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(SP-2079: t. 62; 1. 85'; b. 20'; dr. 5'6''; s. 9 k.; cpl. 3)
Shady Side, a coastal freight and passenger ship built in 1913 at Croton-on Hudson, N.Y., was purchased for the United States Navy on 19 February 1918, given the number SP-2079, and assigned to ferry service between the United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, Md., and the Experimental Engineering Station across the Severn River. Designated YFB-2079 on 17 July 1920, she continued that duty into 1925. On 15 March 1925, she was damaged in a storm, developed leaks, and sank early the following morning, Raised on the 17th, she was declared unfit for further service, and her name was struck from the Navy list on 9 May. She was sold on 24 September to William Mattson of Baltimore, Md.
The Shady Side Of Meghan Markle
Former Suits star Meghan Markle became Prince Harry's fiancée when the royal popped the question in November 2017, causing both American and British citizens to rejoice. Her mixed-race background, previous marriage, and, of course, status as an American citizen all drew extra attention to the groundbreaking engagement. And when the two married in a gorgeous ceremony at Windsor Castle on May 19, 2018, the public's interest in their relationship — and Markle, specifically — grew.
But there have been a few things behind the scenes that have made us raise our eyebrows. Here's a look at the shady side of the Duchess of Sussex, Meghan Markle.
Shady Side Academy has four campuses in Pittsburgh with almost 200 acres, predominantly in heavily wooded Fox Chapel. Shady Side Academy operates twenty-six campus buildings with a total estimated facilities value of $56.2 million. 
- Senior School: (Grades 9-12) 423 Fox Chapel Road, Pittsburgh, PA 15238 Phone: 412-968-3000 40°31′21″N 79°52′58″W / 40.5225°N 79.88278°W / 40.5225 -79.88278Coordinates:
- 40°31′21″N 79°52′58″W / 40.5225°N 79.88278°W / 40.5225 -79.88278
- Middle School: (Grades 6–8)  100 Benedum Lane, Pittsburgh, PA 15238 Phone: 412-968-3100
- 40°31′49″N 79°52′53″W / 40.53028°N 79.88139°W / 40.53028 -79.88139
- Junior School: (Grades Pre-K to 5) 400 S. Braddock Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15221 Phone: 412-473-4400
- 40°26′38″N 79°53′49″W / 40.444000°N 79.896988°W / 40.444000 -79.896988
- Country Day School: (Grades Pre-K to 5) 400 Christ Church Lane, Pittsburgh, PA 15238 Phone: 412-963-1277
Shady Side Academy was founded as an all-male day school in 1883, on Aiken Avenue in the East End neighborhood of Shadyside, Pittsburgh. In 1922, the Senior School was established on its current suburban campus in Fox Chapel. This move also resulted in Shady Side becoming a boarding school, first with a traditional seven-day program and, later, with the school's weekday program.
A later merger in the early 1940s with another local boys' private school, The Arnold School, resulted in the creation of another new campus: a Junior School, located in Pittsburgh's Point Breeze and serving Pre-kindergarten through fifth grade students.
In the 1950s, the Academy purchased an estate less than a mile from the Senior School campus, creating a middle school for grades six through eight.
In 1973, the Senior School embraced the concept of co-education and began admitting female students (popularly referred to, particularly in newspapers, as "The Shady Ladies") for the first time. The Junior and Middle Schools followed suit in the 1990s, with the first K-12 "Lifer" female students graduating in 2007. The last all-male class at the Academy was the Middle School Form II (eighth grade) class of 1998, which became co-educated upon entering the Senior School in 1999. It was also the last class at the Middle School to follow a tie and jacket dress code.
Opening in the fall of 2007, Shady Side added a pre-kindergarten located on the Junior School campus. The total enrollment across all grades fluctuates but is generally about 1000 students, with about 500 of them enrolled in the Senior School (grades 9-12 or "Forms" III-VI).
In recent years, the school has worked to implement "green," or environmentally friendly, changes to its campuses. The 2006 renovation of Rowe Hall, the main academic building, uses several "green" concepts. The $6.8 million renovation of this primary Senior School facility emphasized environmentally friendly approaches, from glass that allows more light into classrooms (allowing the building to maintain lower electricity usage levels) to rainwater collected in an underground cistern, then used to flush toilets and urinals. In the fall of 2007, the Rowe Hall Complex earned Gold LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) Certification, becoming the only high school in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania to have done so. 
