines on 16 February 1921, and after repairs that lasted until 21 March began operations with the Asiatic Fleet. She remained in Far Eastern waters until 27 August 1922 when she departed for the United States, where early in 1922 she was decommissioned.

The Southard was recommissioned on 6 January 1930. She spent most of 1930 operating off the US west coast, before moving to the Panama Canal zone for the first part of 1931. After that she spent the next nine years operating with the Battle Force in the Pacific. From June 1931 until the summer of 1932 she was commanded by Oscar Charles Badger, who later served as commander of destroyers with the Atlantic Fleet, and various battleship squadrons in the Pacific. In 1934 and 1939 she visited the Atlantic for short periods. In 1935 she was part of Destroyer Division 18, along with the Chandler(DD-206), Long (DD-209) and Hovey (DD-208).

In 1940 the Southard was converted into a high-speed destroyer minesweeper, and on 19 October she was reclassified as DMS-10. She was then posted to Pearl Harbor. The Southard was at Johnston Island when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, along with the Indianapolis and her fellow mine sweepers Hopkins, Dorsey, Elliot and Long, where they were testing a new type of landing boat. She returned to Pearl Harbor two days later, and was used to patrol the approaches to the harbour until 23 January 1942.

Beween 23 January and 15 February 1942 the Southard escorted a convoy to San Francisco and back. She then spent a short spell back on patrol duty, before heading east with another convoy between 20-31 May. She spent the first ten days of June in restricted availability at Mare Island, before returning to Pearl Harbour on 1 July.

On 10 July she left Pearl Harbor with the Hovey (DMS-11) and Argonne (AP-4), arriving at Canton Island on 16 July, on her way to take part in the invasion of Guadalcanal. She arrived off Guadalacanal on 7 August and took part in the initial bombardment of Florida Island. She then joined the minesweepers operating to the south of Gavutu Island and in Lengo Channel.

During the battle of Savo Island (8-9 August 1942) the Southard was part of the defensive screen for the transport ships that had landed troops on Guadalcanal. On 8 August she claimed one of twenty high altitude bombers that attacked the transport area.

After the beachhead had been established, the Southard spent eight months escorting convoys between New Caledonia and the New Hebrides to the Solomon Islands.

When the beachhead on Guadalcanal had been successfully established, Southard settled down to the risky routine of screening the convoys from New Caledonia and the New Hebrides to the Solomons. For almost eight months, she steamed back and forth between Espiritu Santo, Efate, Noumea, Tulagi, Purvis Bay, and Guadalcanal. There were frequent air attacks, and submarines prowled the sea-lanes.

On 2 November she screened the Majaba (AG-43) as she crossed from Guadalcanal to Tulagi to unload cargo. Early on 10 November, while passing between San Cristobal and Guadalcanal, the Southard found a Japanese submarine on the surface. She opened fire, and then after the submarine submerged carried out her first depth charge attack. She then lost contact with the submarine for three and a half hours, only regaining it at 0607. The Southard carried out five depth charge attacks in three hours. After the last attack oil came to the surface, and the Southard passed over the oil. Soon afterwards the damaged submarine surfaced, with her conning tower, forward hull and part of the keel breaching the surface. After that she sank by the stern. At the time the kill couldn&rsquot be confirmed, but this was later identified as I-172, lost on that date.

At the end of 1942 the Southard was sent to Brisbane for a liberty and recreation visit, before she spent six days in dry dock at Sydney. She returned to duty early in January, but only for two months. On 20 March she left Noumea in company with two other destroyers (the Hovey (DMS-11) and Stringham (APD-6) and the fleet tug Sonoma (AT-12), which was towing the Aulick (DD-569), damaged after she ran into a reef on 10 March. This flotilla reached Pearl Harbor via Fiji and Pago Pago. The Southard then continued on to San Francisco, where she underwent a refit at the Mare Island Navy Yard between 19 April and 8 June.

The Southard returned to Pearl Harbor on 15 June, and departed for the South Pacific theatre nine days later, reaching Dumbea Bay on New Caledonia on 6 July. She then resumed operations in the Solomons, carrying out a mix of patrol duties and convoy escorts. On 30 October she joined a convoy off Guadalcanal that was heading towards Bougainville, to take part in the landings around Empress Augusta Bay. The Southard took part in the naval bombardment of the area, then carried out minesweeping operations in Empress Augusta Bay. She returned to Florida Island on 3 November, but four days later was back at Bougainville to investigate the approaches to Empress Augusta Bay. After that she returned to patrol duties off Guadalcanal. This lasted for the rest of the year, apart from a trip to New Caledonia.

