Byzantine Government Timeline

Byzantine Government Timeline


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Byzantine Empire (Pax Americana)

Byzantine Empire or Officialy Known as Eastern Roman Empire (Greek:Βυζάντιο Αυτοκρατορία, Latin:Imperium Byzantium), is the large Supperpower in the World, and Large Emergence Powers, and World Politician.

When Begins At 330 AD, the Roman Empire Continues in East, and Expanded Into Mighty Empire, When Orthodox Christianity Formed, and Spreads all Across the World.

The Byzantines Believe that the Byzantines Expanded, and Gives Independence with Romance Speakers, and The Byzantine Empire, and Prevent Fallen to Ottoman Turks.

The Byzantines Loss bit of Land to Bulgaria due to Revolutionary War of America, and In 19th Century, the Byzantines Become Colonial Empire. The Byzantines Form Hispano-Byzantine Alliance until 1783, and Restored after War.

When Napeleonic Wars Begun, the Byzantines Invaded by Italians, and Bulgarians to Assist Against Italian Napoleon, can Cause World War I 1801-1855 Long Years.

When World War II, The Byzantines Royal Family had Fled into Rhodesia or Recife. since World War II Roman Empire or Byzantine Establishes as a Socialist Republic.

After Cold War, the Coup'd Etat held in imperial Palace causing End of Socialist Dictatorship and Re-established Third Rome after Returning of Byzantine Royal Family.

The Byzantines had An Empire to Expanded and Named Rhodesia, And Byzantines Reports, hundred of Berbers Have Converted to Christianity, and Orthodox Christianity, and Population Grows in Byzantine Homeland.

The Byzantines have GDP Economic Rate, and is 27%, become Best GDP Economy in Top-40 in Europe and Top-100 in the World, and Byzantines have Highly Educated System, and More Highly Globalized Nation.

Byzantine Empire have military bases from U.S., and Military Performances have Military Strength, the Byzantines Make Imperial Power.


Main Article

Byzantine Empire

Late in its history, the Roman Empire was divided into east and west. While the western half crumbled away, the eastern half survived as a unified state this state is known as the Eastern Roman Empire during antiquity, and as the Byzantine Empire during the medieval period. Historians have applied this "name change" because of the dramatic cultural transformation the state experienced. This transformation began during the late Roman Empire, such that the birth of the Byzantine Empire is often pushed back as far as ca. 300.

The Byzantine Empire had a difficult history, distinguished primarily by long periods of conflict (both external and civil) and decline. In addition to Slavic and Steppe tribe incursions, the Byzantines struggled with the mighty civilizations of Southwest Asia: first the Second Persian Empire (ca. 200-650), then the Caliphate (ca. 650-900), then finally the Ottoman Empire (ca. 1300-WWI), which conquered the Byzantines in 1453. Nonetheless, Byzantine civilization lives on today, as the cultural foundation of modern Eastern Europe. 5,42,99

The Byzantine Empire did experience two golden ages of expansion and stability, each lasting roughly a century. The architect of the first golden age, which spanned the sixth century, was Justinian, greatest of Byzantine emperors. The Empire reached its maximum size during this century, and Constantinople (the Byzantine capital) flourished as the world's largest city. The second golden age, which spanned the tenth century, is sometimes known as the "Macedonian Renaissance" (since it was effected by the "Macedonian dynasty" of emperors). 5,7

Italy

Upon the fall of the Roman Empire, Italy was briefly united (for several decades) by the Ostrogothic kingdom. From the fall of this kingdom to the nineteenth century, Italy was fractured into small states. Throughout this long period, Italy was dominated by both native powers (especially city-states) and various invaders (e.g. Lombards, Byzantines, Vikings, Arabs). 31,32,95

The Church came to govern a modest territory around Rome known as the Papal States . Yet the true power of the Church lay not in lands, but rather in authority that could be applied to all Western states, including taxation, involvement of clergy in civil administrations, and declaration of sanctions (including war). Thus did the Church, though not a "state" in the traditional sense, thrive as a major political force in medieval and Early Modern Europe.

