Etruscan Religion Timeline

Etruscan Religion Timeline


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600 - 500 BC

The sixth century BC was a turning point in world history. Though mighty conquerers like Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon and Darius of Persia were expanding their boundaries, dictatorships were on the decline and democratic freedom in Europe was on the rise. The gods of the Assyrian Empire could not protect them from the fall of mighty Nineveh in 612 BC. Babylon was at this time the greatest city in the world, but they too would fall just as memories of the pharaohs of Egypt had become faded. Roman law was codified and the Republic was established toward the latter part of the sixth century BC. In the Greek territories the people were forced to become self sufficient, they lived in a very rocky terrain and it was difficult for any dictator to conquer it, so freedom and independence were in the heart of the Greek people. It is also important to note that many of the great religions of the world were born during the sixth century BC. The sixth century BC indeed saw powerful conquerors, expanding new religions, and a yearning for freedom, yet the world was being fashioned by the hand of the One who controls the destiny of mankind. The world was being prepared for the "fullness of time" in which God would send the Savior who would conquer the world through love, and deliver an everlasting message of freedom that would truly change the world.

600 The Etruscans establish cities stretching from northern to central Italy.

600 At an unknown time the Persian people migrate from central Asia) to s. Iran

600 Greeks establish city-states along the s. coast of Italy and the island of Sicily.

600 Etruscan kings rule over Rome

600 Last Greek monarchies at Argos, Sparta, and Thera

600 Earliest known use of iron in China

598 Jehoichin (Jeconiah) becomes king of Judah till 597

597 Zedekiah (Mattaniah) becomes king of Judah till 587

594 Athen's laws reformed by Solon, the only Archon of Athens

593 Ezekiel is a prophet of Judah till 573

587 Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylonia sacks Jerusalem

587 Judah becomes a province of Babylonia

586 Exile of the Jews to Babylon

586 Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylonia conquers Phoenicia

586 Obadiah is a prophet in Judah

582 Birth of Pythagoras, Greek philosopher and mathematician

581 Nebuchadnezzar II burns Jerusalem

580 Nebuchadnezzar II builds the hanging gardens of Babylon

566 Birth of Prince Siddhartha Gautama who later became known as the Buddha

560 Croesus of Lydia subjugates Greek Ionian colonies

551 Birth of Confucius (K'ung Fu-tzu, the Chinese philosopher

550 Lao-tse founds Taoism in China

559 Cyrus the Great of Parsa rebels against the Medes and founds the Persian Empire

550 Persia conquers the Medes

547 Persians conquers Lydia, the battle of Sardis, and move through Asia Minor

543 Bimbisara expands his territories and introduces new administration

540 Vardhamana (Mahavira Jina) the ascetic founds Jainism

540 Peistratus the tyrant takes control of Athens

539 Greeks defeat the Carthaginians

539 Cyrus the Great of Persia conquers Babylonia

539 Cyrus the Great allows the Jews to return to Judah (a Persian province)

539 Cyrus the Great absorbs Phoenicia into the Persian Empire

534 Tarquinius Superbus (the proud), becomes the last king of Rome

533 Gandhara becomes a Satrap to the Achaemenid Empire of Persia

530 Cyrus conquers all of Asia Minor

530 Cyrus dies in battle

530 Cambyses (son of Cyrus) becomes ruler of Persia

525 Egypt conquered by the Persians

525 Persian empire extends from India to Asia Minor

522 Darius I puts down a rebellion in Persia and becomes king

521 Darius I divides the Empire into 20 provinces (satrapies)

520 The temple in Jerusalem building projects resumed

520 Haggai is a prophet in Judah till 515

520 Zechariah is a prophet in Judah till 515

519 Birth of Xerxes, future king of Persia

519 Pythagoras a Greek philosopher (so called demigod) introduces the octave in music

510 Reforms are introduced in Athens by Cleisthenes and introduces Democracy in Athens

509 Tarquinius Superbus, the last Etruscan king, is cast out of Rome

509 Birth of the Roman Republic, Etruscan rule ends

509 Nebuchadnezzar II builds the Hanging Gardens

509 Many wars with Rome and other inhabitants of Italy (the Etruscans and the Greeks).

508 Lars Porsena (Etruscan ruler) attacks Rome and loses at the Tiber bridge

507 Spartans try to restore the Aristocracy in Athens but Cleisthenes is given power

500 Germanic peoples of northern Europe expand their territories


Etruscan Religion Timeline - History

- No one knows for certain where the Etruscans had originally come from. They may have migrated from Asia Minor (now called Turkey) before settling in Etruria.

- Historians have not deciphered much Etruscan writing (namely gods and goddesses) and cannot read first-hand accounts of Etruscan history.

- The Etruscans did not speak an Indo-European language as did most migrant peoples from Asia Minor.

- The mud, bricks, and wood from their buildings have all disappeared and though archaeologists have unearthed foundations of some Etruscan cities, there is very little revealed about Etruscan culture.

- Most of the knowledge of the Etruscans have been found in their burial chambers though not much is revealed.

- The many Etruscan tomb paintings reveal that they enjoyed sports, religious ceremonies, music and feasts.

- Decorative objects have been found in tombs such as furniture, clothing, pottery, tools, and jewelry all revealing that they were just as had been spoken about them, "wealthy Mediterranean traders."

- Scholars have determned that their society consisted of wealthy overlords who made slaves of conquered peoples, aristocratic priests who sacrificed prisoners of war forced them to duel to the death to appease angry gods.

- The Etruscans were the first civilized people to settle in Italy and they greatly influenced the Romans.

- The Etruscans were flourishing from around 800 BC to 400 BC.

- In the 6th cent. BC. they occupied and ruled Rome for 100 years.

- Extensive iron ore deposits near them in north central Italy made them very rich from trade.

- The Etruscans adopted the Greek alphabet.

- They had skilled workers in bronze, iron and precious metals.

- At the height of their power they were ruling from the River Po to Naples.

- It was the Etruscans that wore a robe, later known to the Romans as the "toga."

- The Etruscans built Rome's first drainage system.

- Etruscan soldiers carried an official symbol called the "fasces" which was an axe with its handle surrounded by sticks and tied with rope.

- The Etruscan and Roman civilizations were put together from bits and pieces from Asia Minor, Greece, Phoenicia, Israel, Egypt, and Persia.

- The Romans adopted almost all of their superior warfare techniques including weapons and armor designs from the Etruscans, using the same techniques to conquer them in the fourth century BC.

- Etruscan women were considered equal to men

- Roman elegance was adopted from the Etruscans, lavish banquets reclining on couches, watching dancers and other entertainers while being served courses of fine food and drink by slaves.

- Senior officials of the Roman Republic derived their insignia from the Etruscans: curule chair, purple-bordered toga (toga praetexta), and bundle of rods (fasces).


Etruscan civilization: Etruscan Culture

Much of the actual work in Etruria was done by the native population, who were subject to, though probably not slaves of, their conquerors the nobility of Etruscan birth formed an exclusive caste. Women had an unusually high status compared to the ancient Greeks and Romans. Etruscan wealth and power were in part based upon their knowledge of ironworking and their exploitation of iron deposits that were abundant in Etruria. Etruscan art, which largely consisted of sculpture in clay and metal, fresco tomb paintings, and fine pottery, had some of its origins in Greek and Eastern arts and was extremely influential on the art of the Romans. Fond of music, games, and racing, the Etruscans introduced the chariot into Italy. They were also highly religious. Seeking to impose order on nature, they established strict laws to govern the relations between people and gods. Lacking the scientific rationalism of the Greeks, they tried to prolong the lives of the dead by decorating their tombs like houses. While religion is perhaps the best-known aspect of Etruscan civilization, even it remains quite enigmatic.

The Etruscan language also presents difficulties to the scholar. It can be easily read (the alphabet is of Greek extraction, and the sound value of the signs is known), but, with the exception of only a few words, the vocabulary is not understood. Although the language seems to contain both Indo-European and non-Indo-European elements as well as traces of ancient Mediterranean tongues, it cannot be classified into any known group of languages. Etruscan is known from some 10,000 epigraphic records dating from the 7th cent. BC to the 1st cent. AD most are brief and repetitious dedications. One of the mysteries of Etruscan civilization is why the written record is so sparse and why the Romans wrote almost nothing about the Etruscan language or its literature.

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.

See more Encyclopedia articles on: Ancient History, Rome


The Etruscans

Around 900 BCE, a new group of people arrived on the Italian peninsula. Nobody knows where they come from, but archaeologists believe they probably emigrated from southwest Asia.

The Etruscans alphabet was based on the Greek alphabet. The Etruscan gods looked human, like the Greek gods. But the Etruscans were not Greeks. Their language was different, and unlike the Greeks, they treated women like equals.

Like the Greeks, the Etruscans organized their towns into city-states and the city-states worked together in a league - the Etruscan League.

The league of city-states mostly cooperated in trade and in war, although sometimes they fought each other. Their trade routes included a small town on the Tiber river, the village of Rome. The Romans were Latins, not Etruscans, and were not a member of the Etruscan League. However, in the early days of Rome, when Rome was a kingdom, the Romans did have many Etruscan kings. As Rome grew stronger, the power of the Etruscans grew weaker. Soon, the Etruscan League was gone.

After the last Etruscan king was chased out of Rome, the people vowed they would never be ruled by a king again. Rome was no longer a kingdom. In its place, a new form of government was born, a republic, the Roman Republic.


