Angus Reach

Angus Reach

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The traveller by railway is made aware of his approach to the great northern seats of industry by the dull leaden-coloured sky, tainted by thousands of ever smoking chimneys, which broods over the distance. The stations along the line are more closely planted, showing that the country is more and more thickly peopled. Then, small manufacturing villages begin to appear, each consisting of two or three irregular streets clustered around the mill, as in former times cottages were clustered round the castle.

You shoot by town after town - the outlying satellites of the great cotton metropolis. They have all similar features - they are all little Manchesters. Huge, shapeless, unsightly mills, with their countless rows of windows, their towering shafts, their jets of waste steam continually puffing in panting gushes from the brown grimy wall. Some dozen or so of miles so characterised, you enter the Queen of the cotton cities - and then amid smoke and noise, and the hum of never ceasing toil, you are borne over the roofs to the terminus platform. You stand in Manchester.

There is a smoky brown sky over head - smoky brown streets all round long piles of warehouses, many of them with pillared and stately fronts - great grimy mills, the leviathans of ugly architecture, with their smoke-pouring shafts. There are streets of all kinds - some with glittering shops and vast hotels, others grim and little frequented - formed of rows and stacks of warehouses; many mean and distressingly monotonous visas of uniform brick houses.

There are swarms of mechanics and artisans in their distinguishing fustian - of factory operatives, in general undersized, sallow-looking men - and of factory girls somewhat stunted and paled, but smart and active-looking with dingy dresses and dark shawls, speckled with flakes of cotton wool, wreathed round their heads.

The piecers, either girls or boys, walk along the mule as it advances or recedes, catching up the broken threads and skilfully reuniting them. The scavenger, a little boy or girl, crawls occasionally beneath the mule when it is at rest, and cleans the mechanism from superfluous oil, dust and dirt.

The opinions of two medical gentleman of Manchester, with whom I have conversed upon the subject of factories and health, some to this: that the insalubrity of Manchester and of the Manchester operatives is occasioned not by the labour of the mills, but by the defective domestic arrangements for cleanliness and ventilation.

The lowest, most filthy, most unhealthy, and most wicked locality in Manchester is called Angel Meadow. It lies off the Oldham Road, is full of cellars and is inhabited by prostitutes, their bullies, thieves, cadgers, vagrants, tramps, and, in the very worst sites of filth, and darkness. My guide was sub-inspector of police - an excellent conductor in one respect, but disadvantageous in another, seeing that his presence spread panic wherever he went. Many of the people that night visited had, doubtless, ample cause to be nervous touching the presence of one of the guardians of the law.

There were no Irish in the houses we visited. They live in more wretched places still - the cellars. We descended to one. The place was dark, except for the glare of the small fire. You could not stand without stooping in the room, which might be about twelve feet by eight. There were at least a dozen men, women, and children, on stools or squatted on the stone floor round the fire, and the heat and smells were oppressive. This not being a lodging cellar, the police had no control over the number of its inmates, who slept huddled on the stones, or on masses of rags, shavings and straw, which were littered about.

Half the people who lived in the den, had not yet returned, being still out hawking lucifers, matches and besoms. They were all Irish from Westport, in the county of Mayo. After leaving, a woman followed me into the street to know if I had come from Westport and was greatly disappointed at being answered in the negative.

The visitor to Oldham will find it essentially a mean-looking straggling town, built upon both sides and crowning the ridge of one of the outlying spurs which branch from Manchester, the neighbouring "backbone of England". The whole place has a shabby underdone look. The general appearance of the operatives' houses is filthy and smouldering.

Airless little back streets and close nasty courts are common; pieces of dismal waste ground - all covered with wreaths of mud and piles of blackened brick and rubbish - separate the mills, which are often of small dimensions and confined and crowded appearance. The shops cannot be complimented, the few hotels are no better than taverns, and altogether the place, to borrow a musical simile, seems far under concert pitch.

I observed as I walked up from the railway station, melancholy clusters of gaunt, dirty, unshorn men lounging on the pavement. These I heard were principally hatters, a vast number of whom are out of employment. Another feature of the place was the quantity of dogs of all kinds which abounded - dog races and dog fights being both common among the lowest orders of the inhabitants.

Mr. Smith of Deanston, in a sanitary report made about 1837, describes Bradford as being the dirtiest town in England. Mills abound in great plenty, and their number is daily increasing, while the town itself extends in like proportion. Bradford is essentially a new town. Half a century ago it was a mere cluster of huts: now the district of which it is the heart contains upwards of 132,000 inhabitants. The value of life is about 1 in 40. Fortunes have been made in Bradford with a rapidity almost unequalled even in the manufacturing districts.

The houses of the work people are very inferior. They are one and all constructed back to back, or rather built double, with a partition running down the ridge of the roof. This is the case even in rows and streets at present building. "The plan," said my informant, "is adopted because of its cheapness, and because it saves ground rent."