France and Germany

Summary of Medieval France and Germany
Early Middle Ages
ca. 500-1000
High Middle Ages
ca. 1000-1300
Late Middle Ages
ca. 1300-1500
France Frankish kingdom > France/Germany rise of France Hundred Years' War > French unification
Germany Holy Roman Empire

The Early Middle Ages (ca. 500-1000) were an impoverished, non-urban phase of Western European history. 4 With the fall of Roman rule, agriculture and trade networks languished, population declined, and literacy nearly disappeared outside the Church. Politically speaking, the unity of empire was supplanted by a patchwork of Germanic kingdoms. A228,3

These kingdoms emerged as the hitherto migratory Germanic tribes settled down and accumulated territory thus did barbarian chiefs become land-owning lords (albeit lords of small, fragile states). As the waves of Germanic migration subsided, the political environment of Western Europe slowly stabilized, allowing kingdoms to expand. The Frankish kingdom emerged as the largest of these, spanning what is now France, western Germany, and northern Italy thus did the Frankish kingdom become the first political and cultural leader of medieval Western Europe. A153,K208-09

The Frankish kingdom (ca. 500-900) featured two dynasties: the Merovingians (ca. 500-750) and Carolingians (ca. 750-900). Under the Merovingian dynasty, the Frankish kingdom experienced steady growth. Under the Carolingian dynasty, the size and power of the Frankish kingdom culminated (peaking under Charlemagne), then experienced fracture and decline, ultimately disintegrating in the late ninth century. 6

Timeline of the Frankish Kingdom
Early Middle Ages
ca. 500-1000
Merovingian dynasty
(kingdom growth)
Carolingian dynasty
(kingdom culmination and decline)
Charlemagne

From the beginning, the politically acute Franks maintained a strong relationship with the Church. The Church-state separation of Western Europe was formalized when Charlemagne affirmed the pope's supreme spiritual position, while the pope recognized Charlemagne as the chief temporal ruler of the West. Specifically, Charlemagne was recognized as emperor , since the Frankish kingdom was now considered (in Western eyes) the continuation of the Roman Empire. A216,1,40

The Frankish kingdom gave rise to the Carolingian Renaissance , the most brilliant scholarly and artistic flowering of the Early Medieval period, which spanned roughly the same period as the Carolingian dynasty (ca. 750-900). With the ascent of Charlemagne, this early "renaissance" came to centred at Aachen (Germany), selected by Charlemagne as the Frankish capital. 1

Charlemagne's control of the Frankish kingdom was realized via feudalism, a hierarchical system of land distribution among nobles, in which lands were granted in exchange for military and political service (see Feudalism and Serfdom). Though the roots of feudalism reach back centuries earlier, the system matured under the Carolingians. 29,81

After Charlemagne, the Frankish kingdom fell into decline and fracture, coming to a decisive end ca. 900. Thereafter, the western and eastern parts of the former kingdom embarked on distinct political destinies. In other words, ca. 900 marks the beginning of the history of France and Germany.

In the western portion of the former Frankish kingdom, the rise of France occurred slowly, as its various regions were gradually unified throughout the remainder of the medieval period. Germany, on the other hand, achieved rapid unification in the tenth century, only to splinter into small states as the medieval period drew to a close. While France proceeded to flourish as a united state up to the present day, Germany only achieved reunification in the nineteenth century. 39

In the meantime, Germany ascended as one of the primary powers of Western Europe. This position was cemented by Otto I , who was granted (ca. 950) the title of "Holy Roman Emperor". Thus did his kingdom become the Holy Roman Empire, which lasted ca. 950-1800.

The core territory of the Holy Roman Empire was Germany/Austria/Bohemia. (Bohemia, the kingdom of the Czechs, corresponds roughly with the modern Czech Republic.) Ironically, this "holy" empire spent centuries warring with the papacy for control of Italy. 21

Rise of Modern Western Languages

Following the Roman conquest, Vulgar Latin served as the common language of France. ("Vulgar Latin" denotes any version of Latin that has evolved away from standard, "classical" Latin.) Though the Franks conquered France, they were greatly outnumbered by the native population, and consequently absorbed the native language (rather than imposing their own). Over time, the Vulgar Latin of France evolved into Old French thus did the West Franks become the French. A212,102

