Auguste Dubail

Auguste Dubail


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Auguste Dubail was born in 1851. He joined the French Army and by 1911 he had become its chief of staff. On the outbreak of the First World War he returned to field command and led the First army into Lorraine in August 1914.

In 1915 Dubail was placed in command of the Eastern Army on the Western Front. Convinced that the German Army was planning for a major offensive at Verdun, Dubail called for more heavy artillery to defend that part of the front-line. His warnings were ignored by the Commander-in-Chief, Joseph Joffre and Dubail was therefore thought to be unfairly treated when he was dismissed after Germany's successful offensive at Verdun.

Dubail became military governor of Paris, a post he held until the spring of 1918.

Auguste Dubail, who retired from public life after the war, died in 1934.


General Auguste Dubail (1851-1934) French Army officer. During the First World War, after the French failure at Verdun in 1916, Dubail was relieved of his command in the field and appointed Military Governor of Paris.

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You've only scratched the surface of Dubail family history.

Between 1967 and 2003, in the United States, Dubail life expectancy was at its lowest point in 1995, and highest in 1973. The average life expectancy for Dubail in 1967 was 72, and 88 in 2003.

An unusually short lifespan might indicate that your Dubail ancestors lived in harsh conditions. A short lifespan might also indicate health problems that were once prevalent in your family. The SSDI is a searchable database of more than 70 million names. You can find birthdates, death dates, addresses and more.


Auguste Comte

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Auguste Comte, in full Isidore-Auguste-Marie-François-Xavier Comte, (born January 19, 1798, Montpellier, France—died September 5, 1857, Paris), French philosopher known as the founder of sociology and of positivism. Comte gave the science of sociology its name and established the new subject in a systematic fashion.

Where did Auguste Comte go to school?

Comte was educated by private tutors until he was nine years old and later attended the local lycée in Montpellier. In 1814, at age 16, he was admitted to the prestigious École Polytechnique in Paris but was forced to leave two years later, when the institution was closed for political reasons by the Bourbon monarchy.

What did Auguste Comte write?

Comte’s major works include his six-volume Cours de philosophie positive (1830–42 “Course of Positive Philosophy” The Positive Philosophy of Auguste Comte) and his four-volume Système de politique positive (1851–54 System of Positive Polity).

What did Auguste Comte die of?

What was Auguste Comte best known for?

A philosopher, mathematician, and social scientist, Comte was best known as the originator of positivism, an approach to the philosophy and history of science and to the theory of societal development that identified genuine knowledge as the product of empirical observation and experiment and social-intellectual progress as the transition from religion to metaphysics to science.

Comte’s father, Louis Comte, a tax official, and his mother, Rosalie Boyer, were strongly royalist and deeply sincere Roman Catholics. But their sympathies were at odds with the republicanism and skepticism that swept through France in the aftermath of the French Revolution. Comte resolved these conflicts at an early age by rejecting Roman Catholicism and royalism alike. He was intellectually precocious and in 1814 entered the École Polytechnique—a school in Paris that had been founded in 1794 to train military engineers but was soon transformed into a general school for advanced sciences. The school was temporarily closed in 1816, but Comte soon took up permanent residence in Paris, earning a precarious living there by the occasional teaching of mathematics and by journalism. He read widely in philosophy and history and was especially interested in those thinkers who were beginning to discern and trace some order in the history of human society. The thoughts of several important French political philosophers of the 18th century—such as Montesquieu, the Marquis de Condorcet, A.-R.-J. Turgot, and Joseph de Maistre—were critically worked into his own system of thought.

Comte’s most important acquaintance in Paris was Henri de Saint-Simon, a French social reformer and one of the founders of socialism, who was the first to clearly see the importance of economic organization in modern society. Comte’s ideas were very similar to Saint-Simon’s, and some of his earliest articles appeared in Saint-Simon’s publications. There were distinct differences in the two men’s viewpoints and scientific backgrounds, however, and Comte eventually broke with Saint-Simon. In 1826 Comte began a series of lectures on his “system of positive philosophy” for a private audience, but he soon suffered a serious nervous breakdown. He made an almost complete recovery from his symptoms the following year, and in 1828/29 he again took up his projected lecture series. This was so successfully concluded that he redelivered it at the Royal Athenaeum during 1829–30. The following 12 years were devoted to his publication (in six volumes) of his philosophy in a work entitled Cours de philosophie positive (1830–42 “Course of Positive Philosophy” Eng. trans. The Positive Philosophy of Auguste Comte).