On 22 January the Southard was escorted the oiler Cache (AO-67) when she was torpedoed by a Japanese submarine while travelling from Florida Island to Espiritu Santo. The Southard had to escort the damaged oiler back to Espiritu Santo.

After a visit to Auckland, New Zealand in February, the Southard returned to operations around Guadalcanal. In April and May she began operating in the Bismarck Archipelago, escorting convoys to Borgen Bay on New Britain. However in mid May she departed for the United States and a major overhaul that took up all of June and July.

In August the Southard returned to the Pacific. In September she took part in the invasion of the Palau Islands. On 12 September she arrived in the islands, and began a period of minesweeping off Peleliu and Anguar. This lasted until 24 September when she returned to Manus to take on supplies. She then returned to the Palaus for a second tour of duty that lasted until the end of the month.

On 10 October the Southard set sail with the Dinagat Attack Force, part of the invasion force heading for Leyte in the Philippines. She began minesweeping operations in Leyte Gulf on 18-19 October, then in the Surigao Strait on 20 October. From 24-26 October she formed part of the screen for Carrier Group 77.4. She then returned to Seeadler Harbor, and spent November and most of December on exercises.

On 23 December 1944 the Southard joined TG 77.6, ready to take part in the invasion of Lingayen Gulf on Luzon.

The Southard began minesweeping at Lingayen on 6 January 1945. This was one of the more dangerous minesweeping operations of the Pacific War. On the same afternoon the Southard was hit by a kamikaze attack. The aircraft hit behind her smoke stakes. The fuselage of the aircraft bounced off, cutting six foot wide gap in the deck, which its engine remained embedded in the ship. The Southard had to cut loose her minesweeping gear and retreat to make repairs. However the damage wasn&rsquot too serious, and she was able to resume duties on 7 January, 14 hours after the attack. She continued to carry out her duties in Lingayen Gulf for five more day sbefore leaving for repairs. The first work was carried out at San Pedro Bay from 14 January, then she departed for Hawaii on 4 February. The jounty took her to Ulithi (6 February) and Guam (8 February). She departed from the Marianas on the 13th (alongside the Sperry (AS-12)) and reached Pearl Harbor on 22 February. The repairs turned out to be rather time consuming, and she didn&rsquot leave Hawaii until 4 May.

On 1 May 1945 she was part of Mine Division Five (ComMinDiv 5) of the Pacific Fleet.

The Southard reached Eniwetok on 12 May, and then escorted the troopships Sea Sturgeon and Evangeline to Guam (with the Clinton (APA-144) and Buckingham (APA-141). On 23 May she departed for Okinawa, to join the battle off that island.

The Southard narrowly avoided a second kamikaze hit on the day she arrived off Okinawa, but survived and spent the next three months operating off the island, mine sweeping, screening transport ships and acting as a mail ship.

After the end of the fighting it was decided to send the Southard to a safe base for inspection and repairs. However on 17 September a typhoon hit. She ran aground on a pinnacle reef off Tsuken Shima after her screws were fouled by a drifting antisubmarine net. On 18 September she was floated off the reef and her screws cleared by divers. She was still waiting off Tsuken Shima when the famous typhoon hit the fleet on 9 October. The Southard hit another reef. On 10 October all but her CO and a skeleton crew were removed, and it was decided that she was too badly damaged to be worth repairing. On 5 December the Southard was decommissioned and on 14 January 1946 her hulk was destroyed.

The Southard received ten battle stars during the Second World War, for the Guadalcanal landings and the battle for Guadalcanal, the naval battle of Guadalcanal, sinking a submarine on 10 November 1942, New Georgia and Rendova, Cape Torokina, the southern Palau Islands, Leyte, Lingayen Gulf, Okinawa and 3rd Fleet operations against Japan.