Etruscan Religion Timeline - History

  • Food availability----indigenous animals & plants, imports
  • Technology---cooking methods & scientific process/progress
  • Seasons & climate---menus prepared according to ingredient availability droughts & famines
  • Religion---customs, rituals, & taboos
  • Socio-economic class---nobles? merchants? laborers? peasants? slaves?
  • Politics---foreign influence, immigration patterns, regulations & rationing
  • Regional identity---bust the myth of "national gastronomy" by comparing & contrasting foods by region
  • The Cambridge World History of Food, Kenneth F. Kiple & Kriemhild Conee Ornelas
    --Volume 2, Part V: Food and Drink around the World (Grades 9+) includes extensive bibliography for further research
  • Food Lover's Atlas of the World, Martha Rose Shulman
    --Key ingredients, popular dishes, beautiful photos (all grades)
  • Foods of the World (series by country), Time Life
    --overview of each country's popular foods, dining traditons, & recipes, good for pictures
  • The Oxford Companion to Food, Alan Davidson
    --Brief country culinary profiles separate entries for many traditional foods mentioned in the primary article provide additional information. (Grades 6+)
  • The World Atlas of Food, a Gourmet's Guide to the Great Regional Dishes of the World (all grades)
  • You Eat What You Are: People, Culture & Food Traditions, Thelma Barer-Stein
    --Popular foods, dining customs, and holidays meals for 55 countries includes glossary of foods. (Grades K-8)
  • Professional Chef/Culinary Arts Institute (8th edition)
    ---excellent source for major ingredients and cuisine summaries by world region & selected countries.
  • Original culture. traditional foods, recipes, dining customs, religion--people eat "what they know."
  • Migration patterns. where did these folks settle?
  • Economics & labor. where did they work? farms, fishermen?
  • Adaptation & assimilation. think weinerschnitzel and chicken fried steak. The "Americanization" of ethnic cuisine. Ingredient availability reconciled with economic survival (Chinese-American restaurants)
  • Consumer behavior. soldiers returning from WWII craved international foods they tasted abroad
  • American Immigrant Cultures: Builders of a Nation, David Levinson & Melvin Ember
  • Atlas of American Migration, Stephen A. Flanders
  • Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America, Robert Von Dassoanowsky
  • Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups, Stephan Thernstrom
  • American Cooking: The Melting Pot/James P. Shenton et. al
  • American Food: The Gastronomic Story/Evan Jones
  • Eating in America/Waverly Root & Richard de Rochemont
  • Hungering For America: Italian, Irish, & Jewish Foodways in the Age of Migration/Hasia R. Diner
  • 97 Orchard: An Edible History of Five Immigrant Families in One New York Tenement/Jane Ziegelman

    , National Library of Canada
  • Canadian Food Words/Bill Casselman. arranged by province
  • The Centennial Food Guide: A Century of Good Eating/Pierre and Janet Berton. featuring vintage recipes & illustrations
  • Culinary Saga of New Iceland: Recipes from the Shores of Lake Winnipeg/Kristin Olafson-Jenkyns
  • Northern Bounty: A Celebration of Canadian Cuisine/Jo Marie Powers & Anita Stewart
  • Pioneer Cook: A Historica View of Canadian Prairie Food/B. Barss
  • A Taste of History/Marc Lafrance & Yvon Desloges. Quebec, includes recipes
  • A Taste of Quebec/Julian Armstrong. modern recipes with history notes

  • France, Time-Life Foods of the World Series. perfect for school reports, includes pictures & recipes
  • The World Atlas of Food, Jane Grigson contributing editor. presenting regional cuisines
  • You Eat What You Are, Thelma Barer-Stein, traditional foods & dining customs
  • Cambridge World History of Food, Kiple & Ornelas, Volume Two
    ---"France," five page summary with scholarly references
  • Culture and Cuisine: A Journey Through the History of Food/Jean-Francois Revel
    ---thoughtful historic survey documents key turning points in classic French cuisine
  • Larousse Gastronomique (1938 & 1961 editions preferred for history notes)
    ---history of French ingredients, recipes, chefs, and cooking methods. Arranged alphabetically.
  • Oxford Companion to Food, Alan Davidson
    ---"France," two page synopsis and histories of specific recipes.
  • Gastronomy of France, Raymond Oliver
    ---prehistory to present, cooking methods and selected historic menus
  • Arranging the Meal: A History of Table Service in France/Jean-Louis Flandrin
    . meal structure & sequence of courses, 14th century--present.
  • Early French Cookery/D. Eleanor Scully
  • Living and Dining in Medieval Paris/Nicole Crossley-Holland
  • Culture and Cuisine: A Journey Through the History of Food/Jean-Francois Revel (18th century)
  • Savoring the Past: The French Kitchen and Table from 1300 to 1789/Barbara Ketcham Wheaton
  • Cooking for Kings: The Life of Antonin Careme, The First Celebrity Chef/Ian Kelly
  • Acquired Taste: The French Origins of Modern Cooking, T. Sarah Peterson
  • The Art of Eating in France: Manners abd Menus in the Nineteeth Century/Jean-Paul Aron
  • Haute Cuisine: How the French Invented the Culinary Profession/Amy B. Trubek
  • The World of Escoffier/Timothy Shaw
  • [14th century]Le Viandier/Taillevant & Le Menagier De Paris
  • [17th century]La Vareenne's Cookery: The French Cook The French Pastry Chef The French Confectioner , Francois Pierre, Sieur de la Varenne, modern English translation and commentary by Terence Scully
  • [1817]Le Cuisinier Royal, Alexandre Viard
  • [1826]Le Physiologie du Gout/ Jean-Anthelme Brillat Savarin
  • [1869]The Royal Cookery Book/Jules Gouffe, translated by Alphonse Gouffe
  • [1897]La Cuisiniere Provencale/J.B. Reboul
  • [1907]Escoffer: The Complete Guide to the Art of Modern Cookery, First translation in to English by H.L. Cracknell and R.J. Kaufman of Le Guide Culiniare in its entirely.
  • [1913]L'Art du bien manger/Edmond Richardin. includes selected historic menus 16th-19th centuries
  • [1914]Le Repertoire de La Cuisine/Louis Salnier. catalog raisonne of Escoffier-era cuisine
  • [1927]La Bonne Cuisine/Madame E. Saint-Ange [FT library owns original French text and Paul Aratow's 2005 translation.]
  • [1960]French Provincial Cooking/Elizabeth David

[1913]
"Dinard [resort town in France]. is also filled with Americans, some of whom set new fashions that are likely to become the rage in Paris next Winter. One host has started cocktail parties, at which men and women guests gather before dinner, gossip at small tables and drink mysterious mixtures."
---"Suites $100 A Day At French Resorts," New York Times, August 10, 1913 (p. C2)

[1926]
"What is known in France as an 'American bar,' recently has become an adjunt to the French country house. There are many chateaux now in which such bars have been installed in the library or smokeroom, with a professional white coated barkeeper behind the counter and high stools ofr 'customers.' These are nearly all occupied at 'cocktail hour,' considered another American institution. Most of these 'American bars' have been installed by Parisians who have contgracted drinking habits said to be American and hwo have bought or rented homes in the country."
---"French Homes Instal Bars: 'Cocktail Hour' Also Adopted as an American Custom," New York Times, February 21, 1926 (p. 2)

[1929]
"One of the most notable aspects of the Americanization which has beset Europe in late years--the increasing vogue of the cocktail--has just been brought formally to the attention of the French Academy of Medicine. In the opinion of Professor Guillain, and authority on neurology, who addressed the Academy on the subject, the cocktail had become a genuine danger. It is a phase of what is regarded in France as the American peril, upon which a good-sized library has been written in the past few years. The American motor car is admittedly a menace. because it is so well made. The same is true of the cocktail. In America it is so happened that, almost coincidental with the official proscription of all alcoholic beverages, the cocktail acquired an unprecedented social importance. And Europe, which, to the outspoken dismay of the more conservative, now eagerly seizes upon American fads, good and bad, promptly to the the cocktail. Alcoholism, said M. Guillian. was increasing among the wealthy. The reason, he found, was the cocktail, which induced undue excitement, gastric troubles, depression, epileptic attacks, and was the direct cause of numerous motor accidents. It was pointed out that many young women were victims of the cocktail habit. If a French cook, emerging from his kitchen. to see how his guests are enjoying his creations, should find them drinking cocktails before tasting of his poulet cocotte, he would feel like going back to his kitchen and putting arsenic in the next course. Nothing could offend him more deeply, unless it be the smoking of a cigarette between dishes, which he also looked upon as an atrocious American habit. For in France the cocktail is regarded as a menace to the ancient art of cookery. Its sharpness dulls the palate and makes one incapable of fully appreciating the fine qualities of a culinary masterpiece, and the French are disposed to assert that a people who knew how to cook would never have invented the cocktail. Wine, whether cooked with the food or drunk while eating, contributes an aroma and a flavor which enchance one's sensibiltiy to the eight art, as cookery is sometimes called in France: but the cocktail is considered a crude stimulant which deadens the powers of appreciation. Its popularity in certain limited circles of French taste, a weakening of French traditions, which resulted from the shock of the war. In many parts of Paris, sometimes even in remote quarters where no Americans ever go, the sign 'American Bar' may be seen upon the awnings of cafes. In the nineteenth century in France the smart thing to do was to ape the English. Nowadays it is fashionable. to ape the Americans and the cocktail party, between 5 and 7 o'clock, has begun to attain something of the status of a social institution, especilly in circles where French, English and Americans habitually mingle. In Angouleme and Toulouse they probably do not know what cocktails are, not to speak of cocktail parties but in cosmopolitan Paris, and at the seaside and mountain resorts regarded fashionable, the cocktail has com into an established vogue. British physicians, like the French physicians. have dispapproved the cocktail on the ground that it often contains wine and spirits mixed, and that absinthe and vermouth, both of which are sometimes used in making cocktails, are nerve stimulants which create false appetites. But the most damning criticism is that made by a recent English commentator, who told his English compatriots that the cocktail was 'ill-bred.'"
---"Cocktail Menace is Seen In France," Harold Callender, New York Times, June 16, 1929 (p. XX2)

Every country presents a unique buffet based on its geography, history, and people. What people eat in all times and places is a function of where they live (country? city?), who they are (religion/ethnic background) and how much money they have (wealthy usually eat better than the poor).