From 1832 to 1842 Comte was a tutor and then an examiner at the revived École Polytechnique. In the latter year he quarreled with the directors of the school and lost his post, along with much of his income. During the remainder of his life he was supported in part by English admirers such as John Stuart Mill and by French disciples, especially the philologist and lexicographer Maximilien Littré. Comte married Caroline Massin in 1825, but the marriage was unhappy and they separated in 1842. In 1845 Comte had a profound romantic and emotional experience with Clotilde de Vaux, who died the following year of tuberculosis. Comte idealized this sentimental episode, which exerted a considerable influence on his later thought and writings, particularly with regard to the role of women in the positivist society he planned to establish.

Comte devoted the years after the death of Clotilde de Vaux to composing his other major work, the Système de politique positive, 4 vol. (1851–54 System of Positive Polity), in which he completed his formulation of sociology. The entire work emphasized morality and moral progress as the central preoccupation of human knowledge and effort and gave an account of the polity, or political organization, that this required. Comte lived to see his writings widely scrutinized throughout Europe. Many English intellectuals were influenced by him, and they translated and promulgated his work. His French devotees had also increased, and a large correspondence developed with positivist societies throughout the world. Comte died of cancer in 1857.

Comte was a rather sombre, ungrateful, self-centred, and egocentric personality, but he compensated for this by his zeal for the welfare of humanity, his intellectual determination, and his strenuous application to his life’s work. He devoted himself untiringly to the promotion and systematization of his ideas and to their application in the cause of the improvement of society.

His other writings include Catéchisme positiviste (1852 The Catechism of Positive Religion) and Synthèse subjective (1856 “Subjective Synthesis”). In general, his writing was well organized, and its exposition proceeded in impressively orderly fashion, but his style was heavy, laboured, and rather monotonous. His chief works are notable mainly because of the scope, magnitude, and importance of his project and the conscientious persistence with which he developed and expressed his ideas.


Augustin Dubail

Augustin Yvon Edmund Dubail (15. huhtikuuta 1851 Belfort – 7. tammikuuta 1934 Pariisi) oli ranskalainen kenraali, joka palveli ensimmäisessä maailmansodassa.

Dubail aloitti upseerinuransa vuonna 1870 ja osallistui Saksan–Ranskan sotaan samana vuonna. Hän toimi opettajana Saint-Cyrin sotilasakatemiassa ja sen jälkeen esikuntaupseerina. Vuonna 1901 hänet ylennettiin everstiksi ja nimitettiin ensimmäisen zouave-rykmentin komentajaksi, vuonna 1904 prikaatinkenraaliksi ja Saint-Cyrin sotilaskatemian johtajaksi sekä vuonna 1908 prikaatinkenraaliksi ja Ranskan yleisesikunnan päälliköksi. Vuodesta 1910 Dubail oli 9:nnen armeijakunnan komentaja ja vuodesta 1913 ylimmän sotaneuvoston jäsen. [1]