Bradford is well suited for drainage. There is ample fall, and the "Bradford Beck," a rapid stream which flows through the town, would, if arched over, make a capital main sewer. The brook at present runs the colour of ink. The relieving officer with whom I inspected the town, showed me a spot where the foul water washed the grimy walls of half a dozen steaming mills. "There," he said, "when I was a boy. I used to catch trout in as bright a stream as any in Yorkshire."

The streets of Halifax are disgracefully neglected. This applies especially to the courts and cul-de-sacs inhabited by the very poor - including of course the Irish. I inspected several very closely and found them reeking with stench and the worst sort of abomination. The ash-pits were disgustingly choked, ordure and filthy stagnant slops lay freely and deeply scattered around, often at the very thresholds of swarming dwellings; and among all this muck, uncared for children sprawled by the score, and idle slatternly women lounged by the half dozen.

I talked to several in their cellars. One old woman who had been more than thirty years in England, talked dolefully of the decline of the hawking trade. She had frequently in her youth, she said, made 20s out of one house. But the poor people now seldom earned more than a shilling at the very most for a hard day's work.

Two strapping fellows sat smoking by the smouldering fire. The beds were greasy mattresses, partially covered with foul rags, and rolled up in corners. In another cellar which was almost totally dark, for which its occupant paid 9d per week, a grey-haired negro - an old man-of-war's man - had lived for seventeen years. He seldom or never stirred out - vegetating there in a world of dirt and darkness.

The corporation of Leeds is, I understand, about to spend a very large sum (about £30,000 or £40,000) in the formation of an extensive system of paving, drainage, etc., in hitherto neglected portions of the borough. Never were sanitary reforms more imperatively called for. The condition of vast districts of the opulent and important town of Leeds is such that the very strongest language cannot overstate.

Virulent and fatal as was the recent attack of cholera here, my wonder is that cholera, or some disease almost equally as fatal, is ever absent. From one house, for instance, situated in a large irregular court or yard - a small house containing two rooms - four corpses were recently carried. I looked about and did not marvel. The floor was two or three inches deep in filth. This seemed to be the normal state even of the passable parts of the place. In the centre of the open place was a cluster of pigsties, privies and cesspools, bursting with pent-up abominations; and a half a dozen places from this delectable nucleus was a pit about five feet square filled to the very brim with semi-liquid manure gathered from the stables and houses around.

The east and north-east districts of Leeds are perhaps the worst. A short walk from the Briggate, in the direction in which Deansgate branches off from the main entry, will conduct the visitor into a perfect wilderness of foulness. I have plodded by the half hour through the streets in which the undisturbed mud lay in wreaths from wall to wall; and across open spaces, overlooked by houses all round, in which the pigs, wandering from the central oasis, seemed to be roaming through what was only a large sty. Indeed, pigs seem to be natural inhabitants of such places. I think that they are more common in some parts of Leeds than dogs and cats are in others.

In Sheffield there are many old, crowded, and filthy localities, and a very considerable proportion of the operatives' dwellings are constructed back to back. Generally speaking, the cottage houses contain a small cellar, a living room about twelve feet square, a chamber of the same size above, and, in perhaps one-half of the entire number, an attic about seven feet high over the chamber. Cases are rare in which more than one artisan's family inhabit the same house, and cellar dwellings are totally unknown.

Diseases of the lungs and air passages are, it is well-known, the most fatal and characteristic complaints of Sheffield. Amongst the diseases of the air passages are reckoned cases of bronchitis, pleuritis, asthma, catarrh, and phthisis.

Several of the grinding processes, by the quantities of excessively fine steel-dust flung into the atmosphere, are frequently and rapidly fatal to those engaged in them; while the bending and stooping postures necessary in all grinding, wet as well as dry, have necessarily their more gradually prejudicial effect. The average age of death of the gentry and professional person in Sheffield is 45.90, that of saw-makers is only 13.94, and that of various grinders, 18.15.

About three-fourths of the housing in Nottingham are constructed for and occupied by the working-classes, and as a rule they are built in courts and back-to-back. The general plan of construction divides them into three clear stories, of one room each - singularly inconvenient and defective arrangement. The staircases are very steep, dark and narrow.

The lower room is in general the living apartment. It is almost floored with brick, or, if boarded, as it may be in rare cases, sand supplies the place of carpeting. The street door is invariably the room door. In point of furniture, I should say that that the living apartments of the Nottingham operatives, particularly those of the framework knitters, are decidedly inferior to the dwellings of the mass of the work people in the cotton, woollen, and northern coal districts. I have been frequently struck with the bare appearance of the rooms, and this even in the houses of middlemen in the hosiery trade, who had perhaps a dozen or score of knitting frames at work. An inferior sort of sofa, however, and a clock are common. The lace-workers' houses are somewhat better furnished. A few of the latter belonging to operatives earning the higher class of wages. The apartment on the first floor is invariably a bedroom; that above it either a bedroom or a workshop, in which the knitting machines and occasionally warp-lace frames are set.

