Heinkel He 111C

Heinkel He 111C


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Heinkel He 111C

The He 111C was the first commercial version of the He 111, an aircraft that had originally been designed to fill a Lufthansa request for a ten seat passenger plane. The C-0 was based on the second prototype, and was powered by two 750hp BMW VI inline engines. These engines were the downfall of the He 111C as a civil airliner. They were underpowered for the weight of the aircraft, making them expensive to operate. Six were produced and delivered to Lufthansa in 1936. At least one He 111C was used to carry out long range reconnaissance flights over France, Britain and the Soviet Union, from 1937, under the pretence of commercial research. The remaining five He 111C-0s were impressed into the Luftwaffe in 1939, where they served as air force liaison aircraft. The same fate befell the small number of He 111Gs produced in 1937.

Development - Combat - He 111A - He 111B - He 111C - He 111D - He 111E - He 111F - He 111G - He 111H - He 111J - He 111P - He 111R - He 111Z


Heinkel He 111 Explained

The Heinkel He 111 was a German bomber aircraft designed by Siegfried and Walter Günter at Heinkel Flugzeugwerke in 1934. Through development it was described as a "wolf in sheep's clothing". Due to restrictions placed on Germany after the First World War prohibiting bombers, it masqueraded as a civil airliner, although from conception the design was intended to provide the nascent Luftwaffe with a fast medium bomber.

Perhaps the best-recognised German bomber due to the distinctive, extensively glazed "greenhouse" nose of later versions, the Heinkel He 111 was the most numerous Luftwaffe bomber during the early stages of World War II. The bomber fared well until the Battle of Britain, when its weak defensive armament was exposed. Nevertheless, it proved capable of sustaining heavy damage and remaining airborne. As the war progressed, the He 111 was used in a wide variety of roles on every front in the European theatre. It was used as a strategic bomber during the Battle of Britain, a torpedo bomber in the Atlantic and Arctic, and a medium bomber and a transport aircraft on the Western, Eastern, Mediterranean, Middle Eastern, and North African Front theatres.

The He 111 was constantly upgraded and modified, but became obsolete during the latter part of the war. The German Bomber B project was not realised, which forced the Luftwaffe to continue operating the He 111 in combat roles until the end of the war. Manufacture of the He 111 ceased in September 1944, at which point piston-engine bomber production was largely halted in favour of fighter aircraft. With the German bomber force virtually defunct, the He 111 was used for logistics.

Production of the Heinkel continued after the war as the Spanish-built CASA 2.111. Spain received a batch of He 111H-16s in 1943 along with an agreement to licence-build Spanish versions. Its airframe was produced in Spain under licence by Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA. The design differed significantly in powerplant only, eventually being equipped with Rolls-Royce Merlin engines. The Heinkel's descendant continued in service until 1973.


Heinkel He 111 - Eastern Front Collection Low-poly 3D model

The Heinkel He.111 was a German bomber from the Luftwaffe used on many fronts in Europe during the WWII.

The model of a historical re-enactment of Major Herbert Wittman's plane. This plane was integrated in the KG (Kampfgeschwader) 53 unit group. It was based in Olsufjewo on the Southern Russian front an it was in service during all summer of 1943. This He.111 was used for low-altitude ground-strafing missions.

The model of a historical re-enactment of the coded J aircraft. This plane was integrated in the KG (Kampfgeschwader) 53 unit group. It was based in Seschtschinskaya in Russia and it was in service during the end of 1942. This He.111 was used to transport for supply enclosed Germans forces at Stalingrad.

The wreck textures sets are also included in this collection.

The 3D model is ready for game and low poly using. All materials are ready for PBR rendering.

Originally created with Blender 2.79

Objects : 10 Polygons : 6889 Subdivision ready : Yes Render engine : Cycles render

(2 sets of 2 textures for the twins models) Materials in scene : 2 Texture size mixed (4096px & 1024px) Textures (Diffuse, Metallic, Roughness, Normal, Heigh, AO and Opacity) are included Textures formats : PNG

Real scale : Yes Scene objects are organized by armature's skeletons and groups

File formats don't include textures. All textures are in a specific folder named 'Textures' The model is rigged and animated for a cycle ration of propellers animations a wheels positions outside or inside the wings. The HDRI is not included.


