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Bond is a noun denoting a binding force or influence.
(AM-152: dp. 530; 1. 184'6"; b. 33'; dr. 9'9"; s. 15 k.;
cpl. 104; a. 13"; cl. Admirable)
Bond (AMe-129) was reclassified AM-152,21 February 1942; launched 21 October 1942 by Willamette Iron and Steel Corp., Portland, Oreg.; commissioned 30 August 1943, Lieutenant C. L. Grabenhorst, USNR, in command; and reported to the Pacific Fleet.
Between 2 October and 20 November 1943 Bond operated at San Pedro, Calif., and then steamed to the Aleutian Islands, via Pearl Harbor, arriving at Adak 13 December. Between December 1943 and June 1944 Bond performed minesweeping operations at Adak, Attu, Dutch Harbor, Kiska, and Amchitka. On 29 June 1944 she left Dutch Harbor and steamed to San Francisco arriving 7 June.
After repairs, Bond departed San Francisco 8 August 1944 for Saipan, Marianas Islands, via Pearl Harbor and Eniwetok. Between 2 and 28 September she patrolled In the vicinity of Saipan and then commenced convoy escort operations between Saipan, Ullthi, Guam, and Eniwetok.
On 13 May 1945 Bond departed Pearl Harbor and sailed to Portland, Oreg. After undergoing repairs at Portland and later at Seattle, Wash., she sailed to Cold Bay, Alaska, where she was transferred under LendLease to the U. S. R., 17 August 1945. Reclassified MSF-152, 7 February 1955, Bond remains in Russian hands.
یواساس باند (ایام-۱۵۲)
یواساس باند (ایام-۱۵۲) (به انگلیسی: USS Bond (AM-152) ) یک کشتی بود که طول آن ۱۸۴ فوت ۶ اینچ (۵۶٫۲۴ متر) بود. این کشتی در سال ۱۹۴۲ ساخته شد.
|آباندازی:||۱۱ آوریل ۱۹۴۲|
|آغاز کار:||۲۱ اکتبر ۱۹۴۲|
|به دست آورده شده:||۱۷ اوت ۱۹۴۵|
|اعزام:||۳۰ اوت ۱۹۴۳|
|درازا:||۱۸۴ فوت ۶ اینچ (۵۶٫۲۴ متر)|
|پهنا:||۳۳ فوت (۱۰ متر)|
|آبخور:||۹ فوت ۹ اینچ (۲٫۹۷ متر)|
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A living artifact from the Dutch Golden Age: Yale’s 367-year-old water bond still pays interestThis bond was issued in 1648 by a Dutch water board to finance improvements to a local dike system. A perpetual bond, it continues to pay interest.
A 1648 Dutch water bond housed at Yale’s Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library is unique among the tens of thousands of manuscripts that reside there. While most of the Beinecke’s archival holdings are by their nature dead — their original purpose being fulfilled — the water bond lives on. It still pays annual interest more than 367 years after it was issued.
Timothy Young, the library’s curator of Modern Books and Manuscripts, has travelled to Amsterdam this week to visit Stichtse Rijnlanden, a Dutch water authority, and collect 12 years of interest on the bond. Collecting the back interest maintains the bond’s status as a functioning artifact from the Golden Age of Dutch finance. The water authority paid Young 136.20 euros in interest, the equivalent of $153.
“ This is a teaching moment because the financial industry changes so rapidly but here we have something very old and constant,” says Young, who curates the Beinecke’s Collection of Financial History in partnership with the International Center for Finance at the Yale School of Management.
According the water authority, Yale’s bond is one of five known to exist. The bonds were issued by the Hoogheemraadschap Lekdijk Bovendams, a water board composed of landowners and leading citizens that managed dikes, canals, and a 20-mile stretch of the lower Rhine in Holland called the Lek. (Stichtse Rijnlanden is a successor organization to Lekdijk Bovendams.)