In the late cholera visitation Nottingham got off almost scot-free. There occurred but eight cases of which six resulted in death. One of the causes of this comparative immunity may no doubt be found in the sanitary improvements effected since 1832. The water supply subsequent to that year has been, and is, most abundant; and the work of sewer-making and pavement-making has been steadily progressive. A sanitary committee was appointed and thirty-four dwellings erected over the privies and ash-pits have been removed, the change in many instances throwing open hitherto unventilated courts and noisome alleys. A great number of foul nuisances of a similar class, including 21 pig-sties and 24 cess-pools containing "dangerous collections of manure", have been got rid of, and many courts and small streets paved and drained.

There are about 35 silk manufactories engaged in the various branches of the trade in Derby, and in the different factories it is estimated that about 5,000 people find employment. The town possesses minor resources in its iron-founding establishments. The population of the town in 1841 was 35,019. The total number of marriages in 1840 was 450. Of these, 382 were celebrated according to the rites of the Church and 74 in other modes. Of the 456 couples married, 103 men and 189 women signed with their marks. The number of illegitimate births during 1846 was 111.

The sewers and drains are very defective; refuse accumulates in house drains to a great extent; there are no local regulations for systematic drainage, but there is a regular service of scavengers. The town is supplied with water, principally from pumps and wells. The sanitary and structural state of matters are not particularly favourable. Nevertheless, in point of building arrangements the working population of Derby are very decidedly better off than their neighbours at Nottingham. Derby, in fact, has always had more elbow room. Its suburbs spread freely forth, and the town exhibits none of that structural piling and huddling, characteristic of Nottingham.

The town of Leicester lies in a gentle hollow, sheltered, except towards the east, by the undulations of the Dane and Spinney hills. The sluggish stream of the Soar winds through the town; and in wet weather the adjacent meadows are swampy and often overflowed. The consequence is, the frequent prevalence of fever in the lowest-lying portions of the town. The mean duration of life in England is 29.11 years. In Leicester it is 25 years.

The drainage is miserably defective. Out of 242 streets and 3,417 courts, alleys and yards, only 112 are entirely culverted, and about 130 partially so. There are nine outfalls of sewers, all situated in the town, and all pouring their contents into the most stagnant waters of the Soar. The surface drainage is equally defective. This is seldom sufficient fall to carry away the dirty water.

At the back of each block of the more ordinary class of houses is a common yard, with privies, cesspools, and ash-pits, for the use of the occupants. From these places there is seldom or never any sub-soil drainage. Slops and liquid refuse are left to evaporate, and send up their noisome effluvia.

Of the 13,991 houses in Leicester only 120 are supplied with water closets - the average cost of each being £31 10s, a sum equal to half the amount necessary for building a four-roomed house. Many of the cesspools are of great depth; some of them not less than 25 feet; and the consequence is that, in numerous instances, the water which is found still nearer the surface is poisoned by noxious percolations.

Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900/Reach, Angus Bethune

REACH, ANGUS BETHUNE (1821–1856), journalist, son of Roderick Reach, solicitor, of Inverness, was born at Inverness on 23 Jan. 1821, and was educated at the Inverness Royal Academy. While a student at Edinburgh University he contributed literary articles to the ‘Inverness Courier,’ of which his father had once been proprietor. In 1842 the family removed to London, where Dr. Charles Mackay [q. v.], sub-editor of the ‘Morning Chronicle,’ obtained for young Reach employment on his paper as reporter at the central criminal court and afterwards in the House of Commons gallery. To its columns in 1848 he contributed most of a series of articles on ‘Labour and the Poor,’ which have been described as ‘an unparalleled exploit in journalism’ ( Fox Bourne , English Newspapers, ii. 154). He also wrote many articles for newspapers and magazines, including ‘Bentley's Miscellany,’ ‘Chambers's Journal,’ the ‘Era,’ the ‘Atlas,’ the ‘Britannia,’ ‘Gavarni in London,’ the ‘Puppet Show,’ and the ‘Sunday Times,’ while he supplied to the ‘Illustrated London News’ a weekly summary of witty gossip entitled ‘Town Talk and Table Talk.’ In 1848–9 he published, in monthly parts, a romance called ‘Clement Lorimer, or the Book with the Iron Clasps,’ with twelve etchings by Cruikshank, which give the work a high value among collectors, and in 1850 a two-volume novel, ‘Leonard Lindsay, or the ​ Story of a Buccaneer.’ In 1849 he joined the staff of ‘Punch.’ In 1850 he visited France in connection with an inquiry by the ‘Morning Chronicle’ into the state of labour and the poor in England and Europe. As special commissioner he wrote letters to that paper on the vineyards of France, republished in book form as ‘Claret and Olives’ (1852), and also reported on the manufacturing and coal districts of the north of England. For many years he was musical and art critic, as well as principal reviewer, for the ‘Morning Chronicle.’ He was also London correspondent of the ‘Glasgow Citizen,’ and from the date of his father's death in 1853 he acted as London correspondent of the ‘Inverness Courier.’ Reach was author of ‘The Comic Bradshaw, or Bubbles from the Boiler’ (1848), and many amusing miscellanies and dramatic farces, and, with Albert Smith, he conducted ‘The Man in the Moon,’ a serial which had a large sale (5 vols. 1847–9). In 1854 his health failed, and a grant of 100l. was obtained for him from the Royal Bounty Fund. The Fielding Club played a burlesque for his benefit, in which Yates and Albert Smith appeared, stalls selling for 10l. He died on 25 Nov. 1856, and was buried in Norwood cemetery. For a year before his intimate friend, Shirley Brooks, undertook Reach's work for him on the ‘Morning Chronicle,’ Reach drawing his usual salary. Sala wrote of Reach: ‘He was one of the most laborious and prolific writers I have ever met with. It was no uncommon thing for him to work sixteen hours a day.’

