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26 July 1945
Potsdam Declaration - USA, Britain and China demand unconditional surrender of Japan
The Labour Party wins the British elections
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July 27th 1864 was on a Wednesday and was in week 30 of 1864.
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May 29th, 1945 is a Tuesday. It is the 149th day of the year, and in the 22nd week of the year (assuming each week starts on a Monday), or the 2nd quarter of the year. There are 31 days in this month. 1945 is not a leap year, so there are 365 days in this year. The short form for this date used in the United States is 5/29/1945, and almost everywhere else in the world it's 29/5/1945.
This site provides an online date calculator to help you find the difference in the number of days between any two calendar dates. Simply enter the start and end date to calculate the duration of any event. You can also use this tool to determine how many days have passed since your birthday, or measure the amount of time until your baby's due date. The calculations use the Gregorian calendar, which was created in 1582 and later adopted in 1752 by Britain and the eastern part of what is now the United States. For best results, use dates after 1752 or verify any data if you are doing genealogy research. Historical calendars have many variations, including the ancient Roman calendar and the Julian calendar. Leap years are used to match the calendar year with the astronomical year. If you're trying to figure out the date that occurs in X days from today, switch to the Days From Now calculator instead.
July 26, 1945
Dame Helen Lydia Mirren, DBE is an English actor. Mirren began her acting career with the Royal Shakespeare Company in 1967, and is one of the few performers who have achieved the Triple Crown of Acting.
Helen Mirren – Actress – Associated Links:
- Helen Mirren | Official Site: http://www.helenmirren.com
- Helen Mirren | Biography: https://www.biography.com/people/helen-mirren-547434
- Helen Mirren | Britannica: https://www.britannica.com/biography/Helen-Mirren
- Helen Mirren | Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/helenmirren/?hl=en
- Helen Mirren | IMDb: http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0000545/
- Helen Mirren | Teaches Acting | Masterclass: https://www.masterclass.com/classes/helen-mirren-teaches-acting
- “I have experienced insecurity all my life” | The Telegraph: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/women/life/helen-mirren-not-bad-looking-not-beautiful/
- Tulane University: Read Dame Helen Mirren’s Remarks | TIME: http://time.com/4787502/helen-mirren-speech-tulane-university-commencement-graduation-2017/
Disclaimer: This content was prepared by the author in her personal capacity. The views and opinions expressed in this article are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the official policy, opinion, or position of their employer.
Today in World War II History—July 26, 1940 & 1945
80 Years Ago—July 26, 1940: The League of Nations is disbanded.
Due to continuing Japanese pressure on French Indochina, President Roosevelt invokes the Export Control Act to ban export to Japan of aviation fuel and premium grade iron and steel scrap, and places an embargo on export of petroleum products.
Movie premiere of Pride and Prejudice, starring Lawrence Olivier and Greer Garson.
75 Years Ago—July 26, 1945: In the Potsdam Declaration, the Allies give Japan an ultimatum requiring unconditional surrender.
Heavy cruiser USS Indianapolis delivers “Little Boy” atomic bomb to Tinian.
British parliamentary election results are announced with a Labour Party victory Prime Minister Winston Churchill resigns, replaced by Clement Attlee.
Historic Earthquakes of California
Listed below are the major historic earthquakes with a magnitude of 6 or greater that have hit California prior to the year 2000. The top ten earthquakes of California are highlighted in dark yellow, and their ranking given in blue. Some honorable mentions are highlighted in light yellow.