Yale’s bond, written on goatskin, was issued on May 15, 1648 to Mr. Niclaes de Meijer for the “sum of 1,000 Carolus Guilders of 20 Stuivers a piece.” According to its original terms, the bond would pay 5% interest in perpetuity. (The interest rate was reduced to 3.5% and then 2.5% during the 17 th century.)
The interest payments were recorded directly on the bond. The water board used the money raised to pay workers at a recently constructed cribbinge, a series of piers near a bend in the river that regulated its flow and prevented erosion.
Yale acquired the bond in 2003. That year, Geert Rouwenhorst, professor of corporate finance and deputy director of the International Center for Finance, took the bond to the Netherlands to collect 26 years of back interest. That was the last time interest was collected.
“ There have been many instances in history when institutions issued debt with very long tenure. In the 17 th century, people sometimes issued perpetual debt. But it is very rare that there is an uninterrupted history when governments or other entities have not defaulted on those debts,” says Rouwenhorst. “Yale’s bond is an extremely early example of a security that was issued without maturity and still pays interest. One ought to be astounded that such a thing exists.”
Rouwenhorst and William N. Goetzmann, Edwin J. Beinecke Professor of Finance and Management Studies and director of the International Center for Finance, wrote a chapter about the bond “The Origins of Value,” their 2005 history of financial innovation.
They write that the Dutch water boards had relative financial autonomy, which protected them from falling fortunes of the central government and allowed the securities that they issued to survive. The lives of perpetual loans typically were “cut short by imprudent financing, government recall, or the misfortunes of wars and revolutions,” Rouwenhorst and Goetzmann write.
The acquisition of the 1648 bond raised a challenge for the Beinecke, which does not typically catalog and house “living” documents.
“ The question was how to consider the status of the bond,” says Young. “In order to for the bond remain live, we need to take it to the issuing authority in the Netherlands every couple of decades to collect the interest, but unless we’re loaning an item to another institution, we don’t allow collection material to leave the library.”
A compromise resolved the issue. By 1944, there was no longer any space on the vellum to list interest payments. A paper addendum was added to record new payments. The library permits the paper addendum to travel to the Netherlands to collect the interest, which allows the bond to remain live.
It is a bearer bond, meaning anyone who presents the addendum to the issuing authority can collect the interest. The water board kept no register of ownership of the bond.
The Collection of Financial History also features a bond issued circa 1622 by the Dutch East India Company, the first modern corporation. Unlike the water bond, it no longer pays interest.
Bond Valuation in Practice
Since bonds are an essential part of the capital markets, investors and analysts seek to understand how the different features of a bond interact in order to determine its intrinsic value. Like a stock, the value of a bond determines whether it is a suitable investment for a portfolio and hence, is an integral step in bond investing.
Bond valuation, in effect, is calculating the present value of a bond’s expected future coupon payments. The theoretical fair value of a bond is calculated by discounting the future value of its coupon payments by an appropriate discount rate. The discount rate used is the yield to maturity, which is the rate of return that an investor will get if they reinvested every coupon payment from the bond at a fixed interest rate until the bond matures. It takes into account the price of a bond, par value, coupon rate, and time to maturity.
The size of the U.S. bond market, or the total amount of debt outstanding, at the end of 2018, according to the Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association (SIFMA), an industry group
Bond AM-152 - History
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Bond, in masonry, systematic arrangement of bricks or other building units composing a wall or structure in such a way as to ensure its stability and strength. The various types of bond may also have a secondary, decorative function.
Bonding may be achieved by overlapping alternate courses (rows or layers) in brickwork, by using metal ties, and by inserting units vertically so they join adjacent courses. A bond course of headers (units laid with their ends toward the face of the wall) can be used to bond exterior masonry to backing masonry. Headers used in this manner may also be called throughstones, or perpends. Units laid with their lengths parallel to the face of a wall are called stretchers.