Likewise, Vulgar Latin evolved into early forms of modern Western languages in Iberia (Spanish and Portuguese) and Italy (Italian). Meanwhile, the modern Germanic languages of Western Europe emerged in those regions where Germanic populations predominated. For instance, the Middle Ages witnessed the development of Old German, Old English, and Old Norse. A212,102

Normandy

Early in the Viking age (ca. 800-1100), Vikings settled a large region on the north coast of France. By this time, a distinct French culture had emerged throughout the region corresponding to modern France this settlement thus represented a pocket of Norse culture within the French culture area. The pocket gradually disappeared, however, as the colonists embraced the French language and culture (which largely replaced their original Norse culture): a phenomenon known as assimilation. Upon becoming a French population, the people of this colonized region are known as Normans , and the region itself is known as Normandy . 36,81

Unable to drive away the Vikings, France granted them Normandy as a duchy. Normandy's ruler, the Duke of Normandy, was therefore nominally subject to the French king. In reality, however, Normandy would not come under genuine French control until the end of the Middle Ages. 109

Iberia and England

Summary of Medieval Iberia and England
Early Middle Ages
ca. 500-1000
High Middle Ages
ca. 1000-1300
Late Middle Ages
ca. 1300-1500
England Anglo-Saxon kingdoms Anglo-Norman age Hundred Years' War > War of the Roses
Iberia Visigothic rule > Islamic rule Reconquista rise of Portugal and Spain

For the first two centuries of the medieval period, Iberia was governed by the Visigothic kingdom . Following the invasion of the Moors (Muslims of northwest Africa), the remainder of the Early Medieval period featured Islamic rule over Iberia. Ethnically speaking, the Moors comprised varying blends of Arab, Berber, and Sub-Saharan peoples. 23

From the Caliphate (ca. 650-900) onward, Islamic states have governed most of Southwest/Central Asia and North Africa. Medieval Western Europe consequently endured waves of Islamic invasions from North Africa (most notably of Iberia and southern Italy), though the region was shielded to the east by the Byzantine Empire. Without this shield, the young kingdoms of medieval Western Europe might have been conquered by the Islamic world, and Western civilization might have been extinguished. A169

In the High Middle Ages, Iberia was re-conquered by Christian kingdoms: a development known as the Reconquista. Thus began the histories of Spain and Portugal. 84

Meanwhile, the Anglo-Saxons of England spent most of the Early Medieval period divided into small, warring kingdoms. With the onset of the Viking age, however, the English were forced to cooperate against Danish raiders national union was finally achieved under Alfred the Great, king of Wessex. Though England was later briefly added to a Danish empire (for a few decades at the beginning of the High Middle Ages), a united English nation and culture had formed, which would survive both the Danes and the Normans. A225,1,70


Byzantine Government Timeline - History

c. 7000: Jericho is a walled settlement

c. 5000-4000: Land of Canaan is occupied by Canaanites, then Amorites and Jebusites.

c. 2000: Founding patriarch Abraham and his tribe settle in what becomes Judea.

c. 1500: Abraham’s descendants, led by Joseph, settle in Egypt.

c. 1260: Moses leads Israelites in Exodus from Egypt.

c. 1200: Israelites under Joshua enter Promised Land.

c. 1000: David captures Jebusite city of Jerusalem and makes it his capital.

c. 970: Solomon builds First Temple.

Two kingdoms

c. 930: Israel splits into northern kingdom of Israel and southern kingdom of Judah (including Jerusalem).

c. 720: Northern kingdom conquered by Assyria and its 10 tribes sent into exile.

c. 700: Southern kingdom’s King Hezekiah cuts tunnel from Gihon Spring to Pool of Siloam.

701: Assyrians conquer much of southern kingdom Jerusalem is besieged but survives.

597: Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon captures southern kingdom and Jerusalem.

587: Following rebellion, Nebuchadnezzar destroys Jerusalem and First Temple, deporting most of population to Babylon (in present-day Iraq).

Persian rule

539: Cyrus the Great of Persia conquers Babylon and allows Jews to return from captivity.

515: Second Temple is completed.

444: Nehemiah rebuilds city walls of Jerusalem.

Hellenistic rule

332: Alexander the Great conquers Persian Empire, including all of Palestine.