Heinkel He 111

Le réarmement en Allemagne, en violation du traité de Versailles, n'est pas comme on le croit souvent la volonté de Hitler : il avait en réalité commencé avant lui. Il est vrai par contre qu'Hitler lui donna une formidable impulsion. Des appareils soi-disant civils, mais bel et bien destinés à un usage militaire dès le départ, furent conçus tant que ce réarmement devait rester secret, avant 1935. Le He 111 en fait partie.

Celui-ci, conçu par Siegfried et Walter Günter, se présentait comme une version bimoteur du He 70, avion civil qui avait battu des records à l'époque. Il en conservait l'aile elliptique, mais le fuselage fut allongé et l'envergure accrue. Il fut conçu à la demande de la Luftwaffe, intéressée par le He 70 et cherchant un appareil capable de remplir des missions de bombardement et de transport.

Le He 111 effectua son vol inaugural le 24 février 1935, entre les mains de Gerhard Nitschke. Les prototypes V2 et V4 étaient configurés en version civile, et volèrent en mai 1935. Le V3 servit de base à la version He 111A. Le V4 fut présenté par les nazis le 10 janvier 1936 comme étant l'avion de ligne le plus rapide du monde, capable de dépasser 400 km/h : ce qui était faux. L'appareil se montrait plus rapide avec des moteurs DB 600 de 1000 ch, mais ils étaient rares et Heinkel devait se contenter des BMW VI de 600 ch.

En 1935, le He 111 fut confronté au Do 17 et au Ju 86. La compétition fut serrée, et les 3 furent finalement produits. Mais le He 111 gagnera aux points en étant le plus produit. 7 He 111 (le He 111V2 et 6 He 111C dérivés du He 111V4) furent livrés à la Luft Hansa. Elle recevra également 8 He 111G.

10 He-111A-0 furent produits, mais furent refusés par la Luftwaffe. Il était sous-motorisé et l'impression des pilotes fut négative. En revanche, il intéressa une délégation chinoise qui en acheta 6. Ils entrèrent en service en 1936. Ils furent utilisés contre les Japonais en 1937 et 3 furent abattus lors d'un raid. Un exemplaire fut plus tard remotorisé avec des Wright Cyclone pour servir d'avion de transport au sein d'une compagnie civile.

Le He 111B, équipé de moteurs DB 600C, fut la première version à entrer en service au sein de la Luftwaffe. Il vola pour la première fois en 1936. 300 He 111B-1 furent commandés et entrèrent en service en janvier 1937. Il fut suivi du He 111B-2 et B-3. 4 He 111B furent envoyés en Espagne en février 1937, au sein de la légion Condor. Ils rempliront leur première mission de combat le 9 mars 1937, lors de la bataille de Guadalajara. 4 He 111 participeront au bombardement de Guernica le 26 avril 1937.

Des He 111E furent également livrés. Au total, la légion Condor utilisa 94 He 111, subit 21 pertes à l'ennemi, 15 dus à un accident et un par sabotage. Les 58 survivants (25 He 111B et 33 He 111E) furent donnés à l'Espagne. 3 He 111H et autant de He 111J seront livrés en 1939 pour remplir des rôles de reconnaissance. Ils seront définitivement retirés du service en 1958. Le He 111H-16 sera construit sous licence en Espagne, sous la désignation Casa 2.111.

Le He 111 participera tout du long à la seconde guerre mondiale : en Pologne, notamment lors de l'attaque de Varsovie, pendant la "drôle de guerre" contre la Royal Navy, lors de la campagne de Norvège (bataille de Narvik), lors de la campagne de France (bombardement de Rotterdam, où ils larguèrent 91 tonnes). Jusqu'à ce moment-là, les pertes furent relativement faibles.