  • British Food: An Extraordinary Thousand Years of History, Colin Spencer
    ---details on dining customs, popular foods, trade & economics
  • Food and Drink in Britain: From the Stone Age to the Nineteenth Century, C. Anne Wilson
    ---evolution of foods and recipes grouped by commodity
  • Oxford Companion to Food, Alan Davidson
    ---historic overview & histories of dishes/ingredients
  • Seven Centuries of English Cooking, Maxime de la Falaise
    ---period overviews and selected recipes for modern kitchens
  • A Taste of History: 10,000 Years of Food in Britain, Peter Brears et al.
    ---period foods, cooking techniques, dining customs and selected recipes for modern kitchens

"[Naval] rations on paper were reasonable enough: the sailor was supposed to have a pound of biscuit and a gallon of beer a day, with a pound of salt meat four days a week and fish on the other three the soldier's rations, which were included in his wages, ran on much the same lines, except for him a daily ration of butter and cheese and sometimes vegetables (so sadly lacking at sea) wasa practicable, while meat or fish might come only once a week, washed down by a less generous beer allowance which could be supplemented locally by other dinks. But these rations often existed on paper only then the soldier had to 'live on the country' as best he could, while the seaman, whose chief trouble was that the food went bad and the beer turned sour, just had to starve."
---Elizabethan England, A.H. Dodd [B.T. Batsord Ltd:London] 1973 (p. 214)

Food & rations on Drake's Golden Hind & Food on the Mary Rose: Mary Rose.

What kinds of food and drink were consumed on Cook's ships?

"In his journal for July 1772, Cook gives the following account of the provisions placed aboard the Resolution and Adventure. Biscuit, flour, salt beef, salt pork, beer, wine, spirit [distilled alcohol], pease [dried peas], wheat, oatmeal, butter, cheese [hard], sugar, oyle olive [olive oil], vinegar, suet, raisins, salt, malt, sour krout [sauerkrout], salted cabbage, portable broth [dessicated soup], saloup, mustard, mermalade [marmelade] of carrots, water. "
---Sailors & Sauerkraut: Excerpts from the Journals of Captain Cook's Expeditions All Pertaining to Food With Recipes to Match, Barbara Burkhardt, Barrie Andugs McLean & Doris Kochanek [Grey's Publishing:Sidney BC] 1978 (p. 23)

Where live animals were taken on board?
Yes. ". cows, sheep, pigs, chickens. The live-stock was for leaving on desert islands needful of such provender and the poultry was to provide eggs during the voyage."
---Sailors & Sauerkraut (p. 12)

Could the crew bring their own food on board?
Yes. Generally, the higher the rank, the more "personal" food was packed. This was a matter of economy (wealthy people could afford to supply their own consumables) and space (officer's quarters were roomier than regular crew).

"Individuals, particularly the officers, supplemented their needs with personal provisioning this might be Madeira [a sweet wine] brought on board for their own use. In the case of the crew. it was usually what serendipity delivered into their laps: lying fish or tired albatross."
---Sailors & Sauerkraut (p. 15-16)

What was a typical weekly menu for the crew? "Each man was allowed every day one pound of Biscuit [thick, hard cracker] as much small Beer [very low alcohol] as he can drink or a pint of Wine, or half a pint of Brandy, Rum, or arrack [alcoholic beverage], they will have besides on

What is scurvy?
Scurvey is a disease caused by lack of Vitamin C. Without remediation, it is deadly. Since fresh fruits and vegetables were not possible on long voyages, other foods had to be substituted. Captain Cook was committed to ensuring his crew received plenty of Vitamin C.

How did Captain Cook prevent his crew from getting scurvy?
"Customarily, on ocean voyages lasting longer than three months, scurvy decimated the crew, and it was common practice to double overstaff in preparation for the toll of this nutritional deficiency disease. By the middle of the eighteenth century it was known how to prevent scurvy James Cook was the first sea captain to put that knowledge into practical application, and he practiced those principles with such vivacity that on none of the three voyages did any man die of scurvy."
---Sailors & Sauerkraut (p. 13-14)

Which foods were brought to prevent scurvy?
Preserved foods high in vitamin C were provisioned by Cook. These included sauerkraut & salted cabbage.

    , Ambrose Heath (1939). includes chapters titled "Making the Best of it," (difference between WWI & 1939) "Rationing: Making the Best of It," (practical tips for average housewives) & "The Problem with Numbers," (how to feed children sent to live with relatives in the countryside), "Economical Recipes," and "Simple menus." Special emphasis on nutritional values.
  • The ABC of Cookery, UK Ministry of Food (1945)..includes "Pattern of Meals to Follow for Healthy Eating".
  • Food Consumption Levels in the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom, Report of the Special Joint Committee set up by the Combined Food Board, UK (1944)
  • Manual of Nutrition, UK Ministry of Food (1947, 1949 & 1955)
  • Victory Cookbook: Nostalgic Food and Facts from 1940-1954, Marguerite Patten [We'll Eat Again by same author includes same recipes w/o historic commentary]
  • Bombers and Mash, Raynes Minns. history notes & recipes
  • Wartime Recipes: A Collection of Recipes from the War Years, Jarrold Publishing
  • Ration Book Cookery: Recipes & History, Gill Corbishley
  • The Rationing Challenge, interactive lesson plan

Compare with rationing in the USA, Germany & Australia.

[1924]
Alec Waugh's delightful story, "They Laughed when I Invented the Cocktail Party," was published in Esquire, July 1974. Mr. Waugh states his first party was held April 1924. The idea was whimsical yet guests showed up. Mr. Waugh did not make the cocktails, he enlisted a member of the American Embassy for that station. Daiquiris were served. Some of the guests overindulged and had to excuse themselves from dinner. No recipes included.

[1926]
"Cocktail parties are the rage of London society just now. Mrs. Wilfred Ashley started it by her evening cocktail parties for politicians. Since then County Grinoli, the artist, has them on Sunday mornings after church, and even Lady Trevor Dawson held one in the interests of the St. Andrews eve ball."
"England has a new social function. 'Mr. and Mrs Nigel Norman. request the pleasure of the company. at Heston Airport. at 6 p. m. for flying and cocktails.'"
---"Air Flips: Flying Cocktail Parties are Popular in England," Washington Post, August 20, 1933 (p. R12)

[1937]
The Finer Cooking or Dishes for Parties, X.M. Boulestin offers a delightfuly brief chapter titled "Cocktails or Sherry?" He warns his readers cocktails have a "fatal" effect on the palate if consumed shortly before dinner. He adds: "A properly mixed cocktail can be delightful and potent, able to revive a corpse or a jaded appetite." Mr. Boulestin offers a separate chapter titled "Drinks for Parties," where he extols the virtues of champagne and French wines. No recipes included.

[1956]
The Constance Spry Cookery Book commences with a chapter titled "Cocktail Parties." Ms. Spry is quite blunt about how she feels about this type of party and the negative effect of alcohol on the palate. That's what makes this particular passage, and its placement, most intriguing. Her book offers general instructions on service and food but nothing regarding alcoholic beverage service. The only alcohol (except for cooking purposes) addressed is wine. Recipes including Cream cheese canapes, Celeri farci, Cheese straws, Walnut sables, Savory eclairs (filled with shredded chicken, ham, tongue, salmon, sardines), Toasted sardine sandwiches, Anchovy rolls, shellfish canapes (crab, lobster, shrimp), Devilled kromeski, Mushroom rolls, Bacon rolls in dropped scones, Stuffed grapes, Stuffed Prunes, Salted and devilled nuts, Cocktail sausages, Potato sticks, Chutney biscuits and Bouchees.(p. 1-20 happy to scan & send recipes).

  • World Atlas of Food/Jane Grigson. overview & culinary map.
  • You Are What You Eat: People, Culture and Food Traditions/Themla Barer-Stein. traditional dishes, primary ingredients, mealtimes & dining customs.

  • Cooking of India/Santha Rama Rau (Time-Life Foods of the World series)
  • Food and Drink in Ancient India/Dr. Om Prakash. prehistory to 1200AD, scholarly documentation
  • Food Culture in India/Colleen Taylor Sen. good for grades 6-12.
  • A Historical Dictionary of Indian Food/K/T. Achaya. quick reference guide, well documented
  • Indian Food: A Historical Companion/K.T. Achaya. best source for overal history
  • The Raj at Table/David Burton. chronicling British/Indian cultures & cuisine

[NOTE: Food Timeline library owns the books referenced above. Happy to research & scan pages upon request.]