323: Alexander dies and his kingdom is divided into four parts Palestine falls under Ptolemaic Dynasty of Egypt, then under Seleucid Empire of Syria.

175: King Antiochus IV of Syria bans traditional Jewish practices and desecrates Temple.

167: Judas Maccabeus leads successful revolt against Seleucid Empire, rededicates Temple and restores religious freedom.

Hasmonean rule

140: Simon Maccabeus, a brother of Judas, establishes Hasmonean Dynasty, which rules an independent Jewish kingdom for 103 years.

63: Rivalry between Simon Maccabeus’ great-grandsons, Hyrcanus II and Aristobulus II, brings civil war that ends with Roman general Pompey controlling the kingdom.

37: Rome proclaims Herod as King of Israel, now a Roman client state, ending the Hasmonean Dynasty.

Roman rule

20: Herod expands Temple Mount and rebuilds Temple.

c. 3: Jesus Christ is born in Bethlehem.

1: Herod dies and his kingdom is divided among his sons, Philip, Antipas and Archelaus.

__________________________________________________________________________

26: Pontius Pilate becomes procurator of Roman province of Judea.

c. 27: Jesus is baptised by his cousin John the Baptist and begins his public ministry.

c. 30: Jesus is condemned to death and crucified.

c. 32: Stephen, first Christian martyr, is stoned to death.

c. 34: Paul is converted on the way to Damascus.

41-44: Jerusalem’s “Third Wall” is built by King Agrippa I.

c. 50: Council of Jerusalem, first recorded council of Christian leaders, is held.

c. 45-120: Books of the New Testament are written.

67: During First Jewish-Roman War, Christians in Palestine flee to Pella in Jordan.

70: Romans destroy Jerusalem and Second Temple.

73: Masada falls to Romans.

130: Emperor Hadrian rebuilds Jerusalem, renaming it Aelia Capitolina, and puts pagan temple over site of the Crucifixion and Resurrection.

135: Hadrian crushes Second Jewish Revolt and expels Jews from Palestine.

301: Armenia becomes first nation to make Christianity its state religion.

313: Emperor Constantine I legalises Christianity.

325: At Council of Nicaea, Bishop Macarius of Jerusalem asks Constantine to reclaim site of crucifixion and Resurrection and build a church there.

326-7: Constantine’s mother, Helena, visits Holy Land, finds True Cross and orders churches built on sacred sites large-scale pilgrimages begin.

Byzantine rule

330: Constantine moves his capital from Nicomedia to Byzantium (renamed Constantinople, now Istanbul).

335: Church of the Holy Sepulchre is consecrated.

380: Emperor Theodosius I makes Christianity the religion of the Roman Empire.

386-420: Jerome produces Vulgate translation of Bible in his Bethlehem cave.

395: Roman Empire splits into East and West.

c. 500: Jerusalem Talmud completed by rabbinic schools in Galilee.

570: Birth of Muhammad.

614: Persians capture Jerusalem, destroying many churches and burning Church of the Holy Sepulchre.

622: Muhammad escapes assassination in Mecca and flees to Medina, his flight marking first year of Islamic calendar.

629: Emperor Heraclius I re-establishes Byzantine rule in Jerusalem and recovers True Cross stolen by Persians.

Islamic rule

638: Islamic forces conquer Jerusalem, beginning rule by succession of Arab dynasties.

661-1000: Palestine variously ruled by Arab caliphs in Damascus, Baghdad and Cairo.

692: Dome of the Rock completed on Temple Mount.

1009: Sultan al-Hakim destroys Church of the Holy Sepulchre.

1048: Church of the Holy Sepulchre restored by Emperor Constantine Monomachus.

1054: Great Schism splits Christian Church into Eastern (Greek) and Western (Latin) branches.

1071: Seljuk Turks capture Jerusalem, persecuting Christians, desecrating churches and barring pilgrims.

Crusader rule

1099: First Crusade captures Jerusalem and establishes Latin kingdom Dome of the Rock becomes church called Templum Domini (Temple of the Lord).

1149: New Church of the Holy Sepulchre completed.

1187: Sultan Saladin defeats Crusaders at Horns of Hattin above Sea of Galilee, then takes Jerusalem.