Le véritable tournant sera la bataille d'Angleterre, où ses défauts (lenteur, armement défensif faible, équipage concentré dans le nez vitré) joueront à plein. Il participera bien entendu au Blitz. Equipé du système X-Gerät, puis Y-Gerät, il occasionnera de sérieux dégâts. 242 He 111 seront perdus au-dessus de la Grande-Bretagne.

Il sera également engagé dans les Balkans (bombardement de Belgrade, de la Crète), et en Méditerranée (bombardement de Malte, de l'Egypte, du canal de Suez). Les pertes y furent légères.

Le He 111 sera également utilisé pour la lutte anti-navires, comme avion torpilleur, dans la bataille de l'Atlantique, en Méditerranée et en mer Noire. La précédente doctrine, qui consistait à bombarder directement les navires, impliquait de trop grandes pertes.

Des He 111 furent également envoyés en Irak lors du coup d'Etat de Rachid Ali. Ils participèrent à 7 vols de reconnaissance et 5 raids, larguant 10 tonnes de bombes. Mais ils souffrirent de telles pertes qu'ils furent retirés le 31 mai 1941, 17 jours après leur arrivée.

Le He 111 fut également engagé sur le front russe, plus dans des missions de soutien aux troupes au sol que de bombardement stratégique. Puis il servit à l'attaque de trains (64 locomotives), mais souffrit de telles pertes que fin 1941, il était relégué au transport. Il servit particulièrement au ravitaillement et à l'évacuation de poches (Demiansk, Stalingrad). 165 He 111 furent perdus à Stalingrad. Il bombarda également des usines de chars et d'avions.

En 1944, le He 111 restait le principal bombardier "stratégique" de l'Allemagne nazie. Au point que ses usines de production furent déménagées hors de porté des bombardiers Alliés. Ceux-ci firent des raids se concluant par un atterrissage en URSS pour atteindre leur nouvelle cible. En réponse, des He 111 bombardèrent les appareils au sol, détruisant 44 B-17 et 15 chasseurs américains en URSS.

Les dernières versions servirent à la lutte anti-navires avec le radar FuG 200 Hohentweil et le missile Hs 293, ainsi que l'emport de missiles V-1. A partir de fin 1944, ils furent relégués aux missions de transport et servirent à évacuer la Grèce, la Yougoslavie, Budapest… Les dernières missions offensives consistèrent à miner le Danube ou à détruire les ponts sur l'Oder.

Le He 111 fut également utilisé par les forces aériennes de Bulgarie, Hongrie, Roumanie, Slovaquie. La Grande-Bretagne en captura plusieurs exemplaires, qui furent testés pendant la guerre. L'USAAF en essaya plusieurs après la guerre. La Tchécoslovaquie utilisa un exemplaire après la guerre.

6508 exemplaires au total furent construits. Parmi eux, il faut compter 32 prototypes, 12 appareils civils, et 808 avions construits avant le déclenchement de la seconde guerre mondiale. Sa production s'arrêta fin 1944. Bien que partiellement remplacé par le Ju 88 et le Do 217, et dépassé dès 1943, il resta en service jusqu'à la fin de la guerre. Lent et peu armé, il s'avéra robuste, fiable, polyvalent et facile à construire. Il reste à jamais le bombardier "stratégique" emblématique de la Luftwaffe, symbolique de la bataille d'Angleterre.

Anciens pays utilisateurs

  • Allemagne du IIIe Reich :Luftwaffe
  • Bulgarie : Armée de l'air bulgare (1 exemplaire) &mdash He 111H-16
  • Espagne : Armée de l'air espagnole (64 exemplaires) &mdash 25 He 111B-2, 33 He 111E-1, 3 He 111H-16 et 3 He 111J-1
  • États-Unis :USAAC &mdash Exemplaires capturés
  • Hongrie : Armée de l'air hongroise (22 exemplaires) &mdash 1 He 111H-2, 12 He 111H-6, 2 He 111P-2 et 7 He 111P-6
  • Roumanie : Armée de l'air roumaine (35 exemplaires)
  • Royaume-Uni : Armée de l'air britannique
  • Slovaquie : Armée de l'air slovaque (10 exemplaires) &mdash He 111H-3
  • Taïwan : Armée de l'air taïwanaise (6 exemplaires) &mdash He 111A-0
  • Tchécoslovaquie : Armée de l'air tchécoslovaque (1 exemplaire) &mdash He 111H-16
  • Turquie : Armée de l'air turque (24 exemplaires)