Among the more common types of bond are the English bond, in which bricks are laid in alternating courses of stretchers and headers the Flemish, or Dutch, bond, which consists of headers and stretchers laid alternately within each course, each header being centred over the stretcher below it and the American bond, in which only every fifth or sixth course consists of headers, the rest being stretchers. The American bond is the most common because it is so easily laid. The herringbone bond is a variety of raking bond in which units are laid at an angle of 45° to the direction of the row, instead of horizontally. Alternate courses lie in opposing directions, resulting in a zigzag pattern. Other types of bond include the blind, block-in-course, chain, cross, cross-and-English, diagonal, dog’s tooth, English-cross, flying, in-and-out, plumb, ranging, running, and split.
This article was most recently revised and updated by Amy Tikkanen, Corrections Manager.
Bond History, Family Crest & Coats of Arms
The name stems from the Old English/Saxon roots bonda and bunda, which were used to indicate such a person. "There are several persons called Bonde in the Domesday [Book], one of whom is somewhat contradictorily called 'liber homo.'   Bonde, Bondi, Bunde, Bundi were all listed in the Domesday Book. 
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Early Origins of the Bond family
The surname Bond was first found in Norfolk where Albertus filius Bund, Bonde was listed in the Feet of Fines of 1199 and 1202. Norman le Bonde was listed in the Pipe Rolls for Warwickshire in 1180 and William Bonde was a Knights Templar in 1185. Later, Robert Bunde was listed in the Pipe Rolls for Bedfordshire in 1198 and Henry le Bounde was found in Hertfordshire in 1297. 
"Ralph de Bonde occurs in Palgrave's Rotuli Curiae Regis of 1199. Robert de Bundy founded Bradley Priory, Leicestershire, in the time of King John. There was a family of Bendys in Staffordshire. 'Shutt-End,' says Erdeswick, 'is an old house, formerly of the Bendys.' William Bendy of Holbeach left two daughters his co-heirs: and another William Bendy, of King's Swinford, was Clerk of the Peace for the county, and died in 1684. William Bondi, of Bedfordshire, and Thomas Bundi, of Shropshire, occur in the Rotuli Hundredorum, c. 1272. Richard Bundy, in 1313, appears in Palgrave's Parliamentary Writs as 'manucaptor of John Pistor. ' " 
They "have their principal homes in the west of England in Devon and Somerset, and in the east of England in Norfolk and Suffolk they are also established in Lancashire and Staffordshire. Six centuries ago the name was still to be found in numbers in Norfolk and Suffolk, as well as in the neighbouring counties of Lincoln, Hunts, and Cambridge, and also in Oxfordshire, in the forms of Bond and Bonde." 
By the time of the Hundredorum Rolls of 1273, the family were scattered throughout ancient Britain: Emma le Bonde in Huntingdonshire (1271) Robert le Bonde in Worcestershire and Walter le Bond in Cambridgeshire. The same rolls also had an entry for the name as a forename in Norfolk: Bonde Brit. 
Kirby's Quest of Somerset had two entries both "1 Edward III" (during the first year of King Edward III's reign): Robert le Bonde and John le Bonnde. 
Coat of Arms and Surname History Package
Early History of the Bond family
This web page shows only a small excerpt of our Bond research. Another 95 words (7 lines of text) covering the years 1669, 1658, 1640, 1656, 1612, 1676, 1634, 1707, 1612, 1676, 1676, 1747, 1625, 1695, 1692, 1678, 1744, 1673, 1659, 1797 and are included under the topic Early Bond History in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.
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Bond Spelling Variations
Multitudes of spelling variations are a hallmark of Anglo Norman names. Most of these names evolved in the 11th and 12th century, in the time after the Normans introduced their own Norman French language into a country where Old and Middle English had no spelling rules and the languages of the court were French and Latin. To make matters worse, medieval scribes spelled words according to sound, so names frequently appeared differently in the various documents in which they were recorded. The name was spelled Bond, Bonde, Bunde, Bundy and others.