Islamic rule again

1219: St Francis of Assisi visits Egypt and meets Sultan Melek al-Kamil.

1229: During Sixth Crusade, Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II negotiates return of Jerusalem and other Christian sites to Crusader kingdom.

1229: Franciscans establish themselves in Jerusalem near Fifth Station of Via Dolorosa.

1244: Jerusalem is sacked by Khwarezmian Tartars control quickly passes to Egyptian Ayyubids and then Mamluks, who rule until 1517.

1291: Crusaders’ last foothold, Acre, falls to Mamluks.

1342: Pope Clement VI formally establishes Franciscan Custody of the Holy Land.

Ottoman rule

1517: Ottoman Turks take control of Palestine from Mamluks.

1517: Martin Luther begins Protestant Reformation in Europe.

1538: Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent builds present walls of Old City of Jerusalem.

1757: Ottoman Turkish edicts give Greek Orthodox major possession of Church of the Holy Sepulchre and other holy places.

1808: Fire rages in Church of the Holy Sepulchre Tomb of Christ is severely damaged when dome falls in.

1812: Swiss explorer Johann Ludwig Burckhardt rediscovers Nabatean city of Petra.

1839: British Jew Sir Moses Montefiore proposes idea of a modern Jewish state.

1842: First Anglican bishop of Jerusalem, Michael Solomon Alexander, a converted Jewish rabbi, arrives.

1849: Christ Church in Jerusalem, oldest Protestant church in Middle East, is built.

1852: Under pressure from Russia, Ottoman Sultan Abd-ul-Mejid directs that possession of holy places remains according to 1757 edict.

1853-56: Possession of holy places is one cause of Crimean War between Russia and major European powers.

1860: First Jewish immigrant neighbourhood outside Old City of Jerusalem is established, funded by Sir Moses Montefiore.

1878: “Status Quo” defining possession of holy places is incorporated into international law by Treaty of Berlin.

1883: General Charles Gordon proposes Skull Hill as Calvary and Garden Tomb as place where Christ was buried.

1884: Mosaic map of Holy Land discovered in floor of 6th-century church at Madaba, Jordan.

1909: Joseph Baratz and 11 others establish first kibbutz in Palestine, called Kvutzat Degania (“Wheat of God”), at southern end of Sea of Galilee.

1917: British government’s Balfour Declaration backs establishing Jewish homeland in Palestine, without prejudice to “civil and religious rights” of non-Jewish population.

British mandate

1917: British forces under General E. H. Allenby capture Palestine from Ottoman Turks.

1922: League of Nations approves British mandate of Palestine.

1946: Jordan gains independence from Britain.

1947: United Nations Partition Plan calls for a Jewish state and an Arab state in Palestine, with Greater Jerusalem (including Bethlehem) under international control most Jewish groups accept plan but Arabs reject it.

1947: Dead Sea Scrolls are discovered at Qumran.

1948: Amid civil unrest and violence, Britain withdraws from mandate.

Israel and Palestinian Territories

1948: After Jewish provisional government declares Israel an independent state, Arab forces invade.

1949: Israel prevails in Arab-Israeli War, though Egypt holds Gaza, and Jordan the West Bank and East Jerusalem more than 700,000 Palestinians become refugees.

1967: In Six-Day War against Egypt, Jordan and Syria, Israel occupies Sinai, Gaza, Golan Heights, West Bank and East Jerusalem.

1969: Church of the Annunciation in Nazareth, largest Christian church in Middle East, is completed.

1973: In Yom Kippur War against Egypt and Syria, Israel makes further territorial gains.

1979: Israel and Egypt sign peace treaty Israel agrees to return Sinai to Egypt.

1986: Remains of fishing boat from time of Jesus found in Sea of Galilee.

1987-93: Palestinians carry out First Intifada (uprising) against Israeli occupation.

1993: Israel gives Palestinian National Authority limited autonomy in West Bank and Gaza.

1994: Jordan and Israel sign peace treaty.

1996: Excavations begin at likely site of Christ’s baptism, in former minefield at Bethany Beyond the Jordan.

1997: Interchurch co-operation completes 36-year restoration of Church of the Holy Sepulchre reconstruction of Tomb of Christ edicule remains to be done.