Versions

  • Heinkel He 111A-0 : Version basée sur le prototype V3, 10 exemplaires. Entre 6 et 10 exemplaires furent vendus à la Chine. Furent du coup désignés He 111K.
  • Heinkel He 111B-0 : Version similaire au He 111A-0, dotée de moteurs DB600A.
  • Heinkel He 111B-1 : Version dotée de moteurs DB600C.
  • Heinkel He 111B-2 : Version dotée de moteurs DB600GG.
  • Heinkel He 111B-3 : He 111B-1 modifiés pour l'entraînement.
  • Heinkel He 111C-0 : Version de présérie d'une version civile, 6 exemplaires. : Version de présérie dotée de moteurs DB600Ga.
  • Heinkel He 111D-1 : Version équipée du radar FuG X, peu d'exemplaires. Apparue en 1937, elle fut annulée au profit de la version E.
  • Heinkel He 111E-0 : Version de présérie équipée du moteur Jumo 211 A-1.
  • Heinkel He 111E-1 : Version de série basée sur le He 111A-0.
  • Heinkel He 111E-2 : Non construite.
  • Heinkel He 111E-3 : Version motorisée par des Jumo 211 A-3.
  • Heinkel He 111E-4 : Version pouvant emporter 1000 kg de bombes en externe.
  • Heinkel He 111E-5 : Version équipée de réservoirs internes supplémentaires.
  • Heinkel He 111F-0 : Version dotée d'une aile plus simple à construire.
  • Heinkel He 111F-1 : 24 exemplaires construits pour la Turquie. Ils furent utilisés de 1937 à 1944.
  • Heinkel He 111F-2 : Différences mineures avec le He 111F-1. 20 exemplaires construits.
  • Heinkel He 111F-3 : Projet de version de reconnaissance.
  • Heinkel He 111F-4 : Version de communications. Peu d'exemplaires.
  • Heinkel He 111F-5 : Ne fut pas construit, car le He 111P, déjà disponible, était supérieur.
  • Heinkel He 111G-0 : Présérie d'une version de transport civil.
  • Heinkel He 111G-3 : Version équipée de moteurs BMW 132Dc, connue aussi sous la désignation V13 (civil). Fut aussi désigné He 111L.
  • Heinkel He 111G-4 : Version équipée de moteurs DB600G, connue aussi sous la désignation V14 (civil).
  • Heinkel He 111G-5 : Version équipée de moteurs DB600Ga.
  • Heinkel He 111H-0 : Première version à utiliser le moteur Jumo 211A-1.
  • Heinkel He 111H-1 : Version de série, dotée de la radio FuG IIIaU puis FuG10.
  • Heinkel He 111H-2 : Armement amélioré.
  • Heinkel He 111H-3 : Version motorisée par des Jumo 211 A-3.
  • Heinkel He 111H-4 : Version motorisée par des Jumo 211D, puis F.
  • Heinkel He 111H-5 : Version torpilleur basée sur le H-4. : Version torpilleur motorisée par des Jumo 211F-1 et emportant des torpilles LT F5b.
  • Heinkel He 111H-7 : Bombardier de nuit, équipé d'un système permettant de sectionner les câbles de ballons nommé Kuto-Nase. : Version dotée de moteurs Jumo 211D-1 et du système Kuto-Nase.