During the early fall of 1919, Southard completed fitting-out and sailed for the Florida coast for shakedown. She next headed for New York to join six other destroyers in escorting HMS Renown out to sea as that warship departed carrying Edward, the Prince of Wales, after his visit to the United States. On 19 November 1919, Southard departed Newport, R.I., for duty with the naval forces in the eastern Mediterranean. For about a year, she operated in the Adriatic Sea. She then departed the Dalmatian coast transited the Suez Canal and, after calling at ports in Egypt, Arabia, India, and China, put in at Cavite in the Philippines on 16 February 1921. Southard underwent repairs at the navy yard there until 21 March, when she resumed operations. On 27 August 1922, she sailed for the United States and arrived in San Francisco, California, on 2 October. From there, she moved on to San Diego, where she was decommissioned on 7 February 1922.

After almost seven years in reserve, Southard again flew a commissioning pennant on 6 January 1930. She operated off the west coast of the United States throughout 1930 and in the vicinity of the Panama Canal during the first months of 1931. For the next nine years, Southard continued operations in the Pacific with the Battle Force. The only exceptions to this schedule came in 1934 and 1939 when she made short cruises in the Atlantic. In 1940, she was converted to a high-speed destroyer minesweeper and, on 19 October, was reclassified DMS-10.

Though stationed at Pearl Harbor when war broke out in the Pacific, Southard was at sea during the Japanese attack on 7 December. Two days earlier, she had departed that base to participate in exercises in the vicinity of Johnston Island. The destroyer minesweeper returned to Oahu two days after the attack and patrolled the approaches to Pearl Harbor until 23 January 1942. After escorting a convoy to San Francisco and back, on 15 February Southard resumed patrols in Hawaiian waters. On 20 May, she again exited Pearl Harbor in the screen of an eastbound convoy. The ships reached San Francisco on the 31st, and Southard spent the next 10 days in restricted availability in the Mare Island Navy Yard. She reentered Pearl Harbor on 1 July and, nine days later, stood out for the South Pacific.

Stopping along the way at both British and American Samoa, she arrived at Tongatabu, Fiji Islands, on 22 July. She departed three days later, stopped at Éfaté Island in the New Hebrides, and made Guadalcanal by 7 August. Southard participated in the opening bombardment of Florida Island then joined the minesweeping force in a sweep to the south of Gavutu Island and through Lengo Channel. On the 8th, about 20 high-altitude bombers attacked the transport area, and Southard succeeded in splashing at least one enemy plane.

When the beachhead on Guadalcanal had been successfully established, Southard settled down to the risky routine of screening the convoys from New Caledonia and the New Hebrides to the Solomons. For almost eight months, she steamed back and forth between Espiritu Santo, Éfaté, Nouméa, Tulagi, Purvis Bay, and Guadalcanal. There were frequent air attacks, and submarines prowled the sea-lanes.

Early in the morning of 10 November, while passing between San Cristobal and Guadalcanal en route to Aola Bay, Southard encountered an enemy submarine steaming on the surface. She immediately slowed to 10 knots and opened fire. The submarine submerged, and Southard commenced her first depth-charge attack. The destroyer minesweeper lost contact with her adversary and did not regain it again until 0607, almost three and one-half hours later. Over the next three hours, Southard made five more depth-charge runs. After the last barrage, oil was sighted on the surface and she moved in to investigate. Upon reaching the slick, Southard&rsquos crew could find no further evidence of damage, and she steamed on through the slick. When she reached a point about 2,000 yards on the other side of the slick, the submarine surfaced almost vertically-exposing her whole conning tower, her hull forward of the tower, and part of her keel. Then the bow dropped about 10 degrees, and the submarine sank rapidly by the stern. Though absolute confirmation of a kill was never received, all evidence strongly indicated that Southard was the victor.

Following a liberty and recreation excursion to Brisbane, Australia, and six days in dry-dock at Sydney, Southard returned to patrol and convoy duty in early January 1943. On 20 March, she stood out of Nouméa in company with Hovey (DMS 11), Stringham (APD 6), and Sonoma (AT 12) towing Aulick (DD 596). This task unit stopped at Suva Harbor, Fiji, on the 25th and departed the next day to continue on to Pago Pago, Pearl Harbor, and ultimately to San Francisco. Southard entered the Mare Island Navy Yard on 19 April and remained until 8 June. By the 15th, she was in Pearl Harbor again and, nine days later, headed back toward the South Pacific. She reached Dumbea Bay, New Caledonia, on 6 July 1943.