2000-05: Second Intifada follows controversial visit by Israeli politician Ariel Sharon to Temple Mount.

2002: Israel Defence Forces besiege Palestinian militants in Church of the Nativity, Bethlehem, for 39 days.

2002: Israel begins building 700-km West Bank separation wall.

2005: Remains of early 3rd-century church found at Megiddo.

2005: Israel withdraws settlers and military from Gaza.

2007: Archaeologist Ehud Netzer discovers Herod the Great’s long-lost tomb at Herodium.

2008: Responding to rocket attacks, Israel launches 22-day war against Gaza.

2009: Archaeologists in Nazareth uncover residential building from time of Jesus.

2012: United Nations General Assembly accepts Palestine as a “non-member observer state”.

2013: City of David excavators find clay seal inscribed with name of Bethlehem, first reference to the city outside the Bible.

2014: Discovery of nine previously unknown Dead Sea Scrolls announced the tiny texts were inside unopened tefillin (prayer cases) found at Qumran in 1952.

2014: Responding to rocket fire, Israel launches seven-week bombardment of Gaza.

2017: Restoration of Tomb of Christ in Church of the Holy Sepulchre is completed.

2021: About 80 new fragments of biblical scrolls, bearing lines from the books of Zechariah and Nahum, are found in the Judaean desert

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Byzantine Empire Government

The Byzantine Empire had an absolute monarchy. Their government is also considered a Caesaropapism because the supreme ruler was secular. In the early days he was usually elected by the senate, the people, or the army, or all three. Later it became the custom to allow the son of an emperor (Porphyrogenite) to succeed to the throne and then to depose him if he proved to be weak or incompetent.

A reigning emperor was considered sacred and appointed by God and he was revered by his people in much the same way that their pre-Christian ancestors had worshipped the god-kings of ancient days. He lived in an elaborate palace, was surrounded by a lavish court, and took part in one complicated ceremonial event after another. In civil government the emperor was supreme, for he both made the laws and enforced them. His power over the church was almost as great he appointed the patriarch of Constantinople who acted as head of the church in the east he called church councils and published their decrees and in general he directed the activities of the priests.

Round the person of the Emperor there revolved a whole world of court dignitaries and high officials, who formed the court and composed the members of the central government. Until towards the close of the sixth century, the Byzantine Empire had retained the Roman administrative system.

A small number of high officials, to whom all the services were subordinated, were at the head of affairs, and, after the example of Rome, the Byzantine Empire had maintained the old separation of civil and military powers and kept the territorial subdivisions due to Diocletian and Constantine. But during the course of the seventh and eighth centuries the administration of the Byzantine monarchy underwent a slow evolution. Civil and military powers became united in the same hands, but in new districts, the themes, which superseded the old territorial divisions.

Justinian reformed the government and ordered a review of Roman law. This undertaking led to the publication of the Code of Justinian, a digest of Roman and church law, texts, and other instructional materials that became the foundation of modern Western law. Justinian also participated actively in the religious arguments of his day.

In the capital near the sovereign, the heads of the great departments, the Ministers, if they may be so called, directed the government from above and transmitted the will of the Emperor throughout the entire realm. Since the seventh century the Byzantine Empire had gradually become Hellenized, and the Latin titles which were still borne by officials in the days of Justinian had assumed a purely Greek form.

Salvation appeared from the west when Heraclius (610-641), the Byzantine governor of North Africa, returned to Constantinople to overthrow the mad emperor Phocas. Conditions were so dismal and the future appeared so perilous when Heraclius arrived in the capital that he considered moving the government from Constantinople to Carthage in North Africa.


Byzantine Emperor List

The Twelve Tables are the first attempt to make a law code, and remained the only attempt for nearly one thousand years.

Typically, Roman prisons were not used to punish criminals, but instead served only to hold people awaiting trial or execution.

The Tribune of the Plebes (tribunus plebis) was a magistracy established in 494 BC. It was created to provide the people with a direct representative magistrate.

A copy of the acts of the Deified Augustus by which he placed the whole world under the sovereignty of the Roman people.

This book reveals how an empire that stretched from Glasgow to Aswan in Egypt could be ruled from a single city and still survive more than a thousand years.