|DATE||MAGNITUDE & |
|July 28, 1769||6.0||Los Angeles Basin|
|Nov 22, 1800||6.5||*** San Diego region ***|
|June 24, 1808||6.0||San Francisco region|
|Dec 8, 1812||7.0 (10)||San Juan Capistrano (Wrightwood)|
|Dec 21, 1812||7.1||Santa Barbara Channel (Lompoc)|
|Sept 24, 1827||5.5||Los Angeles region|
|June 10, 1836||6.75||Hayward Valley|
|June 1838||7.0||San Francisco Peninsula|
|July 11, 1855||6.0||Los Angeles region|
|Feb 15, 1856||5.5||San Francisco Peninsula|
|Jan 9, 1857||8.25 (1)||Great Fort Tejon Earthquake|
|Sept 3, 1857||6.25||West Nevada or East Sierra Nevada|
|Nov 26, 1858||6.25||San Jose region|
|Dec 16, 1858||6.0||San Bernardino region|
|May 27, 1862||6.0||*** San Diego region ***|
|Feb 26, 1864||6.0||South Santa Cruz Mountains|
|March 5, 1864||5.75||East of San Francisco Bay|
|Oct 8, 1865||6.5||South Santa Cruz Mountains|
|July 15, 1866||6.0||West San Joaquin Valley|
|Oct 21, 1868||7.0||Hayward fault|
|Feb 17, 1870||6.0||Los Gatos|
|March 2, 1871||6.0||Cape Mendocino|
|March 26, 1872||7.6||Owens Valley|
|March 26, 1872||7.6 (4)||Owens Valley|
|April 3, 1872||6.25||Owens Valley|
|April 11, 1872||6.75||Owens Valley|
|May 3, 1872||5.75||Imperial Valley|
|Nov 23, 1873||6.75||Crescent City|
|Jan 24, 1875||6.0||Honey Lake|
|Nov 15, 1875||6.25||Imperial Vly to Colorado River delta|
|Feb 2, 1881||5.75||Parkfield|
|April 10, 1881||6.0||West San Joaquin Valley|
|March 6, 1882||5.75||Hollister|
|Sept 5, 1883||6.25||Santa Barbara Channel|
|Jan 28, 1884||5.75||Klamath Mountains|
|March 26, 1884||6.0||Santa Cruz Mountains|
|Jan 31, 1885||5.75||Susanville|
|April 12, 1885||6.25||South Diablo Range|
|April 29, 1888||6.0||Mohawk Valley|
|May 19, 1889||6.25||Antioch|
|June 20, 1889||6.0||Susanville|
|Sept 30, 1889||5.75||Bishop region|
|Feb 9, 1890||6.5||San Jacinto or Elsinore fault region|
|April 24, 1890||6.25||Pajaro Gap|
|July 26, 1890||6.25||Cape Mendocino|
|July 30, 1891||6.0||Colorado River delta region|
|April 19, 1892||6.5||Vacaville|
|April 21, 1892||6.25||Winters|
|May 28, 1892||6.5||San Jacinto or Elsinore fault region|
|Nov 13, 1892||5.75||Hollister|
|May 19, 1893||5.75||Pico Canyon|
|July 30, 1894||6.0||Lytle Creek region|
|Sept 30, 1894||6.0||Cape Mendocino region|
|Oct 23, 1894||5.75||*** East of San Diego ***|
|Aug 17, 1896||6.0||SE Sierra Nevada|
|June 20, 1897||6.25||Gilroy|
|March 31, 1898||6.5||Mare Island|
|April 15, 1898||6.5||Mendocino|
|April 16, 1899||7.0||West of Eureka|
|July 6, 1899||5.75||Morgan Hill|
|July 22, 1899||5.75||Lytle Creek region|
|Dec 25, 1899||6.6||San Jacinto and Hemet|
|March 3, 1901||6.4||Parkfield|
|Jan 24, 1903||6.6||Colorado River delta region|
|June 11, 1903||5.5||San Jose|
|Aug 3, 1903||5.5||San Jose|
|April 18, 1906||8.25 (2)||Great San Francisco Earthquake|
|April 19, 1906||6.2||Imperial Valley|
|April 23, 1906||6.4||Arcata|
|Sept 20, 1907||5.3||San Bernardino region|