The McIlroy Center for Science and Innovation opened in 2018 as the stunning new home of the Senior School Science Department. The building's construction was made possible by the fundraising efforts of The Campaign for Shady Side. The Mcllroy Center is a Gold LEED-certified "green" building with sustainable features that reduce environmental impact while creating teaching opportunities, such as a rooftop solar array and monitoring system and a rain garden to collect storm runoff. The Glimcher Tech & Design Hub, a dynamic facility dedicated to innovation, creativity, technology, and design, opened at the Senior School in September 2019. The 12,000-square-foot space includes three primary areas: a Fabrication and Robotics Wing, a Computer Science Wing, and a café. The facility is on the lower levels of Rowe and Memorial Halls, in the space formerly occupied by the Science Department before moving to the new McIlroy Center for Science & Innovation in 2018.
Academic life at Shady Side Academy operates on a trimester system, dividing the year into three thirteen to fourteen-week terms. Classes begin each year before Labor Day with Convocation in late August and finish with Commencement exercises in early June. Second Term begins in late November, and Third Term begins in early April.  At the Senior School, regular classes begin each day at 8:15 a.m. and end at 3:00 p.m., punctuated by a late-morning assembly period. All-school assemblies occur every Monday and Friday in the Hillman Center's Rauh Theater, and every Wednesday students meet with their advisory groups. The academic day is divided into six periods filled with at least five classes, a lunch period, and intermittent free periods. Athletic practices follow the school day from 3:45 p.m. to late afternoon. An eight-day rotating schedule determines class periods. 
Each term students enroll in a minimum of five classes, both year-long courses and one-term electives, taught by seven academic departments—Arts, Computer Science, English, History, Mathematics, Science, and World Languages. Many departments, particularly the English and History Departments, make extensive use of the Harkness table, as the majority of rooms in Rowe have large, oval tables. This is a teaching style similar to the Socratic method. Students receive midterm grade reports during the year's first term and subsequently after each term, followed by a cumulative grade report at the end of the year. The grade for each class has three parts—a letter grade, an effort grade, and a paragraph of written remarks. The quality grade, assigned on the A+ (4.3333) to F (0.0) scale, is used to calculate the student's GPA. Effort grades for each class consist of a number from 5, indicating "exemplary effort," to 1, indicating "unacceptable effort." Effort grades of 2—"inconsistent effort"— or below result in a student's placement on Academic Warning and likely an interim report to the student's parents. The Academy uses the student's GPA and effort grades each term and at the end of the year to award academic Year and Term Honors, ranging from "Honors" (B+ average) to "Highest Honors" (A average), as well as other school and departmental prizes. Established in 1929, Shady Side Academy's chapter of the Cum Laude Society elects members from the top fifth of the graduating class based on academic performance in the junior year and the first two terms of the senior year. 
Academic and Personal Counseling Edit
The Senior School campus offers college, academic, and personal counseling through a variety of resources. Every upperform student is assigned a personal college counselor to navigate the college applications process. College counselors help students write applications and choose between offers of admission through regular meetings in the Kassling College Counseling Center in Rowe Hall. Every student graduating from Shady Side proceeds to study at a four-year college or university.  The Academy's advisory program also provides every student with a year-long academic advisor. Students are assigned a new advisor specific to their form for each academic year, and each advisor supervises an advisory group of approximately 5 to 6 students. Advisory groups meet as a homeroom once each week, usually to share a midday snack and read the week's announcements, and sit together at least twice a week in all-school assemblies. Each student also meets individually with their advisor during a free period to discuss their academic life and any academic difficulties they may be having. Advisors meet with their advisees' parents twice every year and write reports summarizing their advisees' academic and personal progress—which form one part of each student's grade report—at the end of each term. An on-campus personal counselor is also available.
Academic and personal counseling is offered at the Middle School. Students are assigned an advisor and meet in homerooms regularly, as well as in weekly all-school assemblies. Each term, a conference with the student, parent(s), and advisor is held to discuss the student's progress, achievements and challenges.
The Junior School provides personal counseling and academic counseling in reading, math, and overall learning support. All-school assemblies are held weekly. Each student has at least one opportunity per academic year to speak in front of the school assemblies starting in Pre-Kindergarten. This provides early experience in public speaking and helps students, at a young age, to overcome fear associated with speaking in front of a large group of people in a supportive, non-judgmental environment. In preparation for the Middle School, fifth-grade students serve as leaders in the school, giving tours to prospective families, assisting students in getting on and off the bus in the morning and afternoon, and leading assemblies. These additional responsibilities help prepare them for the transition to Middle School.