Early Notables of the Bond family (pre 1700)
Outstanding amongst the family at this time was Denis Bond (died 1658), English politician from Dorset who sat in the House of Commons between 1640 and 1656, supporter of the Parliamentarian cause in the English Civil War and served as president of the Council of State during the CommonwealthJohn Bond LL.D. (1612-1676), an English jurist, Puritan clergyman, member of the Westminster Assembly, and Master of Trinity Hall Cambridge Nathaniel Bond, KS, (1634-1707), of Creech Grange in the Isle of Purbeck, Dorset, an English lawyer.
Another 83 words (6 lines of text) are included under the topic Early Bond Notables in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.
Migration of the Bond family to Ireland
Some of the Bond family moved to Ireland, but this topic is not covered in this excerpt.
Another 72 words (5 lines of text) about their life in Ireland is included in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.
Bond migration +
Some of the first settlers of this family name were:
Bond Settlers in United States in the 17th Century
- Anders Bond, who arrived in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1627 
- Edward Bond, who settled in 1636 in Virginia
- Edward Bond, who arrived in Virginia in 1636 
- Jon Bond, who arrived in Virginia in 1637 
- Degery Bond, who arrived in Virginia in 1638 
- . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Bond Settlers in United States in the 18th Century
- Mary Bond, who arrived in Virginia in 1701 
- Geo Bond, who landed in Virginia in 1705 
- Susan Bond, who arrived in Virginia in 1706 
- Andrew Bond, who landed in Virginia in 1711 
- Eliza Bond, who arrived in Virginia in 1714 
- . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Bond Settlers in United States in the 19th Century
- Samuel Bond, who arrived in America in 1802 
- Andries Bond, who arrived in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1806 
- Isaac Bond, who arrived in Washington, DC in 1811 
- Timothy Bond, aged 40, who landed in Maryland in 1813 
- Alexander Bond, who arrived in New York, NY in 1816 
- . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Bond migration to Canada +
Some of the first settlers of this family name were:
Bond Settlers in Canada in the 18th Century
- Jos Bond, who landed in Nova Scotia in 1749
- Richard Bond, who landed in Nova Scotia in 1749
- Capt. John Bond U.E. (b. 1758) born in Baltimore County, Maryland, USA from South Carolina, USA who settled in Rawdon Township [East Hants],, Nova Scotia c. 1783 he was Captain of the British Militia at Star Fort, Ninety-Six, South Carolina, married to Elizabeth they had 7 children he died in 1814 in Rawdon, Nova Scotia 
- Mr. George Bond U.E. who settled in Canada c. 1783 
Bond Settlers in Canada in the 19th Century
- Mary Bond, aged 20, who arrived in Saint John, New Brunswick in 1833 aboard the ship "Amynta" from Plymouth, England
- John Bond, aged 35, a labourer, who arrived in Saint John, New Brunswick aboard the ship "Perseus" in 1834
- Ann Bond, aged 25, who arrived in Saint John, New Brunswick aboard the ship "Perseus" in 1834
- Mary Bond, aged 5, who arrived in Saint John, New Brunswick aboard the ship "Perseus" in 1834
- Margaret Bond, aged 3, who arrived in Saint John, New Brunswick aboard the ship "Perseus" in 1834
Bond Settlers in Canada in the 20th Century
- R M Bond, who landed in Saint John, New Brunswick in 1907
- Mrs. Bond, who landed in Saint John, New Brunswick in 1907
- Miss Ethel Bond, who arrived in Saint John, New Brunswick in 1907
- Miss Ida Bond, who landed in Saint John, New Brunswick in 1907
Bond migration to Australia +
Emigration to Australia followed the First Fleets of convicts, tradespeople and early settlers. Early immigrants include:
Bond Settlers in Australia in the 18th Century
- Mr. William Bond, (b. 1750), aged 37, English baker who was convicted in Devon, England for 7 years for burglary, transported aboard the "Charlotte" on 13th May 1787, arriving in New South Wales, Australia, he died in 1839 
Bond Settlers in Australia in the 19th Century
- John Bond, English convict from Southampton, who was transported aboard the "Arab" on July 3, 1822, settling in Van Diemen's Land, Australia
- George Bond, English convict from Huntingdon, who was transported aboard the "Asia" on July 29th, 1823, settling in Van Diemen's Land, Australia
- John Bond, a carpenter, who arrived in New South Wales, Australia sometime between 1825 and 1832
- Mr. Allen Bond, English convict who was convicted in Essex, England for life, transported aboard the "Camden" on 21st September 1832, arriving in New South Wales, Australia