  • Heinkel He 111H-9 : Equivalent du He 111H-6 doté du système Kuto-Nase.
  • Heinkel He 111H-10 : He 111H-9 doté d'un canon MG/FF de 20 mm dans la nacelle ventrale. : Version dotée des moteurs Jumo 211 F-2, avec un blindage et un armement défensif supplémentaire.
  • Heinkel He 111H-12 : Version qui voit sa nacelle ventrale disparaître, mais est dotée du système FuG 203b Kehl et de missiles Hs 293A.
  • Heinkel He 111H-14 : Version éclaireur dotée des systèmes FuG FuMB 4 Samos et FuG 16. La sous-version R1 sert au remorquage de planeurs.
  • Heinkel He 111H-15 : Projet de plate-forme de lancement de missiles Blohm & Voss BV 246. : Version dotée de moteurs Jumo 211 F-2, avec un armement défensif amélioré.
  • Heinkel He 111H-18 : Basée sur le He 111H-16/R3, elle sert d'éclaireur lors de missions de nuit. : Version proche du H-16, avec des tourelles automatiques.
  • Heinkel He 111H-21 : Bombardier de nuit doté de moteurs Jumo 213 E-1.
  • Heinkel He 111H-22 : Version capable de larguer des missiles V-1. H-6, H-16 et H-21 modifiés.
  • Heinkel He 111H-23 : Version de transport de parachutistes dotée de moteurs Jumo 213 A-1.
  • Heinkel He 111J-0 : Version équipée de torpilles et de moteurs DB600CG, présérie.
  • Heinkel He 111J-1 : Version torpilleur, construite à 90 exemplaires. Fut plus tard reconfigurée en bombardier.
  • Heinkel He 111P-0 : Présérie pour une version dotée du moteur DB601Aa, d'un nouveau nez et d'une nouvelle aile.
  • Heinkel He 111P-1 : Version de série, dotée de 3 mitrailleuses MG-15.
  • Heinkel He 111P-2 : Version dotée de la radio FuG 10.
  • Heinkel He 111P-3 : Version d'entraînement à doubles commandes.
  • Heinkel He 111P-4 : Blindage, mitrailleuses et points d'emports supplémentaires, réservoirs de carburant à la place de la soute interne.
  • Heinkel He 111P-5 : Version d'entraînement construite à 24 exemplaires. : Version dotée du moteur DB 601N, qui sera destiné en priorité au Bf 109.
  • Heinkel He 111P-7 : Ne fut jamais construit.
  • Heinkel He 111P-8 : On ne sait s'il a vraiment existé. : Version motorisés par des DB 601E et destinés à la Hongrie.
  • Heinkel He 111R : Projet de version de bombardement à haute altitude.
  • Heinkel He 111Z-1 Zwilling : Version dotée de deux fuselages de He 111 et dotée d'un 5e moteur Jumo 211. Servit à remorquer le planeur Me 321.
  • Heinkel He 111Z-2 : Dérivé du He 111Z-1 destiné au bombardement.
  • Heinkel He 111Z-3 : Dérivé du He 111Z-1 destiné à la reconnaissance.