Besides the works noticed, Reach wrote:

  1. ‘The Natural History of Bores,’ London, 1847, 32mo.
  2. ‘The Natural History of Humbugs,’ London, 1847, 12mo.
  3. ‘The Natural History of Tuft-Hunters and Toadies,’ London, 1848, 12mo.
  4. ‘The Natural History of the “Hawk” Tribe,’ London, 1848, 12mo.
  5. ‘A Romance of a Mince Pie, an Incident in the Life of John Chirrup of Forty Winks,’ London, 1848, 32mo.
  6. (With Shirley Brooks) ‘A Story with a Vengeance or, How many Joints go to a Tale?’ London, 1852, 8vo.
  7. ‘Men of the Hour,’ London, 1856, 12mo.
  8. (With J. Hannay and Albert Smith) ‘Christmas Cheer,’ London, 1856, 12mo.
  9. (With Albert Smith and others) ‘Sketches of London Life and Character,’ London, 1858, 12mo.

The name Reach is pronounced Re-ach (dissyllable).

[Allibone's Dictionary Athenæum, 29 Nov. 1856 Inverness Courier, 4 Dec. 1856 Dr. C. Mackay's Forty Years' Recollections, i. 143–57 Spielmann's History of Punch, 1895 Sala's Life and Adventures.]


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Angus, breed of black, polled beef cattle, for many years known as Aberdeen Angus, originating in northeastern Scotland. Its ancestry is obscure, though the breed appears closely related to the curly-coated Galloway, sometimes called the oldest breed in Britain. The breed was improved and the present type of the cattle fixed early in the 19th century by a number of constructive breeders among whom Hugh Watson and William McCombie were the most famous.

The characteristic features of the breed are black colour, polled head, compact and low-set body, fine quality of flesh, and high dressing percentage. The Angus is a beef breed of the highest rank, and for years purebred or crossbred Angus steers have held high places of honour at the leading fat-stock shows in Great Britain and the United States. This breed was introduced into the United States in 1873, and after that date its influence spread widely there and in other countries.

Within the breed, a strain known as Red Angus has gained in popularity since the mid-20th century, particularly for purposes of outcrossing and crossbreeding. The Brangus, developed from Brahman and Angus stocks, is notable for its resistance to heat.


When REACH is fully in force, it will require all companies manufacturing or importing chemical substances into the European Union in quantities of one tonne or more per year to register these substances with a new European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) in Telakkakatu (Helsinki) [fi] , Finland. Since REACH applies to some substances that are contained in objects (articles in REACH terminology), any company importing goods into Europe could be affected. [4]

The European Chemicals Agency has set three major deadlines for registration of chemicals. In general these are determined by tonnage manufactured or imported, with 1000 tonnes/a. being required to be registered by 1 December 2010, 100 tonnes/a. by 1 June 2013 and 1 tonne/a. by 1 June 2018. [5] In addition, chemicals of higher concern or toxicity also have to meet the 2010 deadline.

About 143,000 chemical substances marketed in the European Union were pre-registered by the 1 December 2008 deadline. Although pre-registering was not mandatory, it allows potential registrants much more time before they have to fully register. Supply of substances to the European market which have not been pre-registered or registered is illegal (known in REACH as "no data, no market").

REACH also addresses the continued use of chemical substances of very high concern (SVHC) because of their potential negative impacts on human health or the environment. From 1 June 2011, the European Chemicals Agency must be notified of the presence of SVHCs in articles if the total quantity used is more than one tonne per year and the SVHC is present at more than 0.1% of the mass of the object. Some uses of SVHCs may be subject to prior authorisation from the European Chemicals Agency, and applicants for authorisation will have to include plans to replace the use of the SVHC with a safer alternative (or, if no safer alternative exists, the applicant must work to find one) - known as substitution. As of 15 June 2015 [update] , there are 168 SVHCs on the candidate list for authorization. [6]

REACH applies to all chemicals imported or produced in the EU. The European Chemicals Agency will manage the technical, scientific and administrative aspects of the REACH system.