The history of Italian food is a fascinating and complicated subject. Not quite sure how much information you need, so we are sending you a variety of sources to begin your project:

  1. Delizia! The Epic History of the Italians and their Food/John Dickie
  2. Dictionary of Italian Food and Drink/John Mariani
  3. Food Culture in Italy/Fabio Parasecoli
  4. Foods of Italy/Waverly Root
  5. Foods of the World: Italy/Time-Life Books
  6. Italian Food/Elizabeth David, 2nd ed.
  7. Oxford Companion to Food/Alan Davidson "Italy." (also has separate entries for specific foods)
  8. Oxford Companion to Italian Food/Gillian Riley
  9. World Atlas of Food/Jane Grigson, editor
  10. You Eat What You Are/Thelma Barer-Stein
  1. Cambridge World History of Food, Kiple & Ornelas, Volume Two
    ---Mediterranean, Southern & Northern Europe (extensive bibliographies for further study)
  2. Treasures of the Italian Table, Burton Anderson
  3. Pomp and Sustenance: Twenty-five Centuries of Sicilian Food, Mary Taylor Simeti
  4. Food: A Culinary History, Jean-Louis Flandrin & Massimo Montanari (several chapters)
  5. Italian Cuisine: A Cultural History, Alberto Capatti & Massimo Montanari
    ---there are dozens of books that are period/region specific. If you need to focus on a particular time and/or place, your school's librarian can help you find the sources you need.
  6. A Mediterranean Feast, Clifford A. Wright (includes recipes)
  • Around the Roman Table: Food and Feasting in Ancient Rome/Patrick Faas (includes modernized recipes)
  • Cooking Apicius: Roman Recipes for Today/Sally Grainger (includes modernzed recipes)
  • Cooking in Ancient Civilizations/Cathy K. Kaufman (includes modernized recipes)
  • De Agricultura (On Farming)/Cato (Andrew Dalby's translation:Propect Books)
  • Cookery and Dining in Imperial Rome/Apicius (Joseph Dommers Vehling translation)
  • Empire of Pleasures: Luxury and Indulgence in the Roman World/Andrew Dalby
  • Food in the Ancient World, Joan P. Alcock (excellent for grades 6-12)
  • Food in the Ancient World from A to Z/Andrew Dalby
  • Natural History, books 12-16/Pliny (primary documentation of food & agriculture)
  • Roman Cookery, Mark Grant (includes modernized recipes)
  • The Classical Cookbook, Andrew Dalby and Sally Grainger (includes modernized recipes)
  • A Taste of Ancient Rome, Ilaria Gozzini Giacosa (includes modernized recipes)
  • The Medieval Kitchen: Recipes from France and Italy/Odile Redon et al
  • The Fine Art of Italian Cooking/Giuliano Bugialli (16th century dinner menus p. 7-15)
  • Food in Early Modern Europe/Ken Albala (section on Italy)
  • On the Right Pleasure and Good Health/Platina (15th century cookbook, Mary Ellen Milham translation)
  • The Neapolitan Recipe Collection (15th century cookbook, Terence Scully translation)
  • The Art of Cooking/Martino (16th century cookbook, Jeremy Parzen translation)

19th century: Science in the Kitchen and the Art of Eating Well/Pellegrino Artusi [1891]

  • Hungering for America: Italian, Irish, & Jewish Foodways in the Age of Migration, Hasia R. Diner /Maria Gentile [1919
  • Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America, Andrew F. Smith

Every country presents a unique buffet based on its geography, history, and people. What people eat in all times and places is a function of where they live (country? city?), who they are (religion/ethnic background) and how much money they have (wealthy usually eat better than the poor).

    General overviews
  • Germany, Time-Life Foods of the World Series---excellent overview & traditional recipes
  • Northern Europe-Germany and Surrounding Regions/Cambridge World History of Food/Kiple & Ornelas (scholarly)
  • World Atlas of Food, Jane Grigson editor---general history & selected recipes
  • You Are What You Eat, Thelma Barer-Stein---traditional foods & dining customs

A survey of primary accounts published in USA newspapers

[1937]
"A German women's organization has just made an official survey of 140 households with at least two children. Accoring to this survey, 50 to 70 per cent of the income went for food. This food consists mainly of potatoes, cabbage, noodles, oat or black bread, fish (especially herring), cheeese, milk, barley, and finally whale-oil margarine, lard and perhaps even butter. Meat is a luxury included in only onece or twice a week and even then it is reserved mostly for the bread-earning members of the family. As a rule the German. family breakfast consists of bread covered with margarine or lard, and barley coffee. Working men of the family take 'stullen' mammoth sandwiches generally made of bread, lard and sausage, for luncheon. The family meets again at home for dinner consisting of from the most part one dish into which is put all available foods. and leftovers from preceding meals. This worker's one-dish meal is the basis of the one-dish days introduced by the National Socialist regime throughout the nation on one Suday of each Winter month to aid the Winter Relief Fund campaign."
---"Reich Housewife is Boon to Nazism," Otto D. Tolischius, New York Times, September 6, 1937 (p. 4)

[1938]
"Berlin. Lotteries and bookmaking are legal in Germany, one in which everybody with a healthy appetite places at least two bets every day, is the food lottery. Coffee and rolls are a sure thing for breakfast, but anybody will give odds on what he will get for the two other meals. Those to whom eating is a pleasure, as well as a necessity, no longer ask themselves: 'What shall I eat today?' but mentally speculate: 'What can I get today?' Nomads who eat in restaurants, and know the headwaiter's first name, and tourists need not take the food gamble so seriously. A restaurant menu usually has enough suggestions to make the average customer forget what he intended to eat. Schlichter's, where I ate the other night, offered twenty-six fish and meat dishes as specialties in addition to steaks, chops and a hundred other regular items. If present conditions continue long enough, the home-loving Germans, certainly the city dwellers, will be transformed into a race of diners-out. Those who have the responsibility for filling the home pots and pans are the hopeless addicts in the daily food gamble, as an extract from a housewife's diary shows: 'Sunday--half a lemon decorated my grilled flounder at the hotel--such extravagance--and every order in the dining room was enough for a starving stevedore, naturally much of it uneaten and wasted tomorrow we start housekeeping. 'Monday--At breakfast we decided on pork chops for dinner. None of the neighboring shops had pork, but one did produce two small, not too juicy beefsteaks. Vegetable trays had only green beans, kohlrabi and green peppers. No sho had onions or lard. 'Tuesday--Bought three eggs, which a girl clerk had apparently had hidden behind the counter. A woman wanted two pounds of fresh green beans which were inside the store, but the proprietor, arrogant since people must take what they can get, said she could not have them until the stale ones outside were sold. Got some lamb chops, the first I've seen, and the stores had stew beef and pork which can be boiled in sauerkraut. 'Wednesday--Tried to get more eggs but was told there would not be any until next week, if then. the city was out of onions. [and] garlic. 'Thursday--Found a small grapefruit. to vary the usual peaches, plums, and grapes. Also good tomatoes and lettuce for salad, which appear about twice a week. The [store] proprietor. made sure that we would not feed [rice] to our dogs before he would sell a pound. He sold me two oranges, though his orders were to sell the German apples first. 'Friday--Good fresh fish for dinner but shopped in vain for lemons, Brussels sprouts, red cabbage, green beans and carrots on the trays. still no onions. 'Saturday--One store had a leg of lamb for roasting, and others had a supply of beef and pickled pigs feet. Windows of those handling smoked meats are full of hams and countless varieties of sausages, but cold lunches become monotonous. All had green corn in husks, an idea from America, but at caviar prices. A dissapointment when cooked, for it was field corn, tasteless and woody. 'Sunday--Ate in a restaurant and from the way they are crowded most of Berlin must be dining out. In Berlin the early bird at the weekly market or stores gets the chops, if there are any. Some days they cannot get pork, an other days it may be mutton or another staple. Butter and lard already are rationed, and talk is that the police will issue cards for meat before the Winter is over. Each adult is allowed half a pound of butter and as much lard, each week, if there is any lard. Each ration card is good at a designated store. The supply of adulterated butter is sufficient. Peacetime rationing of meat and other foods, if it goes further, might have unpleasant results. Little if any of the supply is wasted now, as stores rarely have any which is not sold, and the thrifty German, at present prices, is not buying more than absolutely needed. Most Germans always have bought from day to day. Few have ice boxes. In Germany, not only meat but almost all vegetables, fruits and other foods are sold by the pound. An American pound is 9-10ths of a German pound and a dollar is worth 2.49 5/8 reichsmarks. Store prices of a few typical articles (per American Pound unless stated otherwise) are: Beef tenderloin, 68 cents beef pot ropast, 36 cents soup beef, with bone, 31 cents soup beef, boneless, 43 cents hamburger, 38 cents goulash veal, 45 cents pork tenderloin, 54 cents pork kidneys, 38 cents mutton chops, 41 cents boiled ham, 65 cents chicken, 45 cents smoked eel, 86 cents head cheese, 36 cents liver sausage, 65 cents Summer salami, 70 cents coffee, $1.08 bread, 8 cents butter, 58 cents fresh tomatoes, 8 1/4 cents lettuce (head), 4 cents green corn, 9 1/3 cents green string beans, 9 cents princess string beans, 14 1/2 cents dry onions (peck), 51 cents to $1.13 cabbage, 4 cents, mushrooms, 26 cents eggs (dozen), 60 cents. peaches 18 cents pineapple (one) $1.80 cantaloul, 68 cents bananas, 18 cents grape fruit (one) 20 cents cream (quart), 41 cents sugar loaf 16 cents sugar, pulverized, 14 cents apples, 16 cents, German Camembert, 36 cents. These prices are for the American or other foreigner who lives in Germany and who pays 40 cents for a reichsmark. The also are the prices for the German whos basic wage is between $17.50 and $26.50 in a week of forty-four hours. Pay of skilled workers is higher and, with the present shortage of labor for industrial and urban construction, may work two shifts a day. Germany never grew all the food it needed, and the balance must be imported. Gresh foods from neighboring contries always supplemented what the home farmers grew, and now Germany has cut down on food imports. The excuse is that the country needs its foreign exchange to import war materials. True or not, that is what the people believe and tell each other."
---"Daily Food Gamble is Lot of Germans," Junius B. Wood, New York Times, September 19, 1938 (p. 7)