|Nov 4, 1908||6.0||Death Valley region|
|Oct 29, 1909||5.8||Cape Mendocino|
|March 11, 1910||5.8||Watsonville|
|March 19, 1910||6.0||West of Cape Mendocino|
|May 15, 1910||5.5||Glen Ivy Hot Springs|
|Aug 5, 1910||6.6||West of Crescent City|
|July 1, 1911||6.5||Calaveras fault|
|Feb 18, 1914||5.5||Truckee region|
|April 24, 1914||6.0||Truckee region|
|May 6, 1915||6.2||West of Cape Mendocino|
|June 23, 1915||6.0||Imperial Valley|
|June 23, 1915||5.9||Imperial Valley|
|Dec 31, 1915||6.5||West of Eureka|
|Oct 23, 1916||5.3||Tejon Pass region|
|Nov 10, 1916||6.1||South of Death Valley|
|April 21, 1918||6.6||San Jacinto|
|July 15, 1918||6.5||West of Eureka|
|Jan 26, 1922||6.0||West of Eureka|
|Jan 31, 1922||7.3||West of Eureka|
|Jan 22, 1923||7.2||Cape Mendocino|
|July 23, 1923||6.0||San Bernardino region|
|June 4, 1925||6.0||West of Eureka|
|June 29, 1925||6.3||Santa Barbara|
|Oct 22, 1926||6.1||Monterey Bay|
|Oct 22, 1926||6.1||Monterey Bay|
|Dec 10, 1926||6.0||West of Cape Mendocino|
|Sept 18, 1927||6.0||Bishop region|
|Nov 4, 1927||7.3||SW of Lompoc|
|June 6, 1932||6.4||Eureka|
|March 11, 1933||6.4||Long Beach|
|June 8, 1934||6.0||Parkfield|
|July 6, 1934||6.5||West of Eureka|
|Dec 31, 1934||7.0||Colorado River delta|
|Feb 24, 1935||5.3||Colorado River delta|
|June 3, 1936||5.9||West of Cape Mendocino|
|March 25, 1937||6.0||Buck Ridge|
|Feb 8, 1940||6.0||Chico|
|May 19, 1940||7.1 (7)||Imperial Valley|
|Dec 7, 1940||5.5||Colorado River delta|
|Feb 9, 1941||6.6||West of Cape Mendocino|
|April 9, 1941||5.3||Gulf of California|
|May 13, 1941||6.0||West of Cape Mendocino|
|July 1, 1941||5.9||Carpenteria|
|Sept 14, 1941||6.0||Tom's Place|
|Sept 14, 1941||5.8||Tom's Place|
|Oct 3, 1941||6.4||West of Cape Mendocino|
|Oct 21, 1942||6.6||Fish Creek Mountains|
|May 19, 1945||6.2||West of Cape Mendocino|
|Sept 28, 1945||6.0||West of Crescent City|
|March 15, 1946||6.3||Walker Pass (Kern County)|
|April 10, 1947||6.5||Manix (San Bernadino County)|
|Dec 4, 1948||6.5||Desert Hot Springs (Riverside County)|
|March 25, 1949||6.2||West of Eureka|
|May 2, 1949||5.9||Pinto Mountain|
|Oct 8, 1951||6.0||West Of Cape Mendocino|
|Dec 26, 1951||5.9||San Clemente Island|
|July 21, 1952||7.7 (3)||Bakersfield (Kern County) Earthquake|
|July 21, 1952||6.4 (aftershock)||Bakersfield (Kern County)|
|July 23, 1952||6.1 (aftershock)||Bakersfield (Kern County)|
|July 29, 1952||6.1 (aftershock)||Bakersfield (Kern County)|
|Aug 22, 1952||5.8 (aftershock)||Bakersfield (Kern County)|
|Nov 22, 1952||6.0||Bryson|
|Jan 12, 1954||5.9||West of Wheeler Ridge|
|March 19, 1954||6.2||Arroyo Salada|
|Nov 25, 1954||6.5||West of Cape Mendocino|
|Dec 21, 1954||6.6||East of Arcata|
|Oct 11, 1956||6.0||West of Cape Mendocino|
|Dec 13, 1956||6.0||West shore, Gulf of California|
|Aug 9, 1960||6.2||West of Cape Mendocino|
|June 28, 1966||6.0||Parkfield|
|Aug 7, 1966||6.3||Gulf of California|