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Roden 1/72 Heinkel He 111C

Heinkel built two batches for civil usage: first one, called V1 (some sources also quote V4) was the variant He-111c, of which 12 planes were completed. These were equipped with the rather weak BMW VI 6,0 Z engines. Of the second batch, called V4 (or in some sources named He-111G), which was fitted with the DB 601 A-1, only a few units were built.

Some aircraft featuring a Lufthansa painting were used by the Rohwel reconnaissance group in Staaken. These machines were equipped with arrays of cameras and performed – under the pretext of measurement flights – long range recon missions over Soviet Union, England and France.

Another large deviation is also the canopy: photos of the original clearly show the roof of the cabin being sheet metal, and not glazed pane as in the model.

The kit was originally designed by the company Toco, with a sequence of other early He-111 variants. Toko was absorbed by Roden, so this model was sold under the new label. For this reason, the quality and conception of the kit is not what one would expect from Roden.

The two-piece box comes with 3 sprues in soft beige plastic, one (very rough one) in gray plastic, and one last one in with clear parts.

I also didn’t install the washing facility in the rear section of the fuselage, since there’s no window in this part. The seats were equipped with belts made from straps of adhesive tape.

The internal dividing walls in no way fit into the projected positions, and have to be completely re-fitted.

The then assembled fuselage sections have a very poor fit, and have to be treated with plenty of putty. Due to the resulting sanding spree, all the details, making the kit look so great on the first glance – are gone!

During the assembly of the wings, the miserable fit shows even more: fitting of the wheel wells results in gaps up to half-an-inch. Sanding is not enough: heavy tools like a wire cutter and saw were the necessity.

The engine nacelles are separated into many pieces, probably for easy use in kits of later versions. Unfortunately, due to this, the construction is quite cumbersome, which is not actually helped by the missing pins. I pre-assembled the front bits, and then added the trailing end on the nacelle. During assembly the alignment has to be carried out very carefully, since a miss-alignment is not easily spotted, but can spoil the model completely.
The nacelles also require putty and sanding, but at least they didn’t have any details which would disappear after sanding, anyway.

I drilled out the exhaust pipes. The shape of the nacelles in my model didn’t turn out to be satisfactorily close to the original, if looking at the photographs: above the exhausts some more material would be needed. In the end, doing the nacelles proved to be practically free 3D sculpting.

Now it was time for the landing gear: The long, fragile parts were partially replaced by wire. To add some detail, the landing gear was equipped with braking lines.

The model was - as usual – coated with Mr. Surfacer, and finely sanded. Then the panel- lines and rivets were re-done. On the curved surfaces this can be easily done with a micro-saw.

As preparation for the natural metal, I applied the black gloss Alclad coating. Then the first coat of Alclad 2 “Aluminum” was put on. Some panels were accentuated by spraying them with Alclad which was slightly darkened by the black primer. By adding small drops of the primer to the airbrush cup, different shades could be generated, without having to have more types of the rather expensive lacquer on hand.

The kit is equipped with two types of propeller spinners. The early types show the full ones, which probably go along with the BMW engine (so to be seen on the only picture of the D-AQYF available to me). I decided to use these in the end.

As last touches an antenna, pitot tube and scratch built position lights were added.

All in all a lot of work for a relatively plain model. Still, in spite of some deficiencies it shows well the refined elegance of the original, which in my opinion was lost on the much more famous (or notorious) bomber variant.


How Soviet POWs escaped from a German concentration camp on a plane

A blockbuster movie about one of the most daring escapes from a Nazi concentration camp during World War II was released on April 29, 2021. V-2. Escape from Hell by prominent Russian director Timur Bekmambetov (Wanted, Abraham Lincoln: Vampire Hunter, Ben-Hur) tells the incredible story of Mikhail Devyatayev, who managed to escape from German captivity in a hijacked bomber.

Condemned to death

Hero of the Soviet Union Mikhail Devyatayev.

A senior Lieutenant of a guards fighter aviation regiment, Devyatayev was captured by the Germans on July 13, 1944. His fighter plane had been shot down near Lvov in Western Ukraine. On bailing out, the pilot hit a wing panel and it was a miracle that he survived at all.

Mikhail Petrovich refused to cooperate with the Nazis and made an attempt to escape from his POW camp in Poland. His tunnel was discovered, however, and the pilot was condemned to death. He was subsequently transferred to Sachsenhausen concentration camp, where he was to be executed.

However, Devyatayev was saved from imminent execution by the camp&rsquos barber. When the pilot was having his hair cut, one of the prisoners waiting in the corridor lit a cigarette and was immediately beaten to death by guards. Without hesitating for a second, the barber removed the number tag from the dead man and replaced it with Mikhail&rsquos. Thus, the &ldquoDevyatayev&rdquo who had been condemned to death was cremated in the furnace of the camp crematorium, while former teacher Grigory Nikitenko started a new life in Sachsenhausen.

Prisoners of the Sachsenhausen concentration camp.

National Archives at College Park

At the secret test site

Soon &ldquoNikitenko&rdquo was to change his place of captivity once again. He was transferred to a camp on the Island of Usedom in the Baltic Sea. Peenemünde, a secret German test site, was located here. The Third Reich&rsquos &ldquowonder weapons&rdquo were being developed at the site, including the first jet planes, the V-1 cruise missile and the V-2 ballistic rocket.