[1939]
"German citizens were notified today that because of the emergency they must have official certificates to buy a long list of artilces in the neighborhood store. It was announced officially today that the purpose is a just distribution of necessities. Germans recalled that during the World War similar rationing schemes were not introduced until the war had been under way about two years. Now German has determined to conserve its admittedly scanty supplies of some materials before the emergency becomes acute."
---"First Pictures in America of Nazis' Heaviest Guns," Los Angeles Times, August 27, 1939 (p. 3)

[1939]
"Meat rations, including sausages, in the Berlin area, will be reduced from 700 to 500 grams [slighly more than a pound] weekly during the next two weeks. Separate cards were provided for bread, flour, meat, fats, marmalade, sugar and general provisions. One card also provided for produce, such as eggs, rice, grain and other articles that will be determined by food officials. There will be special bread, meat, and fat cards for children up to six years and between six and fourteen. "
---"Berlin Meat Ration Cut Down," New York Times, September 13, 1939 (p. 3)

[1939]
"The workers and not the upper classes are feeling the pinch of food rationing in Germany. There are still a lot of people in Berlin living quite comfortably, but they are spending a lot of money to do it. Choice cuts of meat and other food supplies can be obtained if you want them--and have the price. It is true that no one can get much more than the quantity provided by the ration cards, but the ration cards say nothing about the quality. The important hotels and certain restaurants in Berlin continue to present quite imposing menus. The rub is that it costs you about $3 to get they type of meal costing 80 cents to $1 in the United States. There is even one restaurant ready to serve at all times steaks that would do honor to a first class New York restuarant, if you have the price. But to realize how bad and meager German food has become, you must try to eat in an ordinary restaurant. On several occasions I found only a few vegetables obatainable at meal time. The meat and fish had been cleaned out but the earlier arrivals. And the meat the average restaurant serves must have been in storage for years. Beef, pork and veal all taste the same--or rather they don't taste at all. Lunch at such a place costs the equivalent of 65 to 75 cents, and this is expensive or the average German. The food in the really cheap restaurants is something you don't forget in a hurry. I couldn't eat it. The meal consisted of potatoes which must have been stored for two years, decked out with strange gravies whcih tasted like liquid plaster. Sometimes this is accompanied by fish, cabbage and possibly spinach, served in small quantities and obviously of the same state of antiquity. The bread, in order to hold down consumption, becomes increasingly stale. The idea evidently is to cut consumption to a minimum by making bakers' products as unpalatable as possible. There is little sign, however, of any lasting resentment as yet against food rationing."
---"German Worker Feel Pinch of Poor Food at High Prices," Albion Ross, Los Angeles Times, September 20, 1939 (p. 3)

[1940]
"One of the factors working against German favor in a long war is her food supply. 'Complete or near self-suffiency has been achieved for sugar, potatoes, bread grains, cabbage, carrots, plums and cherries. However, for such essential items as meat. and. and edible oils. German output remains heavily on the deficit side. The 'fat gap' is the most serious food problem confronting Germany because nearly one-half of normal requirements must be imported. Normally Germany consumes about 1,800,000 tons of fats and oils in the form of butter, margarine, lard and similar products, Imported oilseeds, processed in Germany and utilized largely in the manufacturer of margarine, account for about 600,000 tons of the edible oil requirements. Under the food rationing regulations introduced in Germany on August 27, 1939, food allowances for the normal consumer represent substantial reductions below pre-war consumption. However, people performing heavy manual labor, as well as members of the armed forces, receive extra allowences. The report indicates that the rations for normal consumers, which constitutes the larger part of the population, are not sufficient to afford proper and adequate nourishment."
---"Following the News: Germany's Food," B.H. McCormick, Wall Street Journal, May 11, 1940 (p. 4)

[1945]
"The first signs of a real collapse in the Nazi food system will cause more panic in the Reich than the worst military defeat. So far the German food rationing and supply systems have functioned extremely well although rations have been short, particularly fats. But Allied bombing of food factories and storehouses and the crippling of the transport system plus the loss of Germany's richest agricultural lands in the east have changed the situation. The Germans now associated the duration of the was with the food supply. Daghens Nyeter reported yesterday that the parks and sports fields were being plowed under throughout the Reich for the planting of potatoes and vegetables. Ever since Hitler came into power the German people have been used to the organized rationing of food. Heretofor food has been adequate while strictly controlled, but now supplies are deteriorating rapidly. After the Vistula retreat the first thing done in Berlin was to stretch the weight weeks' rations to nine. The first serious breach of rationing discipline occurred with well-informed party men and wholesalers informing one another secretly on extra sales several days before the public was notified. As a result when the public lined up all the best things were gone. This has become more and more brazen in the past year and the public has become aware of it. When the Russians reached the Oder and Berliners thought the capital might be besiged within hours they suddenly found tradesmen no longer had anything to sell. On the following day goods reappeared. This was the most serious sign of disintigration on the rationing front. Official German data indicate that the 1937 diet of the working family was . below the 1927..level.'"
---"Germany's Food Crisis Grows," Christer Jaederlund, Los Angeles Times, March 26, 1945 (p. 6)

[1946]
"Last night a food factory was robbed and nearly two tons of sugar and a ton of syrup were stolen. Thieves escaped with more than 300 sausages and two sides fo bacon in the burlary of a slaughterhouse. The German working-class atittude in Hamburg still is anti-British and is generally tending to become hostile. Germans are blaming the British for the failure to provide adequate food. Hambur police were issued tonight 5,000 copies of an order to food store proprietors warning them to set guards on stores during closing hours and to keep all food displays from store windows. Proporietors also were enjoined to keep only a minimum of food on counters and to place th rest in cellars and storerooms under lock and key. "
---"33 Drop of Hunger in Hamburg Plant," New York Times, March 23, 1946 (p. 4)

  • Food and Drink in Medieval Poland/Maria Dembinska
  • Old Polish Traditions: In the Kitchen and at the Table/Maria Lemnis & Henryk Vitry
  • Old Warsaw Cookbook/Rysia. recipes & history notes
  • Polish Heritage Cookery/Robert & Maria Strybel (expanded and illustrated edition)
  • World Atlas of Food/Jane Grigson. culinary map & general history notes
    Recommended reading: culinary history & recipes
  • A Taste of Russia/Darra Goldstein. traditional recipes & history headnotes
  • Cambridge World History of Food/Kiple & Ornelas (Volume Two). scholarly overview & bibliography
  • Classic Russian Cooking: Elena Molokhovets' A Gift to Young Housewives/Joyce Toomre translation of 1861 classic
  • Food in Russian History and Culture/Musya Glants & Joyce Toomre. social history
  • World Atlas of Food/Jane Grigson. culinary map & general history notes
  • Food of Cooking of Russia/Lesley Chamberlain. traditional recipes with historic headnotes
  • Best of Russian Cooking/Alexandra Kropotkin. written for American homne kitchens

Modern Spanish cuisine
"The most common misconsception about Spanish food is that it is spicy hot. In fact, Spanish foods are noted for their fresh natural flavors and a minimum of seasonings, and many an authentic Spanish dish perpared elsewhere fails simply because of the lack of quality and freshness in the basic ingredients. The staples of the Spanish kitchen include olive oli, tomatoes, garlic, and onions. Fresh bread is always on the table not only for each meal but also for each course except dessert. Partly because they are the freshest, and partly because of regional price and preferences, the Spanish cook adds local specialties from land or sea to the staples to produce distinctive regional dishes. Cocida and gazpacho are national dishes of Spain, but there as many variations as there are kitchens, and each variation is stoutly defended as being the best. Fruits and subtle light seasonings, combinations of fruits and nuts with meats and fish, and dishes based on rice are all influences from Muslim times. But the oldest additions to Spain's table--wine and olive oil--have never lost their importance."
---You Eat What You Are: People, Culture and Food Traditions, Thelma Barer-Stein [Firefly Books:Ontario] 1999 (p. 394)

  • Food of Andalucia/Clifford A. Wright
  • The Foods and Wines of Spain, Penelope Casas
    ---detailed history & dozens of recipes
  • The Oxford Companion to Food, Alan Davidson
    ---brief overview of Spain's culinary history & selected dishes
  • World Atlas of Food, Jane Grigson
    ---nice summary of popular/traditional foods and regional favorites
  • You Eat What You Are, Thelma Barer-Stein (Spain)
    ---excellent for basic foods, holiday meals & dining customs

"Introductions by the Arabs were. of fundamental importance to Spain's future. They are particularly associated with the use of almonds (the essential ingredient for so many Spanish desserts, baked goods, and confectionery items) with the introduction of citrus fruit (including the lemon and the bitter (Seville) orange. sugar cane and the process of refining sugar from its juice many vegetables, among which the aubergine (eggplant) was outstanding and numerous spices such as cinnamon, nutmeg, sesame, coriander, aniseed, etc. The Arabs introduced rice to the tidal flatlands of what is now Valencia. The use of saffron in paella is also something whch stems from an Arab introduction."
---Oxford Companion to Food , Alan Davidson [Oxford University Press:Oxford] 1999 (p. 741)