|Sept 12, 1966||6.0||Truckee|
|April 9, 1968||6.5||Borrego Mountain|
|Feb 9, 1971||6.6||San Fernando|
|Feb 21, 1973||5.2||Point Mugu|
|Nov 26, 1976||6.3||West of Orick|
|Aug 6, 1979||5.7||Coyote Lake|
|Oct 15, 1979||6.4||Imperial Valley|
|Jan 24, 1980||5.8||Livermore|
|May 25, 1980||6.1||Mammoth Lakes|
|May 25, 1980||5.9||Mammoth Lakes|
|May 25, 1980||5.8||Mammoth Lakes|
|May 27, 1980||6.0||Mammoth Lakes|
|Nov 8, 1980||7.2||West of Eureka|
|April 26, 1981||6.0||Westmorland|
|Sept 4, 1981||5.9||North of Santa Barbara Island|
|Sept 30, 1981||5.8||Mammoth Lakes|
|May 2, 1983||6.5||Coalinga Earthquake|
|July 22, 1983||5.7||Coalinga (aftershock)|
|April 24, 1984||6.1||Morgan Hill|
|Sept 10, 1984||6.7||Mendocino Fracture Zone|
|Nov 23, 1984||5.7||Round Valley|
|Aug 4, 1985||5.9||North Kettleman Hills|
|July 8, 1986||6.0||North Palm Springs|
|July 20, 1986||5.6||Chalfant Valley|
|July 21, 1986||6.2||Chalfant Valley|
|July 31, 1986||5.2||Chalfant Valley|
|Oct 1, 1987||5.8||Whittier Narrows|
|Nov 24, 1987||6.2||Elmore Ranch fault|
|Nov 24, 1987||6.6||Superstition Hills|
|Oct 17, 1989||7.1 (8)||Loma Prieta|
|Aug 16, 1991||6.3||West of Crescent City|
|Aug 17, 1991||7.1||West of Crescent City|
|April 23, 1992||6.1||Joshua Tree|
|April 25, 1992||7.2 (6)||Cape Mendocino|
|April 26, 1992||6.5 (aftershock)||Cape Mendocino|
|April 26, 1992||6.6 (aftershock)||Cape Mendocino|
|June 28, 1992||7.3 (5)||Landers|
|June 28, 1992||6.2||Big Bear|
|May 17, 1993||6.1||Big Pine|
|Jan 17, 1994||6.7||Northridge|
|Sept 1, 1994||6.9||Mendocino Fracture Zone|
|Feb 19, 1995||6.6||West of Eureka|
|Sept 20, 1995||5.5||Ridgecrest|
|July 24, 1996||5.7||West of Eureka|
|Oct 16, 1999||7.1 (9)||Hector Mine|
|Sept. 3, 2000||5.0||North San Francisco Bay|
|Dec. 22, 2003||6.6||Central Coast|
|Oct. 30, 2007||5.6||South San Francisco Bay|
|July 29, 2008||5.5||Greater Los Angeles Area|
|Jan. 9, 2010||6.5||Cape Mendocino|
|April 4, 2010||7.2||Baja California|
|Aug. 24, 2014||6.0||South Napa County Earthquake|
The above table from 1769 to 2004 is based on "California Earthquake History 1769-present", which is a list put together by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). Updates on recent earthquakes from 2005 to the present are based on entries in Wikipedia. The magnitudes that the USGS gives for earthquakes after 1898 are similar to the famous Richter scale, in which the magnitude, more or less, represents the energy of the earthquake . This value is calculated from the distance that the needle on a seismograph moves during an earthquake. Thus, it depends on the amplitude of the surface wave associated with the quake. Because seismographs were not available prior to 1898, the magnitudes of earthquakes prior to then must be estimated from the intensity of damage associated with the quake as reported by witnesses to the event. The links below give more information.