This second edition includes a new introduction that explores the consequences for government and the governing classes of the replacement of the Republic by the rule of emperors.

During the period, the government of the Roman empire met the most prolonged crisis of its history and survived. This text is an early attempt at an inclusive study of the origins and evolutions of this transformation in the ancient world.

Swords Against the Senate describes the first three decades of Rome's century-long civil war that transformed it from a republic to an imperial autocracy, from the Rome of citizen leaders to the Rome of decadent emperor thugs.

Rome's first emperor, Augustus, the adopted son of Julius Caesar, has probably had the most lasting effect on history of all rulers of the classical world. This book focuses on his rise to power and on the ways in which he then maintained authority throughout his reign.


From Constantinople (now Istanbul), Constantine ruled over the entire Roman world, but eventually the empire split again. In 476, the western Roman empire was swept away. However, the eastern empire, which is called the Byzantine Empire, endured until 1453, when it was conquered by the Ottoman Empire.

In 330, Constantinople was proclaimed capital of the Roman Empire. The new city?s splendid public buildings, which included a forum, were adorned with treasures from all over the empire.

WHY WAS CONSTANTINOPLE SO PROSPEROUS?

Constantinople was a meeting point for long-distance trade routes linking Europe, Asia, and the Middle East. Merchants brought silks from China, pearls and perfumes from Arabia, spices from southeast Asia, and fine wool and furs from Europe to sell in its markets.


AP World History Timeline (600-1450)

Made of the Eastern half of the Roman Empire, capital of Constantinople
Grew and prospered long after the fall of the Roman Empire.
Justinian's Code, made by Justinian the Great, revived the legal tradition of Rome and remained a foundation of legal knowledge in Europe for centuries.
Byzantine Empire was a fairly wealthy empire but suffered frequent attacks from invaders, cities like Constantinople built extensive walls and defensives in response.

Ghana Empire

Capital: Kumbai Saleh
Rulers sold gold and ivory to Muslim traders in exchange for salt, copper, cloth, and tools

Middle Ages

Period in Europe between the fall of the western Roman Empire and the fall of the eastern Roman Empire. Characterized by feudalism, kingdoms, and Catholicism, particularly in the early middle ages. During the high middle ages, new states and greater trade improved life in Europe and weakened feudalism.

Sui Dynasty

United by Sui Yangdi through violence and oppression, ruled through harsh, dictatorial methods. The Grand Canal was built during this dynasty, an important public work for China. The dynasty ended when the people were upset over high taxes, the emperor's dictatorial ways, and the conscription of laborers, causing the emperor to be assassinated.

Tang Dynasty

During this time, China enjoy relative prosperity and stability.
Had a tributary system, other kingdoms and states had to pay money or goods to the Chinese emperor. Expanded the empire's bureaucracy, developed more roads and canals. Experienced a spread in Buddhism.

Start of Islam

Founded by Mohammed, the Hegira, Mohammed's fleeing from Mecca to Medina marks the start of the Muslim calender
-Quran is the sacred book of Islam
-Five Pillars of Islam: Confession of Faith, Prayer, Charity, Fasting, Pilgrimage to Mecca

Taika Reforms (Japan)

Goals: Increase efficiency, put all land under government ownership.
Damaged the feudal lords' power and helped create a powerful centralized government.

Umayyad Caliphate

Capital: Damascus
Were Sunnis, controlled the largest territory of anyone since the Roman Empire.

Silla Kingdom

(Korea)
Had a fairly direct relationship with China, Silla was a tributary state of China and performed ritual kowtow to the Tang emperor. Due to its close relationship, Silla developed many similar aspects to that of China but did have a much more powerful aristocracy than China did.

Mississipian Civilization

The mound-builders, Cahokia (largest town), practiced large-scale agriculture and had centers of craft and commerce. Practiced animism. Had a rigid class structure with the Great Sun as the chief, had a matrilineal society. Unknown as to why the civilization declined and disappeared entirely.

Fujiwara Clan

The Fujiwara family ruled Japan for a period of time, with the emperor acting as a figurehead. Experienced the Heian Period, where culture and literature flourished among the aristocrats, the cultural development did not spread to the peasantry.