Financial aid Edit
Shady Side has a robust financial aid program. In 2013, over $2.8 million in need-based financial aid was distributed to 159 students. in 2019, Shady Side received the second-largest gift in its 136-year history, a $5.224 million gift to the financial aid endowment 
Boarding program and residential life Edit
Boarding at Shady Side Academy dates back to the school's relocation from the Shadyside neighborhood in the 1920s. The number of boarding students living on campus and the number of buildings serving as dormitories have fluctuated over the Academy's history. Four buildings on the Senior School campus—Bayard House (1924), Croft House (1931), Ellsworth House (1922) (now Hunt Hall), and Morewood House (1922)—all served as residence halls at one point in the school's history. The names of Bayard, Morewood, and Ellsworth Houses reference three out of the four streets encircling the site of the Academy's original campus, now the site of the Winchester Thurston School. At one time, nearly 200 students, both Senior and Middle School students, boarded full-time in a seven-day boarding program. In the 1960s, the Academy transitioned to housing Senior School students in a five-day boarding program, one of six schools nationwide to offer such a program to its students. Because students spend weekends at home, boarders almost always came from the three-state area of eastern Ohio, western Pennsylvania, and northern West Virginia. In the fall of 2014, the Academy announced it would start offering a seven-day boarding option beginning in 2015, in addition to its current five-day boarding program. Shady Side's boarding program now hosts approximately fifty students every year in two residence halls—Croft House, the boys' dormitory, and Morewood House, the girls' dormitory. The Academy also houses residential faculty representing almost every academic department, both in apartments in the dormitories and homes on the Senior and Middle School campuses. 
Student-run clubs at Shady Side exist as collaborations between a group of students and a sponsoring faculty member. Numerous language clubs exist in collaboration with language programs offered by the World Languages Department, such as the German, Spanish, and French clubs, and for languages not taught at Shady Side, such as the Italian Club. Nationality clubs, such as the Jewish Student Union and Black Student Union, celebrate various global cultures and often present performances during the Academy's annual GlobalFest week. There are also many established service and philanthropic clubs, such as Service Learning and Meals on Wheels. There are also religious clubs, activist clubs, academic competition teams, student government organizations, performance groups, departmental programs such as the peer-tutoring Scribe Office for writing, and publications. 
Shady Side participates in Model United Nations conferences, National Academic Quiz Tournaments and other quiz bowl competitions, the Western Pennsylvania Math League, Science Olympiad, North American Computational Linguistics Open competition, National Science Bowl, and forensics competitions, principally in the National Forensics League. The Academy has sent a team annually to the Pittsburgh Regional event of the FIRST Robotics Competition since 2008. In 2003, 2005, 2006, and 2007, Shady Side was the season champion of Pittsburgh-based game show Hometown High-Q. At the 2006 NAQT Nationals, the team finished 5th overall. Shady Side Academy's Speech and Debate team competes principally in the National Forensics League and regularly sends students to the National Catholic Forensics League and the Pennsylvania High School Speech League. The Shady Side Academy Speech and Debate team is coached by Mary Krauland, who has won multiple coaching awards, and Jacki Weaver assists with speech competitors and running the club.
In 2004, Shady Side Middle School placed third in the nation at the National Science Olympiad Tournament at Juniata College, a tournament with over fifty schools from all around the nation. They did this after placing 1st at both the Regional and State Science Olympiad Tournament, which earned them a position in the National tournament. In 2005, the team also placed 1st in the Regional and State Science Olympiad Tournaments, which got them into the National Tournament again, this time held in the University of Illinois. The team placed ninth at the national tournament. In the 2007 State Tournament, Shady Side's team placed second as runners up to Sewickley Academy, once again securing a place in the 2007 National Science Olympiad Tournament in Wichita, Kansas. Also, in 2009 the Middle School team placed second in the state tournament at Juniata College. They later went on to place 20th in the nation at Augusta State University in Georgia, in which 60 teams participated. In 2011 the Middle School team returned to Nationals at Madison, Wisconsin, placing 18th in the nation. In 2012, the team placed 26th at the national competition held at the University of Central Florida in Orlando, Florida. In 2013, the Middle School team won the Pennsylvania State Tournament for the second year in a row, and they went on to place 11th, missing 10th place by just one point, at Nationals at Wright State University. They won for the third consecutive year in 2014, going on to place 14th at Nationals.