Listed below are the top ten earthquakes to have hit California in historic times. Again the sizes of earlier quakes are estimates, and they will differ depending on which authority is being consulted. For example, some scientists believe that the 1857 Tejon earthquake was the largest to hit California in historic times, and other experts rank the San Francisco Earthquake of 1906 as the larger of the two.
HMS Sussex bears the imprint of a Kamikaze attack ( Mitsubishi Ki-51), WWII, July 26, 1945 [1020x728]
Damn that picture is nuts. it almost looks fake, like the plane was covered in Mud/Grease and then bumped into the side of the boat..
Not saying it is fake, by any means - just a cool picture.
Cool is not the first word id think of. Tragic might come to mind.
It's like the imprint a bird leaves on a window when it flies into it.
I wouldn't even paint over it just leave the imprint there as a record of the kill.
The plane never breached the hull of the ship. It hit the side of the cruisers armor and just designated. And that was that. Ship kept sailing like nothing had happened.
That is such an interesting picture, yet I can't wrap my head around it! I know that's got to be some THICK armor, but I just can't believe a plan traveling at (I assume) full velocity wouldn't penetrate the hull. Well. actually I do believe it now!
The Empire State Plane Crash, July 28, 1945
A dense fog crept across the slate gray New York City sky on Saturday July 28, 1945. The war in Europe was largely over, V-E Day had been declared about seven weeks earlier, and the fall of Japan was near. The city was going about its business shortly before 10 a.m., when a US Army bomber plane carrying a pilot and two other men from Bedford, Massachusetts to LaGuardia Airport made a wrong turn and slammed into the north side of the Empire State Building about 935 feet above the street.
The building topped 1,200 feet, so the plane, which was going more than 200 miles per hour, rammed through the 78th and 79th floors with tremendous force, sending an elevator plummeting 75 floors and triggering three separate heavy fires.
Empire State Building Disaster: Interior, 12:40 pm 79th Floor, showing hole in wall where plane crashed, July 28, 1945. Mayor LaGuardia Collection, NYC Municipal Archives.
The pilot and the two other men in the plane—including a Navy machinist from Brooklyn—were killed instantly and 11 people in the building or on the ground died. The crash triggered a brief panic, launched several investigations and drew both praise and condemnation of the City’s feisty Mayor, Fiorello La Guardia.
Telegrams, letters, secret communications between the City and Washington, and a detailed and heavily-illustrated Fire Department report in the Municipal Library and Archives recount the events of that dark day.
At approximately 9:50 a.m., the pilot of the doomed B-25 Mitchell Aircraft, William F. Smith Jr., radioed the La Guardia Tower saying the plane was about 15 miles south of LaGuardia and asked about the weather at nearby Newark Airport. Following procedure, the LaGuardia Tower told the pilot to call Newark for the local weather.
“Within two minutes, this plane showed up directly southeast of LaGuardia and (LaGuardia Tower chief Operator Victor) Barden believing it intended to land, gave it runway, wind direction and velocity,” the memo read. “The pilot stated he wanted to go to Newark.”
Empire State Building Disaster: Interior, 79th Fl. 12:55 pm, July 28, 1945. Hole in south wall where plane crashed into elevators. Mayor LaGuardia Collection, NYC Municipal Archives.
Airways Traffic Control radioed that the weather at Newark was 600 feet ceiling and said the plane should land at LaGuardia. Since it was a bomber, the tower contacted Army Advisory, which said visibility was a little better than that and the tower asked the pilot what he wanted to do.
Smith, a West Point graduate who had completed 42 missions in Europe during the war, made the fateful decision to proceed to Newark. The tower then cleared him to land at Newark, but noted they were “unable to see the top of the Empire State Building” and warned the pilot that if he did not have three miles of forward visibility, he should return to LaGuardia.
But visibility was near zero and the pilot apparently became disoriented, turned the wrong way after skirting the Chrysler Building on 42nd Street and almost immediately slammed into the north side of the Empire State Building. The first fire alarm was pulled at 9:52 a.m. and Mayor LaGuardia quickly rushed to the scene amid arriving fire trucks, ambulances and police cars.