"The occupation of Iberia by the Moors for seven hundred years had a great influence on the cultural and culinary development of both Spain and Portugal. The Moors were a cultured and sophistcated people who brought a new way of life to the Iberians and to the Roman colonists who inhabited the peninsula at that time. Experts at irrigation, the Moors introduced the cultivation of rice, now a staple food, and gourhg wtih them figs and citrus fruits, peaches and bananas and may of the Eastern spices, including cumin and aniseed, which are used so much in Iberian cooking today. They used almonds a great deal in the cooking of both savoury and sweet dishes. The huge groves of almond trees along the Levante coast and the Algarve were originally planted by the Moors. Today, in all the areas of the peninsula where the Moors once ruled, rich and varied rice dishes, little cakes and confections made from eggs and almonds, cinnamon, butter and honey, as well as crystallized fruit and the special turrones, sweet nougats, are part of the Iberian legacy from the East."
---World Atlas of Food, Jane Grigson editor [Mitchell Beaszley:London] 1974 (p. 170)

  • Andalusian cookbook/13th century
  • Medieval Arab Cookery/Maxime Rodenberry et al
  • The Book of Sent Sovi: Medieval recipes from Catalonia/Joan Santanach editor (14th century cookbook, with historic introduction and translated recipes).
  • Food in Medieval Times/Melitta Weiss Adamson . pages 115-123 focus on Spain
  • Food in Early Modern Euorpe/Ken Albala . pages 141-150 focus on Spain and Portugal
  • Cooking in Europe, 1250-1650/Ken Albala . modernized recipes, recipes listed by country

Two popular examples of Spanish foods influenced by Moorish/Arab cuisine are Polvorones & Paella.

"Paella, to be precise the Valencian paella, universally known as a traditional dish in Spanish cooking, takes its name from the utensil in which it is cooked and from the Spanish region on the shores of the Mediterranean where the union and heritage of two important cultures, the Roman which gave us the utensil and the Arab which brought us the basic food of humanity for centuries: rice. The etymological roots of the word are of interest. Going back a long way one finds in the Sanskrit language the word pa, which means to drink, from which were derived the Latin terms patera, patina, patella, meaning a chalice or culinary utensil to be used for various purposes including frying. In Castilian there existed a primitve form of denomination paela and also tapella, so in an ancient dictionary we can read that patella is a pan or paella for frying'. In Isalmic Andalusia there were dishes based on rice with definite traditional and symbolic character, casseroles of rice and fish with spices which were eaten at family and religious feasts. Later on, when rice began to take on the chararcteristic of an everyday dish, it was combined with vegetables, pulses, and also some dry cod, in this way forming a part of the menu during Lent. Along the coast fish always predominates with rice. Perhaps as a hangover of these Islamic customs, in the orchards of Valencia, and as a special celebration, rice was cooked in the open air in a paella-pan with vegetables of the season, chicken, rabbit, or duck. With the sociological changes of the 19th century, social life became more active, giving rise to reunions and outings to the countryside. There also came into being the tradition, still very much alive, that men did the cooking of paella. This rice for special days evolved into a Valencian paella. In 1840 in a local newspaper it was in fact given the name of Valencian paella. By natural process the tradition had already come into being. The ingredeints for the traditional dish are as folows: rice, fresh butter beans, tomato, olive oil, paprika, saffron, snails (or, a curious alternative, fresh green rosemary), water, and salt. The ancient tradition was to eat the paella directly from its pan, so the round pan, surrounded by chairs, was converted into a admirable 'Round Table'. The companions, which their spoons made of box wood with a fine finsih, began to eat, each one drawing out his triangle and limit, then meeting the geometical centre of the paella."
---Oxford Companion to Food, Alan Davidson [Oxford University Press:Oxford] 1999 (p. 566-7)

"Paella is a word that has come worldwide to mean a Spanish dish with a variety of seafood and usually some chicken. However, the word originally referred only to the pan in which the food was cooked--a paellera. Paellas actually come in endless varieties, depending upon the chef and on regional specialties. Those rice dishes that are made in paella pans, whatever the ingredients, are often referred to as paellas, although just as often the name of a rice dish is a description of its ingredients. Although variations on paella abound, no one will dispute that the home of paella, and of most Spanish rice dishes, is Valencia. Rice growing in Valencia was made possible when, more than a thousand years ago, the Romans introduced irrigation, a system later perfected by the Arab invaders. It is thought that these same Arab conquerors brought rice to Valencia in the eighth century. Many centuries would pass, however, before rice would become the staple of the Valencian diet that it is today and become a basic crop of the Valencian economy. Purists insist that. Valencia is the only place in the world to eat a properly prepared paella. Ask a Spaniard what makes a perfect paella and never expect two opinions to coincide."
---The Foods and Wines of Spain, Penelope Casa [Alfred A. Knopf:New York] 1982 (p. 173-4)
[NOTE: Ms. Casas includes several recipes for paella in this book.]

FoodTimeline library owns 2300+ books, hundreds of 20th century USA food company brochures, & dozens of vintage magazines (Good Housekeeping, American Cookery, Ladies Home Journal &c.) We also have ready access to historic magazine, newspaper & academic databases. Service is free and welcomes everyone. Have questions? Ask!


Guru Nanak Dev

Guru Nanak Dev, first of the 10 gurus, founded the Sikh faith and introduced the concept of one God. He was the son of Kalyan Das ji (Mehta Kalu ji) and Mata Tripta ji, and the brother of Bibi Nanaki. He was married to Sulakhani ji and had two sons, Siri Chand and Lakhmi Das.

Guru Nanak Dev was born in Nankana Sahib, Pakistan, on Oct. 20, 1469. He was formally made guru in 1499 at about age 30. He died in Kartarpur, Pakistan, on Sept. 7, 1539, at the age of 69.


Etruscan Religion Timeline - History

Three of the world's major religions -- the monotheist traditions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam -- were all born in the Middle East and are all inextricably linked to one another. Christianity was born from within the Jewish tradition, and Islam developed from both Christianity and Judaism.

While there have been differences among these religions, there was a rich cultural interchange between Jews, Christians, and Muslims that took place in Islamic Spain and other places over centuries.

Judaism is the oldest surviving monotheistic religion, arising in the eastern Mediterranean in the second millennium B.C.E. Abraham is traditionally considered to be the first Jew and to have made a covenant with God. Because Judaism, Christianity, and Islam all recognize Abraham as their first prophet, they are also called the Abrahamic religions.

While there was always a small community of Jews in historic Palestine, in 73 C.E. the Roman Empire dispersed the Jews after an insurrection against Roman authority. Most Jews then lived in Diaspora, as minorities in their communities, until the founding of the state of Israel in 1948.

When Jews from all over the world came to settle in modern Israel, they found that various subcultures had developed in different areas with distinctive histories, languages, religious practices, customs, and cuisine.

Jews from Germany and Eastern Europe were known as Ashkenazim (from "Ashkenazic" the Hebrew word for Germany). Yiddish, a fusion of German and Hebrew, was the spoken language of the Ashkenazi. In Europe, Jews had tended to be segregated -- voluntarily or not -- from the Christian population. From the late 19th and through first half of the 20th century, many Ashkenazi Jews came to Palestine to escape the persecution and discrimination they faced because of their religion.

Sephardic Jews trace their ancestry to the Iberian Peninsula (modern-day Spain and Portugal "Sephardic" comes from the Hebrew word for Spain). They once spoke Ladino, a mixture of Hebrew and Spanish.

Mizrahi Jews (from the Hebrew word for Eastern, also sometimes called Oriental Jews) trace their origin to North Africa and Asia. Mizrahi and Sephardic Jewish communities tended to be integrated into their respective societies.

There is great difference of opinion among Israeli Jews over the role Jewish religious law should play in the state. Until recently, Orthodox Judaism was the only form of the religion formally and legally recognized in Israel. Although less conservative branches of Judaism now have partial recognition, Orthodoxy remains dominant politically and legally.

Many Israeli Jews describe themselves in terms of their degree of observance of Jewish law. About half call themselves secular about 15 to 20 percent see themselves as Orthodox or ultra-Orthodox and the rest describe themselves as traditionally observant, but not as strict as the Orthodox.

In the United States, debate over the necessity of observing Jewish law has led to the development of three major movements. Orthodox Jews believe that Jewish law is unchanging and mandatory. Conservative Jews argue that God's laws change and evolve over time. Reform and Reconstructionist Jews believe that these laws are merely guidelines that individuals can choose to follow or not. In addition, there are many Jews in the United States who are secular or atheist. For them, their Judaism is a culture rather than a religion.

Jews believe in one god and his prophets, with special respect for Moses as the prophet to whom God gave the law. Jewish law is embodied in the Torah (also known as the Pentateuch) and the Talmud (collected commentary on the Torah completed in the fifth-century C.E.).

Judaism is more concerned with actions than dogma. In other words, observance of rules regulating human behavior has been of more concern than debates over beliefs in the Jewish tradition. According to Orthodox Judaism, Jewish law, or halakhah, includes 613 commandments given by God in the Torah, as well as rules and practices elaborated by scholars and custom. Jewish law covers matters such as prayer and ritual, diet, rules regulating personal status (marriage, divorce, birth, death, inheritance, etc.), and observance of holidays (like Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement and Passover, the feast celebrating the exodus of the Jews from slavery in Egypt).