Ensimmäisen maailmansodan sytyttyä Dubail nimitettiin Ranskan ensimmäisen armeijan komentajaksi, ja hänen tehtävänään oli suunnitelma XVII:n mukaisesti hyökätä itään ja vallata Saksalta Elsassin alue. Elokuussa 1914 käynnistynyt ranskalaisten hyökkäys torjuttiin heti alkuunsa, mutta Dubail onnistui puolustautumaan saksalaisten vastahyökkäystä vastaan Meusen luona. Vuoden 1915 alussa hänet ylennettiin itäisen armeijaryhmän komentajaksi, vastuualueenaan länsirintama Belfortin ja Verdunin välillä. Dubail oli aluksi tyytyväinen ranskalaisten puolustusasemiin, mutta alkoi sitten epäillä saksalaisten suunnittelevan suurta hyökkäystä Verdunia vastaan ja pyysi lisää raskasta tykistöä alueen puolustukseen. Ylipäällikkö Joseph Joffre epäsi pyynnön koska ei uskonut saksalaisten hyökkäävän juuri Verduniin. Kun saksalaisten hyökkäys kaikesta huolimatta käynnistyi, Joffre vieritti syyn Dubailin harteille ja siirsi tämän pois tehtävistään maaliskuussa 1916. [2] Sen jälkeen Dubail toimi Pariisin sotilaskuvernöörinä toukokuuhun 1918. [1]


Catalyst

Austria invaded and fought the Serbian army at the Battle of Cer and Battle of Kolubara beginning on 12 August. Over the next two weeks, Austrian attacks were thrown back with heavy losses, which marked the first major Allied victories of the war and dashed Austro-Hungarian hopes of a swift victory. As a result, Austria had to keep sizable forces on the Serbian front, weakening its efforts against Russia. Serbia's defeat of the Austro-Hungarian invasion of 1914 counts among the major upset victories of the last century.

Meanwhile, in the west, the French and German armies faced off across the border, neither initially willing to make the first move while their full forces were mobilized. The German armies, consisting of 1,300,000 men, divided into four field armies, were the first to move. On July 12th, two German armies launched a localized offensive toward Montbeliard. After initial success, in which the French were pushed back around ten kkm with the loss of 10,000 men, they were able to regroup and launch a localized counterattack, which pushed the german snack to their starting lines. Encouraged by this, the French commander, General Joffre, decided to put into practice his grand strategy, Plan XVII. This called for an offensive into Alsace by the First Army, while the Third Army attacked in Lorraine. Simultaneously, the Second and Fourth Armies were to drive in the weakened German centre around Mulhouse, enabling them to outflank the pinned troops farther south. The Fifth Army would remain on the defensive in the north, in case Germany attacked through Belgium.

Little did he know, this was precisely what the German high command wanted. Virtually the whole stockpile of sarin had been moved to the front, along with deployment equipment and specially trained units prepared to operate in conjunction with a gas attack. The equipment in place, the Germans had nothing to do but wait.

The French offensive began on August 8th, on a clear day with a strong westerly wind. The French enjoyed initial success as the sheer weight of the attack pressed the surprisingly weak German troops back. Soon, they were in full retreat, and the French optimistically pressed forward. At 1300 hours, the Germans released some 10,000 tons of the nerve agent against the French attacking near Mulhouse. It was an eerie sight, as tens of thousands of men suddenly fell over, afflicted by an unseen evil, falling over, dying, thrashing.

As the gas reached the French artillery, three minutes after its release, it fell silent, and the offensive simply ceased to exist. So did the French Second and Fourth Armies, which had been gassed along essentially the entire front. The German troops were swiftly outfitted with protective equipment, enabling them to cross the contaminated area the next day, placing them in a massive gap, of which the French generals were as yet unaware, between the French First and Third Armies.

The German high command now ordered a counteroffensive. The German Fourth and Third Armies were to attack north, trapping the French armies in Lorraine and destroying them, while the First Army, until now on the defensive in Alsace, counterattacked. This plan began on the 10th of August. The German Fourth and Third armies surged forward into the unprotected Champagne region and the Ardennes. Chaumont fell the 12th, joined by Rems and Chalons-sur-Champagne on the 13th. The German troops reached the Belgian border in the Ardennes on the 14th, completing the envelopment.

The French high command was, meanwhile, in confusion. German cavalry was rampaging across the French countryside. General Joffre and his staff, while at breakfast on the 12th, were rudely interrupted by an Uhlan of Polish lancers in German service, which seized the inn at which they were headquartered, capturing them. The French troops were therefore in chaos. The German counterattack in the south enjoyed unexpected success as a result, shattering the French First Army and trapping much of it against the Swiss border. On the 13th, the First Army's commander, Auguste Dubail, cabled Paris that he was abandoning Besancon and withdrawing into Burgundy, in order to save the remainder of his army.