Devyatayev, who was physically strong, was selected for work on the test site: moving equipment and materials and clearing unexploded bombs dropped by Allied aircraft. A Soviet pilot would never have been allowed anywhere near the airfield and its aircraft, but nobody feared ordinary teacher Nikitenko.

Mikhail Devyatayev decided to make another attempt to escape and found nine other like-minded people among the prisoners working at Peenemünde. They agreed to try to escape by air and singled out a particular aircraft for this purpose - a Heinkel He 111 bomber.

&ldquoWe took the decision some time in early January 1945 and from that moment we referred to the bomber by no other name than &lsquoour Heinkel&rsquo,&rdquo Devyatayev recalled in his memoirs Polyot k solntsu (&lsquoFlight to the Sun&rsquo). &ldquoThe aircraft was in active service for the Germans and they looked after it, but it was already ours, because we didn&rsquot take our eyes off it, we thought about it and talked about it and all our emotions and hopes were fixed on it. In my own imagination, I had already started its engines more than once, taxied down the runway and taken off, soaring above the clouds I had already navigated the flight and landed on home soil in this broad-winged foreign aircraft with its long bulbous-bellied fuselage, which I hadn&rsquot even come close to yet.&rdquo

The escape

Devyatayev was the sole member of the entire group who had any experience in flying. He took every opportunity to get close to the plane and, if he was lucky, to go inside and glance at its instrument panel.

On February 8, 1945, during lunchtime at the test site, 10 prisoners stole up to the Heinkel and, having killed the guard, started preparing the plane for take-off. The entire plan almost fell through when it turned out that the aircraft&rsquos electrical battery was missing but it was quickly found and brought on board.

&ldquoNo-one at the airfield paid any attention to the roar of our plane. I could easily picture how the technicians and pilots were reacting. They were happily eating&hellip And that is why I was not afraid of opening up the throttle and trying out the engine at different revs. I felt confident and even relaxed. No-one would now stop us from accelerating for take-off and getting into the air,&rdquo is how Devyatayev remembered that day. &ldquoO foreign plane, foreign sky and foreign land - do not betray us, who have undergone starvation and suffering and want to exercise our right to escape death. If you oblige us, we will remember you often as long as we live and have kind words to say about you. We have our whole lives ahead of us - today we are born again.&rdquo

The first attempt to get into the air ended in complete failure. The plane reached the end of the runway without managing to get off the ground, and stopped almost at the edge of a sheer drop. Turning the plane round, Devyatayev made a second attempt, steering the bomber in the opposite direction straight through an assembled throng of astonished German soldiers. &ldquoThey hadn&rsquot expected the Heinkel to head straight for them. What is more, it was one of the prisoners who was piloting the plane and he was about to run them over! They scattered in all directions&hellip I needed to take off before the anti-aircraft guns were ready to open fire&hellip Before the soldiers had reported what they had seen&hellip Before the order was given to scramble the fighter planes&hellip Before it was too late.&rdquo

When Devyatayev finally managed to get the plane in the air, a warning siren blared out at the test range. The anti-aircraft guns were being readied to fire and the fighters were scrambling to take off, having received the order to shoot down the lone Heinkel. But it wasn&rsquot at all clear in what direction they should give pursuit - the plane seized by the Russians was hidden in the clouds.

Only one Focke-Wulf reached the bomber. But it could not shoot it down - the fighter simply had no ammunition, having returned from a mission not long before the incident.

The return home

After studying the charts he found on board, Mikhail Devyatayev decided to steer the plane over the sea in the direction of Leningrad. When he was already over Soviet territory, another Focke-Wulf approached the bomber - its pilot could not understand why the Heinkel was heading for enemy positions at low altitude, with its landing gear lowered.

National Museum of the U.S. Air Force

The fighter plane was chased away by Soviet anti-aircraft guns, but the guns hit the fugitive aircraft. Although he was under heavy fire, Devyatayev managed to land the plane, which was soon surrounded by Soviet infantry.