- Philip Thomas Bond, who arrived in Holdfast Bay, Australia aboard the ship "John Renwick" in 1837 
Bond migration to New Zealand +
Emigration to New Zealand followed in the footsteps of the European explorers, such as Captain Cook (1769-70): first came sealers, whalers, missionaries, and traders. By 1838, the British New Zealand Company had begun buying land from the Maori tribes, and selling it to settlers, and, after the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840, many British families set out on the arduous six month journey from Britain to Aotearoa to start a new life. Early immigrants include:
Bond Settlers in New Zealand in the 19th Century
- P Bond, who landed in Auckland, New Zealand in 1840
- William Bond, who landed in Wellington, New Zealand in 1840
- J Bond, who landed in Auckland, New Zealand in 1843
- Miss Eliza Bond, British settler travelling from London aboard the ship "Lord Ashley" arriving in Auckland, New Zealand on 14th October 1858 
- Mr. John Bond, British settler travelling from London aboard the ship "Maori" arriving in Auckland, New Zealand on 3rd November 1859 
Contemporary Notables of the name Bond (post 1700) +
- John Frederick Bond (1932-2012), English professional football player and manager who played from 1950 until 1966
- Edward Bond (b. 1934), English playwright, theatre director, theorist and screenwriter
- Graham Bond (1937-1974), English Rock musician
- Frederick Bligh Bond (1864-1945), English Ecclesiastical architect, and archaeologist
- Michael Bond (b. 1926), English children's author
- Edward August Bond (1813-1898), English scientist
- Richard Lee "Dick" Bond (1935-2020), American politician, President of the Kansas Senate (1997-2001)
- Chrystelle Lee Trump Bond (1938-2020), American dancer, choreographer, dance historian, and author
- Mrs. Cynthia Lesley Bond B.E.M., British recipient of the British Empire Medal on 8th June 2018, for services to the community in Chippenham, Wiltshire
- Ms. Julia Bond O.B.E., British recipient of Officer of the Order of the British Empire on 8th June 2018, for services to the Foreign and Commonwealth Office 
- . (Another 11 notables are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Historic Events for the Bond family +
Air New Zealand Flight 901
- Mr. Robin Melville Bond (1925-1979), New Zealander passenger, from Blockhouse Bay, Auckland, New Zealand aboard the Air New Zealand Flight 901 for an Antarctic sightseeing flight when it flew into Mount Erebus he died in the crash 
- Mrs. Marilyn Alma Bond (1931-1979), New Zealander passenger, from Blockhouse Bay, Auckland, New Zealand aboard the Air New Zealand Flight 901 for an Antarctic sightseeing flight when it flew into Mount Erebus she died in the crash 
- Mr. Alexander Bond (1858-1917), Canadian resident from Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada who died in the explosion 
- Mr. Alexander Bond (1884-1917), Canadian resident from Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada who died in the explosion 
- Mr. Sidney W Bond (b. 1922), English Able Seaman serving for the Royal Navy from Birmingham, England, who sailed into battle and died in the sinking 
HMS Prince of Wales
- Mr. John Robert Bond, British Leading Seaman, who sailed into battle on the HMS Prince of Wales and died in the sinking 
- Mr. Frederick Bond, British Chief Stoker, who sailed into battle on the HMS Prince of Wales and survived the sinking 
- Mr. Alfred George Bond, British Able Bodied Seaman, who sailed into battle on the HMS Prince of Wales and died in the sinking 
HMS Royal Oak
- Albert Bond, British Stoker 1st Class with the Royal Navy aboard the HMS Royal Oak when she was torpedoed by U-47 and sunk he survived the sinking 
- Mr. Edward Bond, English 1st Class Cabin Bed Steward from Liverpool, England, who worked aboard the RMS Lusitania and survived the sinking 
- Mr. William John Bond (d. 1912), aged 40, English First Class Bedroom Steward from Southampton, Hampshire who worked aboard the RMS Titanic and died in the sinking 
- Mr. Burnis Leroy Bond, American Corporal from Mississippi, USA working aboard the ship "USS Arizona" when she sunk during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on 7th December 1941, he died in the sinking 
Related Stories +
The Bond Motto +
The motto was originally a war cry or slogan. Mottoes first began to be shown with arms in the 14th and 15th centuries, but were not in general use until the 17th century. Thus the oldest coats of arms generally do not include a motto. Mottoes seldom form part of the grant of arms: Under most heraldic authorities, a motto is an optional component of the coat of arms, and can be added to or changed at will many families have chosen not to display a motto.