This was the first Paris had heard of the defeats, a mark of the total chaos enveloping the French. They immediately called up several hundred thousand more men, and began pulling in colonial troops from North and West Africa, in a desperate attempt to reconstitute some sort of defence before Paris. Dubail, as the sole general who had avoided death or capture in the battles in Alsace and Lorraine, was placed in charge of the defence. In the meantime, the two enveloped French armies in Lorraine had begun to disintegrate, shocked by the sudden appearance of German troops in their rear. Some fled over the Belgian border, where they are interned for the duration of the war, while other held out in small pockets in the Ardennes, which were gradually overwhelmed. The French had lost almost a million men dead or captured, and hundreds of thousands more had deserted. German casualties were about 150,000.

The new German offensive, Operation Tanngrisnir, aimed at nothing less than the capture of Paris. German troops were already advancing up both sides of the Marne River. Dubail decided to form a defensive line along the Ourcq, a tributary, where he could muster about 500,000 demoralized and exhausted troops. In explicably, however, the German armies relented, allowing him to reorganize while they completed their conquest of Burgundy, the Franche-Comte, and Champagne-Ardennes.

The German high command knew the French still had little knowledge of their vast chemical weapons superiority. No one among the French knew what had caused the defeat of the Second and Fourth armies. Some theorized it to be a sonic weapon, while others advocated some demoniacal weaponized disease. Few precautions were taken to prepare the French troops for a nerve agent. The Germans hoped that, by provoking the French to counterattack, they could repeat their success in the Battle of Mulhouse.

So it proved. By late December Dubail had mustered almost 1,000,000 men in four new field armies at and around Paris. To do so, he had already scraped the bottom of France's proverbial barrel of trained manpower. Other conscripts were training in the south, but not yet ready. Dubail wanted to remain on the defensive, forcing the Germans to cross the formidable defences of Paris. His political masters, especially Raymodn Poincare, the combative Prime Minister, demanded an offensive. Dubail decided for a limited attack with two field armies along the Marne, to enable the French to regain the line of that river.

On December 24th, in bitterly cold weather, the so-called Christmas Offensive began. The first day, the still weather prevented the Germans from unleashing their gas, but heavy artillery nonetheless called heavy casualties. The next day, Dubail went into Paris and asked Poincare for permission to call off the offensive, believing that the Germans were preparing a counterattack. Before he reached the city, however, he was passed by fleeing soldiers, screaming about the wrath of God. The Germans had unleashed sarin a second time, shattering the attacking French armies. Simultaneously, a German army launched an offensive from the southeast along the Orge River, breaking through French lines. Dubail told Poincare that the city was untenable, and must be abandoned. He was promptly sacked. Poincare demanded that the city be held to the death.

Meanwhile, two German field armies counterattacked along the Marne, breaking through the remainder of the French armies, and pushing on Paris. On the 27th, they crossed the Ourcq, while the southern offensive crossed the Yvette, reaching the city's outskirts. The French government finally fled, but at least 200,000 soldiers were unable to escape the envelopment, as German troops advanced across the Seine north of Paris. For a second time, France was virtually denuded of soldiers. This time recovery would not be so easy, as a massive German offensive - Operation Jormungandr, meant to reach the English Channel - began.

1915 began with a massive German offensive, spearheaded, in the last major use of cavalry, by close to 30,000 Polish lancers, up the Seine. The disintegrating French army could offer little resistance as the German forces advanced at a speed of 50 km a day. A German flying column took the city of Beauvais against scant opposition on January 4th, and an army was detach to secure Picardy. Amiens fell on the 5th, and Picardy was in German hands by the 10th.