Mikhail and two other officers involved in the incredible escape had to spend some time in a screening camp while their ranks were verified. The remaining prisoners of the Usedom camp who had miraculously regained their freedom returned to the front, where almost all of them perished in battle shortly afterwards.

Devyatayev indicated the coordinates of the rocket launchers located on the island with an accuracy to within a dozen meters, and a blistering air strike was immediately mounted against them. In addition, it transpired that the Heinkel he had taken was crammed with secret communications equipment and instruments for the control and monitoring of V-rocket launches.

Hero of the Soviet Union Mikhail Devyatayev.

After the war, Devyatayev spent some time assisting the father of Soviet cosmonautics, the designer Sergei Korolev, in his research into German cruise and ballistic missiles, thus doing his bit for the Soviet Union&rsquos development of advanced missile weapons systems. In 1957, at the scientist&rsquos initiative, Mikhail Petrovich Devyatayev was awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union.

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File:A hangar full of wrecked German aircraft at Schmarbeck airfield, Germany, 20 April 1945. In the foreground are Heinkel He 111 and He 177 bombers. BU4123.jpg

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Heinkel bombs nose-up?

Post by Marsprojekt48 » 22 Jan 2013, 17:23

Re: Heinkel bombs nose-up?

Post by Orwell1984 » 22 Jan 2013, 19:45

Re: Heinkel bombs nose-up?

Post by phylo_roadking » 22 Jan 2013, 20:03

..remembering too that the He 111 had a one-piece wingspar. so the bombs had to drop through it.

. and the "gap" had to be suitably braced!

Re: Heinkel bombs nose-up?

Post by phylo_roadking » 22 Jan 2013, 20:11

A better view of an "original" installation - from the fuselage.

. the second of which allows you to see the modular sub-cells that could be fitted for smaller ordnance.

It was a "best fit" (sic!) solution - when as well as having to drop through the wingspar. the internal weight had to be carried BETWEEN the fuselage's two main bulkheads! See them nestling between the cockpit rear bulkhead, and the second bulkhead?

Re: Heinkel bombs nose-up?

Post by phylo_roadking » 22 Jan 2013, 20:28

As noted above - this "solution" was modular.

. and in its later career as a transport, these could be stripped out and the gap decked over. They were also the same racks as used in the early bomber-transport version of the Ju-52. a low-wing monplane that had the SAME problem - I.E. the bombs had to drop through the wingspar!

Re: Heinkel bombs nose-up?

Post by Marsprojekt48 » 23 Jan 2013, 17:05

Re: Heinkel bombs nose-up?

Post by Pips » 24 Jan 2013, 00:26

Re: Heinkel bombs nose-up?

Post by phylo_roadking » 24 Jan 2013, 17:04

The Ju 52 was in now way suitable for the accomodation and horizontal carriage of even small (5- kg) bombs, since the distance between the wing centre crossmembers, which traversed the fuselage at a distance apart of about 800mmm, was so small that with the best will in the world even small bombs could not be released horizontally. Horizontal release, however, was regarded as vital for the accurate aiming of bombs. In this repsect the negative judgement of the Heereswaffenamt was quite understandable on the other hand, we at Junkers had never for one minute considered the possibility of using the Ju 52 for military purposes. When, after the war, East German newspapers stated that the Ju 52 was from the outset intended as a "terror bomber" this was an unfounded and nonsensical invention.

Since the Luftwaffe wanted to start series production of bombers at an early date but had no other suitable model at its disposal, a vertical release mechanism, and consequently the vertical release of bombs, was chosen as a way out this solution resulted in impaired aiming accuracy. As a result, Heereswaffenamt, and Reichsluftfahrtministerium concentrated on the speedy development and testing of vertical bomb racks, which were able to hold either one 250 kg bomb or four 50 kg bombs. Two vertical bomb racks fitted exactly between two main crossmembers and the bombs could be released so as to fall between the gaps. between the three main supports a maximum of eight bomb racks for eight bombs of 250 kg or 32 bombs of 50 kg could be fitted.


Watch the video: Немецкий бомбардировщик Не-111