Abbasid Caliphate

Capital: Baghdad
Sunnis. Baghdad was a center of learning, experienced a golden age of learning. Abbasids were influenced by Persia, even during the Islamic Golden Age.

Kievan Rus

Kievan Rus was a collection of city-states of Slavic peoples. The beginnings of what would become Russia.

The Toltec

A civilization in northern Mesoamerica, had a capital at Tula. Led by a warrior aristocracy, extracted tribute from conquered peoples. Conquered Mayan settlements and borrowed various ideas from them.

Vietnamese Victory

Vietnam experienced various different conflicts with China throughout their history, including being occupied by China. As the Tang dynasty began to weaken, the Vietnamese began to push the Tang out, and won a major victory against them in 938.

Song Dynasty

Smaller than the Tang due to nomadic invaders taking over a portion of the land (the Jin). China's bureaucracy expanded, education improved. The extensive bureaucracy was too expensive and hurt the Song. Also, the bureaucracy could not manage the army properly, further weakening the Song.

Holy Roman Empire

The Germanic king Otto I was crowned Holy Roman Emperor, thus beginning the Holy Roman Empire in Europe. The HRE remained vibrant until the Thirty Years' War (1618-16480, which it was greatly weakened. The Empire finally ended with Napoleon's invasion in 1806.

The Great Schism

The split of the Christian Church into the Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church. Catholicism dominated Western Europe, while Orthodox Christianity was primarily in Eastern Europe, like Russia.

Christian Crusades

European Catholics wanted to regain access to the Holy Land in the Middle East and decided to invade. The first crusade was the only one the Christians had any success in and took control of Jerusalem in 1099, however Saladin and his Muslim forces took it back in 1187. In the fourth crusade, the crusaders did not even make it to the Holy Land and instead sacked an Italian city, Zara. The Crusades helped opened global trade in Europe, and also helped the Black Death enter Europe.


Byzantine Government Timeline - History

Go to Columbus, Christopher (c. 1451–1506) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

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Go to Columbus, Christopher (c. 1451–1506) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

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Go to Columbus, Christopher (c. 1451–1506) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

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Go to Columbus, Christopher (c. 1451–1506) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire is also known as the Eastern Roman Empire, for it was in fact a continuation of the Roman Empire into its eastern part. At its greatest size, during the 500's AD, Byzantine included parts of southern and eastern Europe, the Middle East, and northern Africa.

The Byzantine people called themselves Romans although they were actually descendants of various ancient peoples and they spoke Greek. The word Byzantine, in fact, comes from "Byzantium," which is the Greek name for a city on the Bosphorus. The Greeks colonized the area first in the mid-600's BC, even before Alexander the Great brought his troops into Anatolia (334 BC). Greek culture continued its influence long after the region became part of the Roman Empire, in the 100's BC. But it was when Roman emperor Constantine the Great moved the capital of the Empire from Rome to Byzantium and renamed it Constantinople in 330 AD, that the Byzantine Empire really began. It lasted over 1000 years, ending finally in 1453, when the Ottoman Turks conquered Constantinople and renamed it Istanbul.

Christianity had a strong influence on Byzantine art, music, and architecture. Since Constantinople was the political center of the Empire, it also was the educational center, where future government officials learned to read and write the language of ancient Greece. Thus this period produced remarkable works in history as well as fine poetry, and much religious prose. All the visual arts flourished, too. Most of the artists worked as servants of the court or belonged to religious orders, and they remained anonymous. Ivory carvings, Byzantine crosses, and "illuminations," or small manuscript paintings, attest to their skill. Almost all that survives of the Byzantine architecture are its churches, with their glorious frescoes and mosaics. With Hagia Sophia as an example, their architects and artisans reached heady heights of magnificence, indeed.

For 1100 years, the Byzantines were able to maintain control of their empire, although somewhat tenuously at times the Empire's expansion and prosperity were balanced by internal religious schisms such as Nika Riot, and recurring wars with enemies from the outside. Finally, weakened by recurring waves of attack, the Ottomans overcame the exhausted Byzantines and a new era of leadership began. The Byzantine Empire, however, had left its mark on the culture, never to be entirely erased even after the Conquest.


Watch the video: Ημέρα μνήμης του ολοκαυτώματος και αυταρχικότητα της κυβέρνησης


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