To somewhat simplify the registration of the 143,000 substances and to limit vertebrate animal testing as far as possible, substance information exchange forums (SIEFs) are formed amongst legal entities (such as manufacturers, importers, and data holders) who are dealing with the same substance. [7] This allows them to join forces and finances to create 1 registration dossier. However, this creates a series of new problems as a SIEF is the cooperation between sometimes a thousand legal entities that did not know each other at all before but suddenly must:

  • find each other and start communicating openly and honestly
  • start sharing data
  • start sharing costs in a fair and transparent way
  • democratically and in full consensus take the most complex decisions

in order to complete a several thousand end points dossier in a limited time.

The European Commission supports businesses affected by REACH by handing out – free of charge – a software application (IUCLID) that simplifies capturing, managing, and submitting data on chemical properties and effects. Such submission is a mandatory part of the registration process. Under certain circumstances the performance of a chemical safety assessment (CSA) is mandatory and a chemical safety report (CSR) assuring the safe use of the substance has to be submitted with the dossier. Dossier submission is done using the web-based software REACH-IT.

The aim of REACH is to improve the protection of human health and the environment by identification of the intrinsic properties of chemical substances. At the same time, innovative capability and competitiveness of the EU chemicals industry should be enhanced. [8]

The European Commission's (EC) White Paper of 2001 on a ‘future chemical strategy’ proposed a system that requires chemicals manufactured in quantities of greater than 1 tonne to be ‘registered’, those manufactured in quantities greater than 100 tonnes to be ‘evaluated’, and certain substances of high concern (for example carcinogenic, mutagenic and toxic to reproduction - CMR's) to be ‘authorised’.

The EC adopted its proposal for a new scheme to manage the manufacture, importation and supply of chemicals in Europe on in October 2003. This proposal eventually became law once the European Parliament officially approved its final text of REACH. It came into force on 1 June 2007. [9]

One of the major elements of the REACH regulation is the requirement to communicate information on chemicals up and down the supply chain. This ensures that manufacturers, importers, and also their customers are aware of information relating to health and safety of the products supplied. For many retailers the obligation to provide information about substances in their products within 45 days of receipt of a request from a consumer is particularly challenging. Having detailed information on the substances present in their products will allow retailers to work with the manufacturing base to substitute or remove potentially harmful substances from products. The list of harmful substances is continuously growing and requires organizations to constantly monitor any announcements and additions to the REACH scope. This can be done on the European Chemicals Agency's website.

Registration Edit

A requirement is to collect, collate and submit data to the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) on the hazardous properties of all substances (except Polymers and non-isolated intermediates) manufactured or imported into the EU in quantities above 1 tonne per year. Certain substances of high concern, such as carcinogenic, mutagenic and reproductive toxic substances (CMRs) will have to be authorised.

Chemicals will be registered in three phases according to the tonnage of the substance evaluation:

More than 1000 tonnes a year, or substances of highest concern, must be registered in the first 3 years

100-1000 tonnes a year must be registered in the first 6 years

1-100 tonnes a year must be registered in the first 11 years.

In addition, industry should prepare risk assessments and provide controls measures for using the substance safely to downstream users. [9]

Evaluation Edit

Evaluation provides a means for the authorities to require registrants, and in very limited cases downstream users, to provide further information.

There are two types of evaluation: dossier evaluation and substance evaluation:

Dossier evaluation is conducted by authorities to examine proposals for testing to ensure that unnecessary animal tests and costs are avoided, and to check the compliance of registration dossier with the registration requirements. Chemical companies failed to provide "important safety information" in nearly three quarters (74% or 211 of 286) of cases checked by authorities, according to the European Chemicals Agency's 2018 annual progress report. “The numbers show a similar picture to previous years," it said. Industry group Cefic acknowledged the problem.

Substance evaluation is performed by the relevant authorities when there is a reason to suspect that a substance presents a risk to human health or the environment (e.g. because of its structural similarity to another substance). Therefore, all registration dossiers submitted for a substance are examined together and any other available information is taken into account. [9]

Substance evaluation is carried out under a programme known as the Community Rolling Action Plan (CoRAP). An independent review of progress by national officials published in late 2018 found that 352 substances have so far been prioritised for substance evaluation with 94 completed. For almost half the 94, officials concluded that existing commercial use of the substance is unsafe for human health and/or the environment. Risk management has been initiated for twelve substances since REACH came into force. For 74% of substances (34 out of 46), concerns were demonstrated, but no actual regulatory follow-up has yet been initiated. In addition, national officials concluded that 64% of the substances under evaluation (126 out of 196) lacked the information needed to demonstrate the safety of the chemicals marketed in Europe due to inadequate industry data.

Authorisation Edit

REACH allows restricted substances of very high concern to continue being used, subject to authorisation.

This authorisation requirement attempts to ensure that risks from the use of such substances are either adequately controlled or justified by socio-economic grounds, having taken into account the available information on alternative substances or processes.

The Regulation enables restrictions of use to be introduced across the European Community where this is shown to be necessary. Member States or the Commission may prepare such proposals. [10]

By March 2019, authorisation had been granted 185 times, with no eligible request ever having been rejected. NGOs have complained that authorisations have been granted despite safer alternatives existing and that this was hindering substitution. In March 2019, the European Court of Justice revoked an authorisation in a ruling that criticised the European Chemicals Agency for failing to identify a safer alternative.