Meanwhile, the main axis of attack progressed equally quickly. A vicious rearguard action by the withdrawing French Third Army (the only major surviving French formation) at Roumois held the Germans off long enough for Rouen to be fortified the city was besieged, and the Germans pressed on. By the 20th of January, they had taken Le Havre and Harfleur, the first after a vicious street battle with French marines attached to the Atlantic fleet, which fled south for Bordeaux. The German bombarded Rouen into submission on the 27th, receiving 90,000 French captives. The French commander in Nord-Pas-de-Calais agreed to capitulate, bringing all of Northern France into German hands.

The new German plan called for an advance on two fronts the first in the east, into Southern Burgundy and the Loire Valley, and the second in the West, into Lower Normandy and Brittany. A fratricidal dispute ensued in the German War Ministry over whether the Army could support a dual offensive, and, if not, which of the two was preferable. They eventually decided on a modified version of the first, which extended the offensive east into the Loire. The new Operation Blucher began on February 15th, after a period of rest and consolidation.

The French, meanwhile, were in chaos. Parts of the government had been captured at Roeun, although Poincare and most of the high officials had reached Tours safely. The capital was transferred to Bordeaux as the offensive began, while the reinstated Dubail tried frantically to scrape together some troops for the defence. Around 300,000 men, mainly colonial troops and conscripts, faced 1,500,000 German troops.

Two German armies advanced in the Loire, while a third attacked south in Lower Normandy. The Normandy offensive was unexpectedly held up by strong resistance in the bocage region, which was excellent defensive terrain. The southern offensive was more successful, reaching the outskirts of Tours after only three days.

Now Italy, a longtime German ally, saw which way the wind was blowing. It declared war on France and launched 700,000 men on an offensive aimed at Nice. Not even the comical incompetence of the Italian general staff could halt this juggernaut, and Nice fell on the same day Tours did, the 19th of October. Italy also launched an amphibious landing on Corsica, successfully seizing the island in a two-week campaign.


St. Mihiel Offensive

The First World War was an unprecedented catastrophe that shaped our modern world. Erik Sass is covering the events of the war exactly 100 years after they happened. This is the 176th installment in the series.

March 30, 1915: St. Mihiel Offensive

The St. Mihiel salient was a part of the Western Front where German-held territory bulged out to reach the town of the same name, a strategic bridgehead across the River Meuse between the great fortresses of Verdun and Toul. Conquered in September 1914, possession of the crossing at St. Mihiel allowed the Germans to threaten Verdun with encirclement and menace the French armies further west in Champagne and Artois from the rear. The salient would remain a thorn in the side of the Allied armies for almost the whole duration of the war, until the First U.S. Army finally liberated it in the Meuse-Argonne offensive in September 1918.

However this wasn’t for a lack of trying, as the French made a series of attempts to push the Germans out of the exposed and seemingly vulnerable salient, all of them unsuccessful. The first campaign began on March 30, 1915, when chief of the general staff Joseph Joffre ordered the French First and Third Armies, along with a newly formed army detachment under General Augustin Gérard, to mount a multi-pronged pincer attack against the salient from the north and south. The result was a bloodbath ending in stalemate, and the failure of the third major Allied offensive on the Western Front, after Champagne and Neuve Chapelle (below, a French trench outside St. Mihiel).

The first attack, against the eastern end of the salient’s southern flank, would be led by General Auguste Dubail commanding Army Group East, consisting of the First Army and the Army of the Vosges (at the last minute Joffre cancelled a supporting attack by the latter, a smaller force guarding the less active southern end of the front, due to lack of manpower and ammunition). On March 30, 1915 the First Army’s 73rd Division attacked north along the Moselle River, followed over the next week by three more army corps attacking in sequence to the west, spreading the battle along the whole southern flank of the salient (below, a map of the salient).

These attacks were intended to force the German commander, General Hermann von Strantz, to redeploy forces in his Army Detachment Strantz south to defend against the First Army’s onslaught—leaving the northern flank weakened for another attack by the French Third Army and Army Detachment Gérard, which began on April 5. This northern attack included an assault on a ridge east of the town of Les Éparges, a strategic position which gave the Germans a vantage point for artillery spotting, leading to some of the fiercest fighting of the war (top, the “Valley of Death” at Les Éparges).