Empire State Building Disaster: Interior, W side of 79th Fl, facing E 12:30 pm, July 28, 1945. Firemen walking through rubble in rear. Mayor LaGuardia Collection, NYC Municipal Archives.
An extensive Fire Department report issued by Commissioner Patrick Walsh on August 21, 1945, picks up the story, reporting that the plane hit between the 78th and 79th floors with such tremendous force that it made an 18-by-20-foot hole in what was then the tallest building in the world. One engine flew through the south side of the building and landed a block away atop the roof of a factory on West 33rd St. The other engine plummeted down an elevator shaft and triggered a fire that lasted more than 40 minutes.
“The wreckage of a giant aircraft that had carried a large supply of gasoline and tanks of oxygen giving added furor to the blasting fire … scattered death and flames over a wide area,” Walsh wrote. “Elevator service to the scene of the fire, some 935 feet above the street, had been disrupted. Parts of a hurtling motor and other sections of the plane that passed entirely through the structure had brought fire to the roof and top floor of a thirteen-story building across the street from the scene of the original tragedy. A third fire had developed in the basement and sub-basement of the Empire Building itself.”
Empire State Building Disaster: Interior, S corner, 79th Fl., facing N 12:05 pm, July 28, 1945. Mayor LaGuardia Collection, NYC Municipal Archives.
Walsh wrote that the fires were brought under control in 19 minutes and were extinguished within 40 minutes. But, he added, “life hazard was very severe. Persons had been trapped on the 78th and many more on the 79th floor. Persons on the 80th and other floors were exposed to considerable smoke and heat. There was a dangerous possibility of panic among the people in the building.”
Empire State Building Disaster: Basement, 2:40 pm, looking NW, July 28, 1945. Elevator pit, parts of plane. Mayor LaGuardia Collection, NYC Municipal Archives.
In a letter accompanying his report, Walsh praised the Mayor for getting to the scene quickly and making sure that accurate information got out to the public to prevent widespread panic. “Your presence at the scene with its attendant acceptance of the risks and rigors of the situation was very impressive and gave testimony to the cooperation that this department has received from you during past years.”
Miraculously, elevator operator Betty Lou Oliver survived the 75-story elevator shaft plunge, in what the Guinness Book of Records would later proclaim “The Longest Fall Survived in an Elevator.” Soon after the horrific accident, as firefighters were still rushing up to the 77th floor to fight the blaze, Army Lt. General Ira Eaker, Deputy Commander of the Army Air Forces, fired off a hand-delivered note to Mayor LaGuardia “to express the concern of the Army Air Forces for the unfortunate accident which occurred at the Empire State Building this morning.”
He vowed to cooperate with city and federal agencies “to ensure a complete and thorough investigation of the circumstances … It is our keenest desire that everything humanly possible be done for those who have suffered in this unfortunate and regrettable accident and we shall leave nothing undone which lies in our power to that end.”
Empire State Building Disaster: Interior, S corner, 79th Fl. Offices charred bodies on desk in background. 11:50 am, July 28, 1945. Mayor LaGuardia Collection, NYC Municipal Archives.
The next day’s papers—from coast-to-coast—blared the story across their front pages. The New York Daily News story began: “A fog-blind B-25 Mitchell bomber, groping its way southward across Manhattan to Newark Airport crashed into the 79th-floor of the 1,250-foot Empire State Building … turning the world’s tallest building into a torch in the sky high above 34th St. and Fifth Avenue.” That morning the Mayor took to the airwaves with his Talk to the People program, offered condolences to the families of all the victims and read Lt. Gen. Eaker’s letter aloud. (LT2545)
The Archives holds a July 31 story in the Daily Mirror that lent an eerie quality to the story. It started: “The charred remains of the dead … in the Empire State Building tragedy were identified yesterday while souvenir seekers and looters had a ghoulish field day among the debris.” The story said looters invaded the 79th floor offices of the National Catholic Welfare Conference and stole charred stationary and $400 in cash. The thief dropped a bag holding $8,000 in Travelers Checks when police spotted him and gave chase. The owner of the Hicckock Belt Company told cops someone stole $300 worth of belts, suspenders and wallets.