Information exchange Edit

Manufactures and/or importers should develop risk reduction measures for all known uses of the chemical including downstream uses. Downstream users such as plastic pipe producers should provide detail of their uses to their suppliers. In cases where downstream users decide not to disclose this information, they need to have their own CSR. [11]

REACH is the product of a wide-ranging overhaul of EU chemical policy. It passed the first reading in the European Parliament on 17 November 2005, and the Council of Ministers reached a political agreement for a common position on 13 December 2005. The European Parliament approved REACH on 13 December 2006 and the Council of Ministers formally adopted it on 18 December 2006. Weighing up expenditure versus profit has always been a significant issue, with the estimated cost of compliance being around €5 billion over 11 years, and the assumed health benefits of saved billions of euro in healthcare costs. [12] However, there have been different studies on the estimated cost which vary considerably in the outcome. It came into force on 20 January 2009, and will be fully implemented by 2015.

A separate regulation – the CLP Regulation (for "Classification, Labelling, Packaging") – implements the United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) and will steadily replace the previous Dangerous Substances Directive and Dangerous Preparations Directive.

The REACH regulation was amended in April 2018 to include specific information requirements for nanomaterials. [13]

The legislation was proposed under dual reasoning: protection of human health and protection of the environment.

Using potentially toxic substances (such as phthalates or brominated flame retardants) is deemed undesirable and REACH will force the use of certain substances to be phased out. Using potentially toxic substances in products other than those ingested by humans (such as electronic devices) may seem to be safe, but there are several ways in which chemicals can enter the human body and the environment. Substances can leave particles during consumer use, for example into the air where they can be inhaled or ingested. Even where they might not do direct harm to humans, they can contaminate the air or water, and can enter the food chain through plants, fish or other animals. According to the European Commission, little safety information exists for 99 percent of the tens of thousands of chemicals placed on the market before 1981. [4] There were 100,106 chemicals in use in the EU in 1981, when the last survey was performed. Of these only 3,000 have been tested and over 800 are known to be carcinogenic, mutagenic or toxic to reproduction. These are listed in the Annex 1 of the Dangerous Substances Directive (now Annex VI of the CLP Regulation).

Continued use of many toxic chemicals is sometimes justified because "at very low levels they are not a concern to health". [14] However, many of these substances may bioaccumulate in the human body, thus reaching dangerous concentrations. They may also chemically react with one another, [15] producing new substances with new risks.

A number of countries outside of the European Union have started to implement REACH regulations or are in the process of adopting such a regulatory framework to approach a more globalized system of chemicals registration under the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). [16] Balkan countries such as Croatia and Serbia are in the process of adopting the EU REACH system under the auspices of the EU IPA programme. Switzerland has moved towards implementation of REACH through partial revision of the Swiss Chemical Ordinance on February 1, 2009. The new Chemicals Management Regulation in Turkey is paving the way for the planned adoption of REACH in 2013. China has moved towards a more efficient and coherent system for the control of chemicals in compliance with GHS.

Over a decade after REACH came into force, progress has been slow. Of the 100,000 chemicals used in Europe today, “only a small fraction has been thoroughly evaluated by authorities regarding their health and environmental properties and impacts, and even fewer are actually regulated,” according to a report for the European Commission.

Apart from the potential costs to industry and the complexity of the new law, REACH has also attracted concern because of animal testing. Animal tests on vertebrates are now required but allowed only once per each new substance and if suitable alternatives cannot be used. If a company pays for such tests, it must sell the rights of the results for a "reasonable" price, which is not defined. There are additional concerns that access to the necessary information may prove very costly for potential registrants needing to purchase it.

An opinion in Nature in 2009 by Thomas Hartung and Constanza Rovida estimated that 54 million vertebrate animals would be used under REACH and that the costs would amount to €9.5 billion, set against the annual European industry annual turnover of €507 billion. [17] Hartung is the former head of European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM). [ citation needed ] In a news release, ECHA criticised assumptions made by Hartung and Rovida ECHA's alternative assumptions reduced sixfold the number of animals. [18] [ citation needed ]

On 8 June 2006, the REACH proposal was criticized by non-EU countries, including the United States, India and Brazil, which stated that the bill would hamper global trade. [19]

Non-EU consultancies offer "only representative" services, though according to REACH it is not possible to register a substance if your "only representative" consultancy company is not based in the EU, unless it is subcontracted to an EU-based registrant.

Only representatives are EU based entities that must comply with REACH (Article 8) and should operate standard, transparent working practices. The Only Representative assumes responsibility and liability for fulfilling obligiations of importers in accordance with REACH for substances being brought into the EU by a non-EU manufacturer.