The attack on Les Éparges was hindered by the hilly terrain and the failure of French artillery to destroy the defensive obstacles in front of the German trenches, especially barbed wire entanglements, which limited French gains to 500 meters, won at huge cost (above, French soldiers carried a wounded comrade from Éparges). Meanwhile the southern offensive was hardly going any better, as German artillery, machine guns, and massed rifle fire inflicted huge casualties. German artillery bombardments of the French frontlines proved particularly devastating. On April 5, according to the German war record, “Hundreds of corpses were being thrown forward from the French entrenchment.” The following day,

German positions on the southern wing… were kept under the fire of the heavy French artillery the whole night, to which our guns successfully replied. These artillery duels lasted… the whole of the following day. Four times consecutively they assaulted our positions only to be thrown back each time with heavy losses. Heaps of dead lay before our trenches.

Despite the spiraling body count Dubail returned to the attack on April 12, with three simultaneous operations from the north and south, including another attack on the German position at Les Éparges. This time he ordered even heavier artillery bombardments to precede the infantry advance, in order to cut the barbed wire and other defensive obstacles. Once again however the Germans hit back with massive artillery fire against the French artillery and frontlines, and according to the German war record, “it was observed later that the French heaped up their dead like sand-bags on the parapets of their entrenchments, covering them with clay…” On April 14 Joffre removed two infantry corps from the attacking forces, signaling that the battle was basically over (below, the Bois-le-Prêtre, or “Priest’s Wood,” after the fighting near the town of Pont-a-Mousson on the eastern end of the salient’s southern flank).

However the Germans had other plans: on April 23, 1915 Strantz launched a surprise attack against the French near Les Éparges, and the following day succeeded in capturing several kilometers of French frontline and secondary trenches—a victory due in large part to a massive artillery bombardment. In his memoir Storm of Steel, Ernst Junger recalled his first experience of combat at Les Éparges, which had a somewhat surreal flavor:

Towards noon, the artillery fire had increased to a kind of savage pounding dance. The flames lit around us incessantly. Black, white, and yellow clouds mingled. The shells with black smoke, which the old-timers called “Americans” or “coal boxes,” ripped with incredible violence. And all the time the curious, canary-like twittering of dozens of fuses… they drifted over the long surf of explosions like ticking copper toy clocks or mechanical insects. The odd thing was that the little birds in the forest seemed quite untroubled by the myriad noise… In the short intervals of firing, we could hear them singing happily or ardently to one another…

Afterwards, Junger encountered a horrifying scene in the conquered French trenches, where he encountered the casualties of previous battles:

A sweetish smell and a bundle hanging in the wire caught my attention. In the rising mist I leaped out of the trench and found a shrunken French corpse. Flesh like mouldering fish gleamed greenishly through splits in the shredded uniform. Turning round, I took a step back in horror: next to me a figure was crouched against a tree… Empty eye-sockets and a few strands of hair on the bluish-black skull indicated that the man was not among the living. There was another sitting down, slumped forward towards his feet, as though he had just collapsed. All around were dozens more, rotted, dried, stiffened to mummies, frozen in an eerie dance of death. The French must have spent months in the proximity of their fallen comrades, without burying them.


German counteroffensive [ edit | edit source ]

Crown Prince Rupprecht, dissatisfied with the defensive role assigned to him, along with Dellmensingen, petitioned his superiors to allow him a counter-offensive, contrary to the warnings of Schlieffen in the Schlieffen Plan. Ώ] On August 20, the offensive began and Noel de Castelnau ordered his army to withdraw from Morhange (the Battle of Morhange (French language: Bataille de Morhange )). Seeing this, Auguste Dubail's army pulled out of Sarrebourg (the Battle of Sarrebourg (French language: Bataille de Sarrebourg )). The Germans didn't halt at the border and instead marched on to try to take Nancy. Ferdinand Foch's XX Corps managed to defend Nancy successfully, halting the German offensive. To the south, Mulhouse was retaken, but it was abandoned as the French gave up on Plan XVII.