Empire State Building Disaster: 34th Street, showing parts of plane on N side of street 1:20 pm, July 28, 1945. Mayor LaGuardia Collection, NYC Municipal Archives.
Despite the damage, much of the building was open for business on the Monday two days after the accident. The crash also led to creation of the Federal Tort Claims Act and brought calls from military and aviation experts for better training and safety rules. Brigadier General Robert Travis blamed a rash of accidents on a “lack of knowledge of equipment, lack of discipline and plain bullheadedness.”
Mayor LaGuardia added to the furor over the accident when he told the Herald Tribune he thought the pilot was flying too low, given the number of skyscrapers in Midtown. In response to one critical letter to the mayor, Goodhue Livingston Jr., LaGuardia’s executive secretary, noted that if the pilot “had maintained the proper altitude when flying over Manhattan the accident would not have occurred. Unfortunately, some of our Army Pilots who have been coming into our municipal fields during this war emergency period have on occasion have [sic] not maintained the proper safe altitude.”
The Empire State Building as it was in 1940, with a much shorter midtown. Department of Finance Tax Photo Collection.
An August 13 letter from H.H. Arnold, Commanding General of the Army Air Forces, backed up LaGuardia. Arnold said there was no evidence the plane had malfunctioned, and he clearly pinned the blame on the pilot.
“It appears that the pilot used poor judgment,” Arnold wrote, adding that Smith did not maintain the altitude and did not have the minimum visibility to go to Newark. “He had been warned by the LaGuardia Tower that the top of the Empire State Building could not be seen. Therefore, it may be assumed that he was mistaken in his establishment of his position with respect to the Lower Manhattan area.” Arnold said the military had taken measures to avoid a similar accident in the future by better communication between the military and air traffic control and by establishing local traffic routes for Army aircraft in the metropolitan area.
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Kenneth Claiborne Royall, who became secretary of the Army in 1947, was forced to retire for refusing to desegregate Army units until nearly a year after Truman’s order to do so. The last all-black unit in the military was abolished in September 1954, well after Dwight D. Eisenhower, Bradley’s boss as supreme allied commander in Europe, had succeeded Truman as president.
Eisenhower had told the Senate Armed Services Committee in 1948 that segregation was necessary to preserve the Army’s internal stability. Prejudice was a condition of American society, Eisenhower opined, and the Army “is merely one of the mirrors that holds up to our faces the United States of America.” Since society separated the races, he held, it followed that if the Army allowed black and white soldiers to live and socialize together it ran the risk of racial disturbances which could disrupt its vital functions.
Eisenhower added: “I believe that the human race may finally grow up to the point where it [race relations] will not be a problem. [It] will disappear through education, through mutual respect, and so on. But I do believe that if we attempt merely by passing a lot of laws to force someone to like someone else, we are just going to get into trouble.”
Precisely 15 years after Truman signed the order, on July 26, 1963, Defense Secretary Robert McNamara instructed military commanders to boycott private facilities used by soldiers or their families that discriminated against blacks.
26 July 1945 - History
Thanks to Bill Keen for providing us with an invaluable bit of history from July 26, 1969. Bill sent me the following sheet of patrol assignments that includes names, rate and rank with the boat numbers for each crew and the crew that they ran with that day. There were submitted by LT(jg) A.V. Bartlett USNR of River Division 513.
Below are a few photos that I took today (March 4, 2003) of Bill and his work. What amazes me about Bill is that he works in so many different mediums (wood, stainless steel, bronze, steel to name a few) but that he is self taught and does everything right there in his workshop. He even built his own band sawmill. Bill is really a self reliant guy and depends on no one.
I am also including a link to Bill's photos on flickr.com so you can see his photos there. The link is:
Bill today Bill then Some of Bill's sculptures Some of Bill's wood work and his shop