Motto: Non Sufficit Orbis
Motto Translation: The world does not suffice.
The documentary shows the familial atmosphere Broccoli and Saltzman developed with the Bond cast and crew, especially with archival footage of Connery vacationing and partying with the Broccoli and Saltzman families before the split. Hilary says that to this day, Connery has been kind and gentlemanly to her, despite his dispute with her father.
Broccoli's daughter Barbara, the producer of all Bond films since 1995's “Goldeneye,” told FOX411 the rift really hurt her father.
“The original filmmakers were Cubby and Harry, Ian Fleming, Terence Young and Sean Connery. They all created something extraordinary,” said Broccoli. “They changed cinema history. They pushed the envelope. Look at the way those films were made. I mean [Production Designer] Ken Adams, he changed the look of cinema. Peter Hunt, the editor, changed editing. They did something revolutionary and I think whenever you create something together, it’s a tragedy when you split up. Like a marriage, it’s the child that matters, and the child in this case is the extraordinary legacy.”
Broccoli and Saltzman hit a snafu with the fourth film “Thunderball,” which would haunt the franchise all the way up to “Casino Royale” in 2006. Producer Kevin McClory, a close friend to Ian Fleming, claimed ownership of the story to “Thunderball” and cried plagiarism. After settling a lawsuit, Fleming gave McClory future filming rights to “Thunderball.” Broccoli and Saltzman, in an attempt to keep Bond in their family, made a deal with McClory to make “Thunderball,” under their brand and gave him the sole producer credit.
Saltzman and Broccoli thought the worst was behind them after “Thunderball,” but in 1983, McClory remade the Bond film with Warner Bros. as “Never Say Never Again.” McClory had managed to break Fleming’s character away from United Artists’ hold.
To add salt into an already open wound, McClory hired Sean Connery to return as Bond!
Broccoli, after his own feud and separation from Saltzman, was releasing “Octopussy” with Roger Moore at the same time McClory was debuting “Never Say Never Again” with Connery. Broccoli and Saltzman were crushed to see a battle of the Bonds between Moore and Connery.
“I felt a little sad. You created something and now suddenly you have these splinters and split-offs,” said Hilary Saltzman. “I think it was Sean’s way to say, look I’m still desired and I’m going to get paid what I should be paid. I’m happy for him that he did it. It wasn’t the greatest film, but they got it out of their system. Yes, he was a great Bond, but he’s had some extraordinary films and some extraordinary roles since. It’s sad to me that he can’t focus on the accomplishments that he was able to have as a result of being Bond, as opposed thinking he got stumped for some short change.”
Years after the dust settled on the battle of the Bonds, Barbara Broccoli was relieved to see Sean and her father briefly reconnect before his passing in 1996.
“I’m happy that they made peace. We have a lot to thank Sean Connery for," she said. "If were not for him, we would not be sitting here 50 years later.”
“Everything or Nothing: The Untold Story of 007” premieres on EPIX during World Bond Day, Friday October 5th.
Diversify Into Real Estate
In addition to investing in stocks and bonds, I recommend investing in real estate as well. Real estate is my favorite way to achieving financial freedom because it is a tangible asset that is less volatile, provides utility, and generates income. By the time I was 30, I had bought two properties in San Francisco and one property in Lake Tahoe. These properties now generate a significant amount of mostly passive income.