The SIEFs will bring new challenges. An article in the business news service Chemical Watch described how some "pre-registrants" may simply be consultants hoping for work ("gold diggers") while others may be aiming to charge exorbitant rates for the data they have to offer ("jackals"). [20]

  • Regulation (EC) Nr. 1907/2006 (REACH)
  • AICS – Australian Inventory of Chemical Substances
  • DSL – Canadian Domestic Substances List
  • NDSL – Canadian Non-Domestic Substances List
  • KECL (Korean ECL) – Korean Existing Chemicals List
  • ENCS (MITI) – Japanese Existing and New Chemical Substances
  • PICCS – Philippine Inventory of Chemicals and Chemical Substances
  • TSCA – US Toxic Substances Control Act
  • Giftliste 1 (Swiss list of toxic substances, repealed in 2005) [22]

The European Chemical Agency (ECHA) has published the REACH Authorisation List, [23] in an effort to tighten the use of Substances of Very High Concern (SVHCs). The list is an official recommendation from the ECHA to the European Commission. The list is also regularly updated and expanded. Currently the Candidate List for Authorisation comprises a total of 209 SVHCs (see ECHA list at, some of which are already active on the Authorization List.

To sell or use these substances, manufacturers, importers, and retailers in the European Union (EU) must apply for authorization from the ECHA. The applicant is to submit a chemical safety report on the risks entailed by the substance, as well as an analysis of possible alternative substances or technologies including present and future research and development processed.

Angus Reach - History

Our mission is to provide programs, services, technology and leadership to enhance the genetics of the Angus breed, broaden its influence within the beef industry, and expand the market for superior tasting, high-quality Angus beef worldwide.

See Management for Calculators/Tables


The Angus breed is home to the industry’s largest beef cattle performance database, fueling genetic progress through each generation. Breeders rely on the comprehensive set of data to continue growing the nation’s quality beef supply.


Angus Media provides unrivaled marketing opportunities for cattle producers with Association programs that allow breeders to set their calves apart from the crowd.


Registered-Angus cattle continue to set the industry pace for quality genetics. Demand remains strong year after year, as reflected by strong sales trends and an increase in Angus cattle on the market.


The American Angus Association and its members are proud to offer comprehensive programs and services aimed at improving productivity and profitability in the commercial sector of the cattle industry.

Stay up-to-date on the latest headlines in the American Angus Association’s Newsroom, where you can read articles, watch videos and learn more about the organization’s programs and services.


Continued education is central to driving progress within the beef cattle industry. Through Association events, connect with fellow breeders and discover applications that make a real difference on the farm or ranch.

The American Angus Association store features both high quality, yet attractively affordable apparel and home décor. Items were personally curated to fit the aesthetic of any hardworking, yet stylish ranch lifestyle. Proceeds directly benefit the Angus Foundation and its mission of youth, education, and research.


As the nation’s largest beef breed organization, the American Angus Association serves more than 25,000 members across the United States and Canada.

When George Grant transported four Angus bulls from Scotland to the middle of the Kansas Prairie in 1873, they were part of the Scotsman's dream to found a colony of wealthy, stock-raising Britishers. Grant died five years later, and many of the settlers at his Victoria, Kansas, colony later returned to their homeland. However, these four Angus bulls, probably from the herd of George Brown of Westertown, Fochabers, Scotland, made a lasting impression on the U.S. cattle industry.

When two of the George Grant bulls were exhibited in the fall of 1873 at the Kansas City (Missouri) Livestock Exposition, some considered them "freaks" because of their polled (naturally hornless) heads and solid black color (Shorthorns were then the dominant breed.) Grant, a forward thinker, crossed the bulls with native Texas longhorn cows, producing a large number of hornless black calves that survived well on the winter range. The Angus crosses wintered better and weighed more the next spring, the first demonstration of the breed's value in their new homeland.

Early Importers and Breeders

The first great herds of Angus beef cattle in America were built up by purchasing stock directly from Scotland. Twelve hundred cattle alone were imported, mostly to the Midwest, in a period of explosive growth between 1878 and 1883. Over the next quarter of a century these early owners, in turn, helped start other herds by breeding, showing, and selling their registered stock.

The American Angus Association

The American Aberdeen-Angus Breeders' Association (name shortened in 1950s to American Angus Association) was founded in Chicago, Illinois, on November 21, 1883, with 60 members. The growth of the Association has paralleled the success of the Angus breed in America.

In the first century of operation, more than 10 million head were recorded. The Association records more cattle each year then any other beef breed association, making it the largest beef breed registry association in the world.

Since Angus beef is a specific breed of cattle and not a specific type of beef, you cook it the same way you would cook any other meat. If you purchase ground Angus beef, you need to cook it until there is no longer any pink showing (unless you use it to make burgers—then simply cook to your liking) if you are making a roast or grilling a steak, you should cook it until it reaches your preferred doneness. Because Angus beef is generally more expensive than other beef, you want to make sure you don't overcook the cut, dry out the meat, and ruin your meal.