Jews do not believe in the prophets after the Jewish prophets, including Jesus and Muhammad. Therefore, they do not subscribe to the idea that Jesus was the Messiah and the son of God, nor do they believe in the teachings of Islam.

Christianity started as an offshoot of Judaism in the first century C.E. Until the emperor Constantine converted to Christianity in 324 C.E., early Christian communities were often persecuted. It was then that the Roman Empire became the Holy Roman Empire, and its capital relocated from Rome to Constantinople (formerly Byzantium and now Istanbul). The development of Christian groups derived from major and minor splits.

The Orthodox Church and its patriarch split away from the Roman Catholic Church and the Pope in 1054 C.E. because of political and doctrinal differences. In the 16th century, Martin Luther, upset at the corruption of the Catholic papacy, spearheaded a reformation movement that led to the development of Protestantism.

Christian missionaries proselytize all over the world, and there are large populations of Christians on every continent on Earth, although the forms of Christianity practiced vary.

Many early Christian saints lived in the Middle East. The tradition of asceticism (denial of physical pleasures in order to come closer to God) developed first in the Middle East, and the monastic tradition has its roots there.

Christians in the Middle East today include Copts, Maronites, Russian Orthodox, Greek Orthodox, Roman Catholics, Armenian Orthodox, Armenian Catholics, Assyrians, and Protestants. These groups have different liturgical languages, rituals, and customs, and different leaders who direct their faith.

The Coptic Church, the dominant form of Christianity in Egypt, arose from a doctrinal split in the Church at the Council of Chalcedon in 451. The Egyptian government supports the Copts' rights to worship and maintain their culture, but there has been some violence against the community by extremist Muslims.

The Maronite Church was started in the fifth century by followers of a Syrian priest named Maroun. The Maronite Patriarch, based in Lebanon, guides his followers in the teachings of Maroun and other saints. Maronites are still one of the most powerful political communities in Lebanon.

There are also Christian communities of different sects living today in Syria (10 percent of the population), Jordan (6 percent), the West Bank (8 percent), and Iraq (3 percent), with smaller percentages in other Middle Eastern countries.

In the 19th and early 20th centuries, many Christians from what is now Syria and Lebanon (then the Ottoman Empire) emigrated to the United States and other countries. Although Christians are a minority in the Middle East today, more than 75 percent of Americans of Arab descent are Christian.

Christianity developed out of the monotheistic tradition of Judaism Jesus, its founder, was a member of the Jewish community in Roman Palestine. Its holy scriptures are the Old Testament (the Jewish Torah with additions), and the New Testament (written by the followers of Jesus after his death and containing the life story of Jesus and other early Christian writings).

Christians believe that God is revealed through three dimensions: the Father, the Son (Jesus Christ), and the Holy Spirit. Jesus is considered the son of God, born to the virgin Mary and come to Earth to offer redemption for mankind's sins. After Jesus was crucified and executed by the Romans, he rose from the dead and ascended into heaven. This event is celebrated at Easter, while the birth of Jesus is celebrated at Christmas.

Christians believe in an afterlife where those who have lived a good life will reside in heaven with God, and those who have lived an unrepentant life of sin will be punished in hell.

Although Christianity developed out of Judaic texts, Christians do not follow Jewish law. Instead, they believe that the ritualistic Jewish law was abrogated in favor of a universal gospel for all of humanity and the Christian teaching, "Love thy neighbor as thyself."

Relationships between Jewish and Christian communities have often been difficult, particularly in Christian Europe. There, Jewish communities were often subject to discrimination and violence at the hands of Christians.

Christianity has also had a problematic relationship with Islam. Christians do not accept Muhammad as a prophet. While many Christians in the Middle East converted to Islam during and after the seventh century, the Church hierarchy in Rome and Constantinople considered Islam to be both a political and theological threat. The Crusades were an unsuccessful attempt to reverse the Islamic conquest of the eastern Mediterranean and the holy places of all three monotheistic religions.

Islam arose in the early seventh century C.E. in the settled desert community of Mecca (in present-day Saudi Arabia). It developed from both the Judeo-Christian tradition and the cultural values of the nomadic Bedouin tribes of Arabia.

Islam expanded into areas controlled by the Byzantine Empire (largely Greek-speaking and Orthodox Christian, but with a diverse population) and the Sassanian Empire (officially Zoroastrian and Persian-speaking, but also diverse). By the mid-eighth century, Islam had spread west into North Africa and Europe, and east into Central Asia. Over the centuries, Islam continued to grow in sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and Southeast Asia.

As Islam expanded, the new Islamic societies adapted and synthesized many of the customs they encountered. As a result, Muslims in different areas of the world created for themselves a wide array of cultural traditions.

The culture of Islamic Spain, for example, was so cosmopolitan that some Christian and Jewish parents complained that their children were more interested in developing their knowledge of Arabic than in learning Latin or Hebrew, respectively. Many elements of Islamic society became integral parts of medieval and Renaissance European culture, like the notion of chivalry, and certain forms of music (the lute, the arabesque) and poetry.

On the eastern end of the Islamic world, many Indonesians converted to Islam between the 15th and 17th centuries. Preexisting animist beliefs were often incorporated into the local practice of Islam.

Within Islam, there are many different communities. Many of these divisions, like the Sunnis, Shiis, Ismailis, Alevis/Alawites, and Druze, originate in political and doctrinal differences in the community. Adherents of Islam may be more or less observant, conservative or liberal.

Sufism is the mystical tradition of Islam, where direct experience of the divine is emphasized. The 13th-century poet Jalaluddin Rumi is a well-known Sufi figure whose work has become popular in the United States today. Whirling dervishes are dancers who are entranced in their experience of Sufism.

Muslims believe that Allah (the Arabic word for God) sent his revelation, the Quran, to the prophet Muhammad in the seventh century C.E. to proclaim it to mankind. The Quran contains verses (surahs) in Arabic that tell Muslims to worship one god, and explains how they should treat others properly.

Another historical text, the Hadith, written by scholars after the death of Muhammad, describes Muhammad's life as an example of pious behavior, proscribes law for the community based on the Quran and the example of Muhammad, and explains how certain rituals should be performed.

Observant Muslims practice five principles (pillars) of Islam: orally declaring their faith (shahadah) praying five times a day (salat) fasting in the daylight hours during the month of Ramadan (sawm) giving a share of their income for charity (zakat) and making a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in their lifetime if they can afford it (hajj). Many Muslims also observe dietary rules, in origin similar to those of Judaism, that forbid certain foods (like pork), outlaw alcohol, and dictate how animals should be slaughtered for food.

The Muslim calendar is lunar, and shifts in relation to the solar calendar. Just as Christians count years starting with the year of Jesus's birth, Muslims count years beginning with Muhammad's move from Mecca to Medina in 622 C.E. Muslim years are labeled as A.H., Anno Hegirae, or "year of the Hijra."

Major Muslim festivals include Id al-Fitr (the Fast-Breaking Festival, celebrated at the end of Ramadan) and Id al-Adha (the Festival of Sacrifice, the commemoration of Abraham's willingness to sacrifice Ishmail which takes place during the month of pilgrimage).

Muslims believe in a Day of Judgment, when righteous souls will go to heaven and wrongdoers will go to hell.

Islam sees Judaism and Christianity as earlier versions of Islam, revelations given within the same tradition by Allah but misunderstood over time by their followers. Muslims see Islam as the final, complete, and correct revelation in the monotheistic tradition of the three faiths.

The Islamic tradition recognizes many of the Jewish and Christian prophets, including Abraham, Moses, and Jesus (although he is not considered to be the son of God). Many non-Muslims mistakenly believe that Muhammad is the equivalent of Jesus in the Islamic tradition in fact, it is the Quran that stands in the same central position in Islam as Jesus does in Christianity. Muhammad himself is not divine, but a prophet chosen by God to deliver his message and an example of piety to emulate.

Jews and Christians are specifically protected in the Quran as Peoples of the Book, reinforcing their spiritual connection to Islam by virtue of having been given revelations from God. The Islamic legal tradition has upheld the rights of Jews and Christians to maintain their beliefs and practices within their communities in Islamic lands, and this policy of tolerance has generally been upheld.

Inside the Kingdom - Part II:
http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/middle_east /jan-june02/saudi_2-15.html
NewsHour explores the debate over Islam, education, and culture in Saudi Arabia.

Christians in the Middle East:
http://search.npr.org/cf/cmn/cmnpd01fm.cfm ?PrgDate=04/23/2002&PrgID=5
Talk of the Nation looks at the role of Christians who live in Israel and the West Bank. This story was aired during the military standoff at Bethlehem's Church of the Nativity.

The Pope's Journey:
http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/religion/ jan-june01/pope_5-8.html
NewsHour conducts a discussion on Pope John Paul II's journey of reconciliation to Greece, Syria, and Malta.

Islam: Empire of Faith:
http://www.pbs.org/empires/islam/index.html
The companion Web site for Islam: Empire of Faith, a PBS film about the world's fastest growing religion

Observing Islam:
http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/religion/ july-dec01/islam_11-16.html
Islamic scholars discuss the future of Islam as Ramadan begins amid curiosity and concern. (Novemeber 2001)

Inside Out: Revolutionary Islam:
http://insideout.wbur.org/documentaries/revolutionaryislam/
This radio documentary examines the manifestations of political Islam around the world.