In 2016, I started diversifying into heartland real estate to take advantage of lower valuations and higher cap rates. I did so by investing $810,000 with real estate crowdfunding platforms. With interest rates down, the value of cash flow is up. Further, the pandemic has made working from home more common.
Here are my two favorite real estate marketplaces:
Fundrise: A way for accredited and non-accredited investors to diversify into real estate through private eFunds. Fundrise has been around since 2012 and has consistently generated steady returns, no matter what the stock market is doing. For most people, investing in a diversified eREIT is the way to go.
CrowdStreet: A way for accredited investors to invest in individual real estate opportunities mostly in 18-hour cities. 18-hour cities are secondary cities with lower valuations, higher rental yields, and potentially higher growth due to job growth and demographic trends. If you have a lot more capital, you can build you own diversified real estate portfolio.
Historical Returns Of Different Stock And Bond Portfolio Weightings is a Financial Samurai original post.
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History of the American Stagecoach
In Hollywood movies, stagecoach rides offer cozy seats and grand views, but in reality, travel by stagecoach was uncomfortable and sometimes dangerous.
In the 1800s American West roads were rocky, rutted, and sometimes impassible by stagecoach without a good push from behind. Bandits were a constant threat and undoubtedly viewed stagecoach passengers like cats watching birds in a cage. On long trips, passengers generally slept sitting up or not at all since it was considered bad etiquette to rest ones head on another passenger. Rest stations, which were called swing stations, were only used to change out horses and rarely offered food. Nevertheless, the stagecoach was a vital method of transportation in the American West, and far more comfortable than riding on horseback.
The Concord Stagecoach
The Concord Stagecoach was built like a basket on leather straps that swung from side to side, weighed more than a ton, and cost somewhere between $1500 and $1800. Concords had a seat in front, in back, and one in the middle seating nine when full and leaving little leg room, but passengers were also allowed to ride on top. The creators of the Concord were J. S. Abbot and Lewis Downing who were so careful with their products that not one stagecoach ever left the factory without their inspection. The Abbot Downing Company was a huge factory in Concord, New Hampshire that took up six acres and produced forty other types of coaches and wagons. It operated under the supervision of one or another of the Abbot or Downing family members from 1827 to 1899.
Ben Holladay and the Overland Express
One of the most famous stagecoach owners and operators was Ben Holladay who traveled in a personalized stagecoach with gold scrollwork and matching dapple-gray horses. Holladay owned the Overland Mail & Express Company, which he bought from the Pony Express in 1862. Holladay had a contract with the United States Post Office that paid $365,000 a year and the Overland transported humans, packages and mail over a 3000 mile area. His stagecoach drivers wore velvet-trimmed uniforms and Irish wool overcoats, and Holladay paid them well. There were more than 15,000 employees in the Overland Company and 110 Concord Stagecoaches. Holladay sold his stagecoach company to Wells Fargo in 1866 to invest in the railroads.
Stagecoach travel could be dangerous, too. During the gold rush years in the Rocky Mountains the Wells Fargo line had such a difficult time protecting its passengers and cargo that it created a standard form letter for reporting robberies. Wells Fargo nailed safes to the floorboards of the coaches, hired armed guards to protect shipments and taught silver shippers how to melt their precious metals into bars too large to be carried by men on the run, and still their stagecoaches were robbed. They finally created their own detective agency, but the salaries of these officers were so high they matched the amount previously lost in robberies. Nevertheless, the company felt some satisfaction in knowing justice was served when famous robbers such as John Sontag and Black Bart were apprehended or killed.
The End of the Reign of the Stagecoach
Ben Holladay may have made a wise financial decision when he sold the Overland stage line as railroads soon became the primary method of transporting both humans and cargo, but trains were still confined to their tracks and it was actually the introduction of the automobile that finally brought an end to the use of stagecoaches in the early 1900s.