The battle lapsed into stalemate until August 24, when a limited German offensive was launched (the Battle of the Mortagne (French language: 1re Bataille de la Mortagne )). The French had been alerted beforehand by scouting aircraft and so German gains were limited to a small salient. The following day, even that was lost when the French counterattacked. Fighting continued on to the end of the month, at which time trenches were built and a permanent stalemate ensued.


Biography [ edit | edit source ]

Augustin Dubail ΐ] graduated from the military school of Saint-Cyr in 1870 and was commissioned an officer in the infantry. During the Franco-Prussian War Dubail fought at Saarbrücken, Spicheren, Borny before being captured at Metz. After the war Dubail served as a professor at Saint-Cyr, as an officer on the border and in Algeria, where in 1901 he became colonel of the 3rd Zouaves.

In 1904–1905 Dubail served twice as chief of staff of the French Minister of War Maurice Berteaux. Promoted to brigadier general, Dubail commanded the 53rd Infantry Brigade, the 5th Infantry Brigade and the 14th Infantry Brigade and was commandant of Saint-Cyr (1906–1908) before being appointed to the technical committee of the infantry.

During the Agadir Crisis in 1911 Dubail was Chief of Staff of the Army, reporting to the new War Minister, Adolphe Messimy. Messimy and Dubail tried to have the Army adopt 105mm heavy guns, but French generals saw them as a drag on the offensive (preferring to use the lighter and more mobile "Soixante-Quinze" gun) and better used as a defensive weapon like machine guns, so only a few were in use by 1914. Α] General Victor Michel, Vice-President of the Supreme War Council and commander-in-chief designate, later claimed that Dubail had privately agreed with his plans to deploy reservists in the front line and to adopt a more defensive war plan however Michel had to resign when no senior general backed him. Β] Dubail's post was abolished in Messimy's reforms. Γ]

In 1912 Dubail was given command of the IX Corps and in 1914 he became a member of the Supreme War Council.

When the war broke out Dubail was given command of the First Army, which would start the invasion of Germany by taking Lorraine together with de Castelnau’s Second Army. The armies met strong German resistance and were repulsed out of Lorraine with heavy casualties. They were able to reform and defend the French border against a German attack. [ citation needed ]

In 1915 he was promoted to commander of Army Group East on the Western Front, around Belfort and Verdun. He became convinced that a major German offensive was coming against Verdun. He called for reinforcements and heavy artillery and the new Allie tanks for the Verdun sector, but the French commander-in-chief, Joseph Joffre, wasn’t convinced that an attack was imminent.

When the German offensive began at Verdun, Joffre partly blamed Dubail, who was fired in March 1916, publicly humiliated. He claimed to have been made a scapegoat for Joffre’s lack of foresight, although he had himself public played down the likelihood of a German attack at Verdun. [ citation needed ] Dubail was hired again and became military governor of Paris, a position he kept until the spring 1918, when he retired from public life. Dubail died in 1934, aged 82.


Dubai

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Dubai, also spelled Dubayy, constituent emirate of the United Arab Emirates (formerly Trucial States or Trucial Oman). The second most populous and second largest state of the federation (area 1,510 square miles [3,900 square km]), it is roughly rectangular, with a frontage of about 45 miles (72 km) on the Persian Gulf. The emirate’s capital, also named Dubai, is the largest city of the federation. The city is located on a small creek in the northeast part of the state. More than nine-tenths of the emirate’s population lives in the capital and nearby built-up sections. Dubai is surrounded by Abu Dhabi emirate on the south and west and by Sharjah emirate on the east and northeast. In addition, the small exclave (detached section) of Al-Ḥajarayn in the Wadi Ḥattā, more than 25 miles (40 km) from the nearest territory of Dubai proper, belongs to the state.