All beef in the United States is inspected by the U.S. Department of Agriculture this is mandatory and is performed for the reason of food safety. However, when it comes to determining whether the beef is Angus or not, it is the breeder's responsibility to prove to the USDA that the beef is Angus—and this is as basic as showing that the cattle's hide is at least 51 percent black. To be classified as Angus, the breed of cattle is legally determined by visual inspection only (known as its phenotype). There is no genetic testing done to say exactly which breed it is.

This means that meat and meat products labeled as Angus might or might not be mostly Angus. Because Angus is the most common breed of cattle in the United States, you can feel confident that most of the meat you buy is Angus or at least partly Angus. Of the 86 USDA recognized certified brands representing 25 percent of all produced beef in the United States, 63 contain the term Angus. Angus is the magic word for beef marketing, and with that Angus label, you will pay more for the beef.

There is a lot of deception in beef labeling. Stores sell lower grade beef with stickers that say things like "Butcher's Choice" or "Prime Value." Similarly, lower graded beef or frequently ungraded beef get the Angus stamp and are sold to fast food chains as well as a whole host of other uses. This is not to say that these products are not made with Angus beef it is just a reminder that if the label says Angus, it doesn't necessarily mean quality.

Good quality Angus beef will be labeled with the logo "Certified Angus Beef," a brand created by the American Angus Association. This brand, established in 1978, requires the beef to pass 10 quality standards falling into three categories: marbling and maturity, consistent sizing, and quality appearance and tenderness.   The cattle must also be Angus by more than just a 51 percent black definition.

How to Raise Black Angus Cattle

This article was co-authored by Karin Lindquist. Karin Lindquist earned a BSc in Agriculture as an Animal Science major from the University of Alberta, Canada. She has over 20 years of experience working with cattle and crops. She's worked for a mixed-practice veterinarian, as a sales representative in a farm supply store, and as a research assistant doing rangeland, soil, and crop research. She currently works as a forage and beef agriculture extension specialist, advising farmers on a variety of issues relating to their cattle and the forages they grow and harvest.

There are 10 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page.

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Black Angus or Angus cattle are beef cattle that can be raised in a variety of conditions, from on a ranch where the cattle have to pretty well look after themselves, to the feedlot. Each individual producer has his/her own way to raise Angus cattle, and none of them are the same. So only the basics are given for an Angus cow-calf herd, not for finishing or backgrounding cattle. The more finite details of how you choose to raise your Angus herd is up to you.


“Success in the feedyard and packing plant requires feeder cattle that do three things well – stay healthy, grow fast and efficiently, and reach a high quality grade.”

Tom Brink, Top Dollar Angus founder

Top Dollar Angus is the brainchild of owner and founder J. Tom Brink. Well-known throughout the U.S. beef industry, Brink earned a reputation as one of the foremost experts on beef production and supply chain economics.

Brink spent 14 years in the cattle feeding business in various leadership positions at JBS Five Rivers Cattle Feeding and ContiBeef. He also served as President and COO of J & F Oklahoma Holdings, Inc., the cattle ownership sister company to Five Rivers. Brink has overseen feeder cattle procurement and risk management for a cattle-feeding business that went on to procure and market over 1.6 million head per year. In addition, Brink has conducted extensive research on the factors that create valuable cattle both in the feedyard and from a carcass standpoint and has been a featured speaker throughout the nation on these and other beef industry topics.

In September 2013, Brink used his years of experience and valuable knowledge to start Top Dollar Angus with the goal of facilitating relationships at every segment within the beef industry and helping producers see their cattle reach their value potential.

Angus Reach - History

On 13th February, 2001, the European Commission adopted a White Paper setting out the strategy for a future Community Policy for Chemicals.

The European Commission's original legislative proposal on REACH COM(03) 644 (01) and COM(03) 644 (02) amending Directive 67/548/EEC was adopted on 29 October 2003 and was communicated to both the European Parliament and the Council in November 2003.

The work in the European Parliament has been led by the Committee on the Environment, Public Health & Food Safety, with – in first reading - the assistance of nine other parliamentary committees. The European Parliament adopted its first reading opinion on 17 November 2005.

The Council reached a Political Agreement for a Common Position (pdf 865KB) on 13 December 2005.

The Environment Council formally adopted the Common Position (pdf 1,7MB) (press release - pdf 312KB) on June 2006 which served as the basis of discussion during the second reading in the European Parliament, which started in September 2006.

A Commission Communication on the Common Position (COM (2006) 375) was adopted on 12 July 2006 and submitted to the European Parliament and Council allowing the second reading to commence.

The representatives of the European Parliament and the Council found a negotiated agreement of the final version of REACH in early December 2006. This agreement was subsequently endorsed at second reading in the European Parliament on 13 December 2006 (press release) and got finally adopted at the Environment Council on 18 December 2006 (press release).

The text of the law was published on 30 December 2006 in the Official Journal of the European Union L 396.

The new EU chemicals Regulation REACH entered into force on 1 June 2007 (press release). The new European Chemicals Agency in Helsinki, Finland, will be fully operational on 1 June 2008, in time for the industry's obligation to submit pre-registration dossiers for existing substances and registration dossiers for new substances.

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