Her return to the western Pacific meant a resumption of patrol and convoy escort duty to support the continuing Solomons campaign which, by this time, had progressed farther north. On 30 October, she joined a convoy off Tetere Point, Guadalcanal, and steamed for Bougainville. The convoy arrived off Cape Torokina the next day, and Southard joined other elements of the fleet in bombarding Bougainville. After minesweeping operations in Empress Augusta Bay, she made for Florida Island, entering Purvis Bay on 3 November. Four days later, she returned to Bougainville to investigate the shoals along the approaches to Empress Augusta Bay then, she resumed patrols off Guadalcanal.

These patrols and cruises with convoys occupied Southard&rsquos time until 21 November, when she passed through Lengo Channel bound for Nouméa. From 25 November to 16 December, Southard stayed in the vicinity of New Caledonia, participating in drills and screening ships into and out of Nouméa. On 17 December, she entered Suva Harbor with a convoy and, two days later, got underway for Guadalcanal.

Upon her reentry into the Solomons, she took up the familiar routine of patrols and screening supply ships. The apparent monotony was broken on 22 January. While escorting Cache (AO-67) from Florida Island to Espiritu Santo, Southard had an opportunity to sharpen her antisubmarine warfare skills when a Japanese submarine torpedoed her charge. Her hunting, however, was cut short by the more important task of covering the limping oiler&rsquos retirement to Espiritu Santo.

In late February, Southard visited Auckland, New Zealand. She returned to the Solomons in March, patrolled the Guadalcanal area, and conducted exercises in the Russell Islands. Her field of operations was expanded in April and May to include parts of the Bismarck Archipelago as she began escorting convoys to Borgen Bay, New Britain. By 10 May, she was back in Espiritu Santo and, a week later, she set sail for the United States and overhaul. She took on fuel at Funafuti on 19 May, provisioned and fueled at Pearl Harbor on the 24th and 25th and entered San Francisco Bay on 31 May. Southard commenced overhaul at the Mare Island Navy Yard the next day.

Two months later, the revitalized destroyer minesweeper headed back to the war. She made Pearl Harbor on 5 August and, on the 12th, sortied with six escort carriers and five other destroyer-type ships, bound for the Solomons. Twelve days later, the task group entered Purvis Bay. Southard stood out again the following day for exercises in the Russells.

On 4 September, she rendezvoused with a task force off Guadalcanal, arrived in the Palaus on the 12th and swept mines off the coasts of Peleliu and Anguar. On the 24th, she fueled and replenished at Manus in the Admiralty Islands, then returned to the Palaus for patrols and screening duties. She reentered Seeadler Harbor on 4 October to prepare for the invasion of the Philippines at Leyte.

Southard sortied from Manus with the Dinagat Attack Force on 10 October and began sweeping Leyte Gulf on the 18th. She swept mines in the gulf again on the 19th and made an exploratory sweep of Surigao Strait on the 20th. On the 24th, the destroyer minesweeper joined the screen of Carrier Group 77.4 and remained so employed until the 26th. Back in Seeadler Harbor by 30 October, Southard spent all of November and most of December engaged in drills and availability at Manus.

Two days before Christmas 1944, she rendezvoused with TG 77.6 and headed for Leyte Gulf. From there, the task group moved on to Luzon and the Lingayen assault. Southard began minesweeping operations at Lingayen on 6 January 1945. Late that afternoon, while she was fighting off a kamikaze attack, one of the suicide planes crashed Southard abaft her stacks. The plane&rsquos engine embedded itself in the ship while its fuselage ricocheted off her starboard side, tearing a trough six feet wide in her deck as it went. Southard quickly cut loose her sweep gear and retired to make emergency repairs.

Within 14 hours, she was back in action sweeping mines. The plucky ship continued operations for five more days before departing the Lingayen area. She returned to San Pedro Bay on 14 January for further repairs then, on 4 February, headed east toward Hawaii. She stopped at Ulithi on the 6th and at Guam two days later. Southard departed from the Marianas on the 13th and arrived in Pearl Harbor on George Washington&rsquos birthday. She underwent extensive repairs at Pearl Harbor and did not leave Hawaiian waters until 4 May. She stopped at Eniwetok on the 12th then, in company with Clinton (APA-144) and Buckingham (APA-141), continued on to the Marianas. On 21 May, she sailed from Guam to Saipan and, two days later, got underway for Okinawa.