The settlement of Dubai town is known from 1799. The sheikh (Arabic: shaykh) of the emirate, then a minor, signed the British-sponsored General Treaty of Peace (1820), but the area was seemingly dependent on Abu Dhabi until 1833. In that year a group of Āl Bū Falāsah clansmen of the Banū Yās confederation, chiefly pearl fishers, left Abu Dhabi in a rivalry dispute and took over Dubai town without resistance. From then on, Dubai became, by local standards, a powerful state. It was frequently at odds with Abu Dhabi’s rulers and the Qawāsim (Āl Qāsimī), who controlled the area just north of Dubai, both of whom tried to take control of it, but Dubai’s new rulers retained their independence by playing the neighbouring sheikhdoms against each other. Together with the rest of the original Trucial States, the emirate signed with Britain a maritime truce in 1835 and the Perpetual Maritime Truce in 1853. Its foreign relations were placed under British control by the Exclusive Agreement of 1892. When Britain finally left the Persian Gulf in 1971, Dubai was a prominent founding member of the United Arab Emirates.

The Maktoum sheikhs of Dubai, unlike most of their neighbours, long fostered trade and commerce Dubai was an important port by the beginning of the 20th century. Many foreign merchants (chiefly Indians) settled there until the 1930s it was known for pearl exports. More recently, Dubai has become the region’s chief port for the import of Western manufactures. Most of the United Arab Emirates’ banks and insurance companies are headquartered there. After the devaluation of the gulf rupee (1966), Dubai joined the country of Qatar in setting up a new monetary unit, the riyal. In 1973 Dubai joined the other emirates in the adoption of a national currency, the dirham. The emirate has free trade in gold, and there is a brisk smuggling trade in gold ingots to India, where gold imports are restricted.

In 1966 the offshore oil field of Fatḥ (Fateh) was discovered in the Persian Gulf about 75 miles (120 km) due east of Dubai, in waters where the state had granted an oil concession. By the 1970s three 20-story submarine tanks, each holding 500,000 barrels, were installed on the seabed at the site. Shaped like inverted champagne glasses, they are popularly called the “Three Pyramids of Dubai.” Dubai’s estimated oil reserves are less than one-twentieth those of neighbouring Abu Dhabi, but oil income combined with trading wealth has made Dubai a very prosperous state. A number of industrial plants, including an aluminum smelter and an associated natural gas fractionator, were built in the late 1970s. Since the late 1980s aluminum production has greatly increased through a number of staged expansions of the smelter’s facilities.

Dubai has concentrated on a wide range of development and construction plans designed to promote tourism, transport, and industry. Port Rashid (a deepwater harbour named for the former emir) was opened there in 1972, and a supertanker dry dock was completed in 1979. In an effort to boost industrial investment, the Jebel Ali port and industrial centre was declared a free-trade zone in the early 1980s the move was largely successful, and numerous international companies responded favourably by opening facilities there. The project of overseeing Port Rashid and Jebel Ali was taken over in the early 1990s by the Dubai Ports Authority, which was created for the task. The emirate is served by Dubai International airport Emirate Airlines, the national carrier of the United Arab Emirates, was established by the Dubai government in the mid-1980s. In September 2009 the first portion of a driverless rapid-transit metro line, the first in the gulf region, went into operation in Dubai.

In the early 21st century a range of transportation and construction projects were under way, including light- and urban-rail systems, a sports complex, luxury hotels, and island developments. Though interrupted by strikes held by the city’s large population of expatriate labourers, construction on the Burj Dubai tower (“Dubai Tower”), as it was then known, was ongoing. Although the building’s interior was not entirely complete, upon its official opening in January 2010—as Burj Khalifa—it was easily the world’s tallest building and its tallest freestanding structure. Investment in the tower and numerous other extravagant projects entailed heavy borrowing, however, and with the escalation of the global financial crisis of the previous years, the emirate’s economy was troubled by massive debt and substantial quantities of real estate that lacked prospective buyers. New reliance upon neighbouring Abu Dhabi—which had recently provided its financially troubled neighbour with a bailout of some $10 billion—explains to some extent the surprise decision to rename the Burj Dubai in honour of Abu Dhabi’s emir, Sheikh Khalifa ibn Zayed Al Nahyan, upon its opening. Pop. (2020 est.) emirate, 3,411,200.


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