Guide to Religions of the World:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/people /features/world_religions/
A guide to six world religions: Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, and Sikhism

Beliefnet Web Site:
http://www.belief.net/
A Web site on religion

Judaism 101 Web Site:
http://www.jewfaq.org/index.htm
An online encyclopedia on Judaism

Lexicon of Israeli "English":
http://www.iyba.co.il/lexicon.htm
A glossary of Israeli terms, acronyms, and abbreviations found in English-language publications

Exploring Religions:
http://uwacadweb.uwyo.edu/religionet/er/default.htm
Information on Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism

Who Are Eastern Christians?:
http://www.arimathea.co.uk/whoare.htm
The origin and definition of Eastern Christianity

Persian Poet Top Seller in America:
http://www.csmonitor.com/durable/1997/11/25/us/us.3.html
An article on the popularity of mystic Islamic poet Jalaluddin Rumi

Islam in Iran:
http://www.pbs.org/visavis/islam_in_iran_mstr.html
Vis à Vis explores the origins of Islam and its evolution in Iran.

Saudi Time Bomb?:
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/saudi/
Frontline investigates the hidden undercurrents of Islamic extremism, its far-flung reach, and its threat to the kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Religion & Culture:
http://www.pbs.org/wnet/wideangle/classroom/lp5.html
Students will consider the theme of religion and culture as they learn about the Hindu-Muslim conflict in the province of Gujarat, India.

Understanding History, Religion, and Politics in Jerusalem and Beyond:
http://www.pbs.org/pov/pov2001/promises/intheclassroom.html
Students will acquire historical knowledge of the conflict between Israelis and Palestinians in the region, learn how to interpret a conflict from multiple perspectives, advocate for a point of view, and develop greater conflict resolution skills.

Gender Issues in Islam:
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/teach/muslims/
Students will compare and contrast the roles of men and women with regard to various topics in the six countries featured in the film.

Great Thinkers and Accomplishments of Islam:
http://www.pbs.org/empires/islam/lesson4.html
Students will learn about the diverse accomplishments of great Islamic scholars.

God Fights Back: 1978-1992:
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/peoplescentury/teachers/tggod.html
In the 1970s, alienated Iranians flock to the promises of Islamic fundamentalism and Egyptians and Algerians soon follow. In the 1980s, alienated Americans flock to the promises of Christian fundamentalism.

The Fascinating World of Islam:
http://www.pbs.org/empires/islam/lesson2.html
Students will research the people, places, and events that have shaped the history of Islam.

An Introduction to Islam and Muhammad:
http://www.pbs.org/empires/islam/lesson1.html
Students will compare the major monotheistic belief systems of the world.

Middle East: Crossroads of Faith and Conflict (map):

Supplement to National Geographic, October 2002


Etruscan Religion Timeline - History

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Get started on that final review for APUSH! Try these new multiple choice questions created by me below in the new 2015 format.


Many quizzes here to test your
knowledge of history!



Exam prep material for ALL AP courses!!
(Formerly Learnerator)


Timeline of the Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution took place from the eighteenth century up until the mid-nineteenth century, marking a process of increased manufacturing and production which boosted industry and encouraged new inventions ad innovations.

Headquarters of the East India Company, London, 1828

1600- The formation of the East India Company. The joint-stock company would later play a vital role in maintaining a trade monopoly that helped increase demand, production and profit. The company helped Britain compete with its European neighbours and grow in economic and trading strength.

1709- Abraham Darby leases the furnace which he successfully uses for the first time. Darby was able to sell 81 tons of iron goods that year. He would become a crucial figure in industry, discovering a method of producing pig iron fuelled by coke rather than charcoal.

1712- Thomas Newcomen invents the first steam engine.

1719- The silk factory is started by John Lombe. Located in Derbyshire, Lombe’s Mill opens as a silk throwing mill, the first successful one of its kind in England.

1733- The simple weaving machine is invented by John Kay known as the Flying Shuttle. The new invention allowed for automatic machine looms which could weave wider fabrics and speed up the manufacturing process.

1750- Cotton cloths were being produced using the raw cotton imported from overseas. Cotton exports would help make Britain a commercial success.

1761- The Bridgewater Canal opens, the first of its kind in Britain. It was named after Francis Egerton, 3rd Duke of Bridgewater who commissioned it in order to transport the coal from his mines in Worsley.

1764- The invention of the Spinning Jenny by James Hargreaves in Lancashire. The idea consisted of a metal frame with eight wooden spindles. The invention allowed the workers to produce cloth much quicker thus increasing productivity and paving the way for further mechanisation.

1764- Scottish inventor James Watt is commissioned to carry out repairs to a Thomas Newcomen steam engine and quickly recognises ways that it can be modified to operate much more efficiently. By changing the way the cylinder was heated and cooled the amount of coal used in heating the water to produce the steam could be reduced by more than 60%.

1769- James Watt was granted his first British patent (No. 913) for the unique design of his new steam engine. To quantify the enormous power of his new engines, James Watt also invented a new unit of measurement: The Horsepower. James Watt’s steam engines would literally set the world in motion… through the introduction of steam powered railway locomotives and steam ships… transportation would be completely revolutionised. His steam engines would also go on to power the new mills that were starting to appear in the Industrial North.

1769- The yarn produced by the new Spinning Jenny was not particularly strong but this soon changed when Richard Arkwright invented the water frame which could attach the spinning machine to a water wheel.

1774- The English inventor Samuel Crompton invented the Spinning Mule which would combine the processes of spinning and weaving into one machine, thus revolutionising the industry.

1779- The inventor Richard Arkwright became an entrepreneur and opened a cotton spinning mill using his invention of the water frame.

1784- The ironmaster, Henry Cort came up with the idea for a puddling furnace in order to make iron. This involved making bar iron with a reverberating furnace stirred with rods. His invention proved successful for iron refining techniques.

1785- The power loom was invented, designed the previous year by Edmund Cartwright, who subsequently patented the mechanised loom which used water to increase the productivity of the weaving process. His ideas would be shaped and developed throughout the years in order to create an automatic loom for the textile industry.

1790- Edmund Cartwright produced another invention called a wool combing machine. He patented the invention which arranged the fibres of wool.

1799- The Combination Act received royal assent in July, preventing workers in England collectively bargaining in groups or through unions for better pay and improved working conditions. In the same year, on the 9th October a group of English textile workers in Manchester rebelled against the introduction of machinery which threatened their skilled craft. This was one of the initial riots that would occur under the Luddite movement.

1800- Around 10 million tons of coal had been mined in Britain.

The Trevithick locomotive

1801- Richard Trevithick, a mining engineer and inventor drove a steam powered locomotive down the streets of Camborne in Cornwall. He was a pioneer of steam-powered transport and built the first working railway locomotive.

1803- Cotton becomes Britain’s biggest export, overtaking wool.

1804- The first locomotive railway journey took place in February, the Trevithick invention successfully hauled a train along a tramway in Merthyr Tydfil.

1811- The first large-scale Luddite riot took place in Arnold, Nottingham resulting in the destruction of machinery.

1812- In response to the riots, Parliament passed a law making the destruction of industrial machines punishable by death.

1813- In a one day trial, fourteen Luddites were hanged in Manchester.

1815- Cornish chemist Sir Humphrey Davy and English engineer George Stephenson both invented safety lamps for miners.

1816- The engineer George Stephenson patented the steam engine locomotive which would earn him the title of “Father of the Railways”.

1824- The repeal of the Combination Act which was believed to have caused irritation, discontent and gave rise to violence.

1825: The first passenger railway opens with Locomotion No.1 carrying passengers on a public line.

1830- George Stephenson created the first public inter-city rail line in the world connecting the great northern cities of Manchester and Liverpool. The industrial powerhouse and landlocked city of Manchester could now quickly access the world through the Port Of Liverpool. Cotton arriving from plantations in America would supply the textile mills of Manchester and Lancashire, with the finished cloth returned to Liverpool and exported throughout the British Empire.

1833- The Factory Act is passed to protect children under the age of nine from working in the textile industry. Children aged thirteen and over could not work longer than sixty nine hours a week.

1834 – The Poor Law was passed in order to create workhouses for the destitute.

1839- James Nasmyth invents the steam hammer, built to meet the need for shaping large iron and steel components.

1842- A law applied to miners, banning children under the age of ten as well as women from working underground.

1844- The law states children younger than eight are banned from working. In the same year Friedrich Engels publishes his observations of the impact of the industrial revolution in “The Condition of the Working Class in England”.

1847- New law stating limited working hours of women and children in textile factories to ten hours a day.

Manchester – ‘Cottonopolis’ – in 1840

1848- The impact of industrialisation and creation of cities leads to a cholera epidemic across towns in Britain.

1851-Rural to urban migration results in over half the population of Britain now residing in towns.

1852- The British shipbuilding company Palmer Brothers & Co opens in Jarrow. The same year, the first iron screw collier, the John Bowes is launched.

1860- The first iron warship, HMS Warrior is launched.

HMS Warrior, now a museum ship in Portsmouth

1867- The Factory Act is extended to include all workplaces employing more than fifty workers.

1868- The TUC (Trade Unions Congress) is formed.

1870- Forster’s Education Act which takes the first tentative steps at enforcing compulsory education.

1875- New law prohibited boys from climbing chimneys to clean them.

1912- The industry of Great Britain reaches its peak, with the textile industry producing around 8 billion yards of cloth.

1914- World War One changes the industrial heartlands, with foreign markets setting up their own manufacturing industries. The golden age of British industry has come to an end.

The sequence of events placed Britain as a major player on the global stage of trade and manufacturing, allowing it to become a leading commercial nation as well as marking a huge turning point in Britain’s social and economic history.

Jessica Brain is a freelance writer specialising in history. Based in Kent and a lover of all things historical.