On the day of her arrival at Nakagasuku Wan, Okinawa, Southard almost suffered another suicide crash as an attacking kamikaze splashed a scant 15 yards ahead of the destroyer minesweeper. For the next three months, she swept mines, screened transports, and delivered mail to the fire support units around Okinawa. On 15 August 1945, hostilities between the United States and the Japanese Empire ceased. Southard remained in the Ryukyus for the rest of August, undergoing inspection and survey. By 15 September, the survey team determined that she should be moved to the rear area for further inspection and repair. However, two days afterward, while maneuvering at anchor during a typhoon, her screws were fouled by a drifting antisubmarine net and she was grounded on a pinnacle reef off Tsuken Shima. She was floated clear of the reef, and her propellers were cleared by divers on the 18th. Later, while still waiting to move to the rear area, on 9 October, Southard was wrecked on another reef about 1,000 yards southwest of Tsuken Shima. The next day, the officers and crew, save the commanding officer and a skeleton crew, were removed. The destroyer minesweeper was declared a total loss and, on 5 December 1945, she was decommissioned. Southard was struck from the Navy list on 8 January 1946, and her hulk was destroyed six days later.


A Short History of MoveOn

Starting with our founding petition during the Clinton impeachment debate in 1998—the first breakout digital intervention in American politics—we have been at the forefront of innovating new ways digital tech can empower ordinary people from all walks of life to make their voices heard. MoveOn members have played a leading role in ending the war in Iraq, passing and defending landmark legislation such as the Affordable Care Act, and advancing racial, economic, and other forms of social justice. Since the 2016 election, we have been a pillar of the Resistance movement working to limit the harm caused by Trump and the GOP, while laying the groundwork for progress.

Read on to learn more about our story.

When tech entrepreneurs Joan Blades and Wes Boyd created an online petition about the Clinton impeachment in 1998 and emailed it to friends, they didn’t expect what came next. Within days, their petition to “Censure President Clinton and Move On to Pressing Issues Facing the Nation” had hundreds of thousands of signatures. For the first time in history, an online petition broke into and helped transform the national conversation.

Wes and Joan realized that their petition’s success only hinted at the internet’s potential to impact politics. They saw that the hundreds of thousands of concerned Americans who had signed their petition could be organized to take action on other issues, and that digital organizing had the potential to disrupt and fundamentally alter the course of our democracy. The signers of Wes and Joan’s petition became MoveOn’s first members.

In the years that followed, MoveOn pioneered the field of digital organizing, innovating a vast array of tactics that are now commonplace in advocacy and elections, and shifting power toward real people and away from Washington insiders and special interests. MoveOn campaigners were the first to use the internet to run virtual phone banks, to crowdsource TV ad production, and to take online organizing offline, using the internet to mobilize activists to knock on doors and attend events. We proved that individual Americans could pool lots of small contributions to make a big impact by raising hundreds of millions of dollars for progressive causes and candidates.

Together, in collaboration with allies, we have grown the progressive movement and demonstrated that ordinary people’s voices can make a difference. MoveOn members have played crucial roles in persuading the Democratic Party to oppose and eventually end America’s war in Iraq, in helping Democrats retake Congress in 2006 with our influential “Caught Red Handed” campaign, in securing the Democratic nomination for President Obama in 2008 with a pivotal endorsement before the Super Tuesday primaries, and in passing health care reform in 2010. More recently, we’ve surfaced student loans as a potent national issue, helped elevate the leadership of Senators Bernie Sanders and Elizabeth Warren and other progressives fighting inequality, mobilized more than half a million people to help take down the Confederate flag from the South Carolina state capitol grounds, led a massive grassroots mobilization to secure President Obama’s diplomatic agreement with Iran and prevent a costly and unnecessary war of choice.

Since immediately after the election of Donald Trump, MoveOn members have served as a pillar of the Resistance Movement.

MoveOn members have been at the forefront of the resistance as Trump and his Republican Party tried to take away health care from tens of millions, cut taxes for corporations and billionaires, separated immigrant families and caged children, given polluters free rein, attacked women, people of color, Muslims, immigrants, LGBTQ Americans, working families, and other communities, and made war more likely. Through mass mobilizations, rapid-response actions, phone calls and emails to Congress, digital activism, and other strategic interventions, we have limited the harm done by Trump. Since 2017 we were one of the leading groups supporting his impeachment, which took place at the end of 2019 thanks to the Democratic House of Representatives that we helped elect in 2018 through our Resist & Win midterm election campaign, in which we endorsed and supported more than 100 federal candidates as well as more than 100 state and local candidates.



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