The Pittsburgh Japanese School (ピッツバーグ日本語補習授業校 Pittsubāgu Nihongo Hoshū Jugyō Kō), a weekend supplementary Japanese school, uses the middle school facilities of Shady Side Academy.   The school, established in 1993, originated from a group of parents starting a Japanese class system in 1977. 
Arts, theater, and music Edit
Since 2003 Shady Side has sponsored a benefit concert called "Untucked"—an homage to the school dress code, which, before 2004, required all shirts to be tucked in. Members of the Untucked Committee include students selected annually from a competitive applicant pool and a faculty member. Recent bands to appear at Untucked include Rusted Root, The Clarks, Robert Randolph and the Family Band, Better than Ezra and Sister Hazel. Untucked is usually held at the end of the year in the Roy McKnight Hockey Center and includes food and carnival games.
Shady Side Academy's main theater, the 650-seat Richard E. Rauh Theater, is named after the local teacher, actor, and arts patron Richard Rauh. It resides in the newly constructed Hillman Center for Performing Arts on the Senior School campus.  There is also a blackbox theater (The Kountz Theater), which holds many smaller productions, such as the annual Fall Play and the Spring Original Works Theatre Festival. Recent theater performances include: Grease, An Enemy of the People, West Side Story, A Midsummer Night's Dream, The Music Man, Romeo and Juliet, Kiss Me, Kate, and The Importance of Being Earnest. The debut musical in the Hillman Center for the Performing Arts was Oliver!, which took place in the spring of 2005, starring Danielle Papincak (Nancy, Class of '05) and Bernard Balbot (Fagin, Class of '05). In 2006, the Academy launched the Hillman Performing Arts Series with the Golden Dragon Acrobats, River City Brass Band, and Pittsburgh Ballet Theatre.
The Academy's campus newspaper, the Shady Side News, is written and produced by an editorial staff of Senior School students and releases five issues each academic year. It contains campus news, commentary, political opinion, and photographs. The Academian, the Shady Side Academy yearbook, has been published annually since the school's founding by a committee of student editors. The Egerian, the school's literary magazine, publishes student-written prose and poetry at the end of each academic year. Established in 1928, it is released exclusively online by a committee of student editors. It is available at "The Egerian". Angles, the school's other literary magazine, collects the best of student-written nonfiction and also publishes—in print—at the end of every year. A science magazine, SSA Frontiers of Science, helps to relay to the community significant scientific advances it is produced once per term under the leadership of a student committee. The Forum, a collaboration between the Senior School History Department and a committee of student editors, contains political commentary and policy analysis.
The Academy's Athletic Department mandates athletic participation for every student each term as a graduation requirement. Underform students participate in two terms of team sports and academic Health classes, and upperform students participate in either a team sport or a physical education elective each term. Owing to the Academy's extensive athletic facilities, the Athletic Department offers various options each term. The Senior School's facilities contain two gymnasiums, the McKnight Ice Hockey Center, baseball, soccer, and football fields, a cross-country course, two fitness facilities, squash and tennis courts, and an outdoor track. The Middle and Junior School campuses also both contain gymnasiums and playing fields.
Shady Side Academy's athletic teams formerly competed as the Indians. Once known simply as the Blue & Gold, the Indians name replaced the original in the 1940s. Attempts to change the mascot due to conflict over the propriety of Native American images as athletic mascots, were long thwarted by various alumni, who argued for the Academy's unique claim to its use, owing to Chief Guyasuta's historical encampment on the land now occupied by the Senior School.  As of July 1, 2020, the board of trustees voted unanimously to retire the mascot and cease using Indians as a team name.  Later that year, the board announced the The Bulldogs would be the new team name and mascot. 
Athletic activity and physical education at the Academy originate in the school's 1885 relocation within Shadyside from its original one-room schoolhouse on Aiken Avenue to a more spacious physical plant on Ellsworth Avenue, which included the addition of athletic playing fields and a gymnasium. The Academy's early athletic program was organized to promote the ideals of its day, particularly amateurism in sport and the spirit of Muscular Christianity. Team sports, initially informal organizations of students and occasionally faculty, became increasingly structured as the Academy developed athletic links and interscholastic competitions with nearby public and private secondary schools and, occasionally, colleges such as Washington & Jefferson College and what is now Duquesne University. To further formalize interscholastic competition, in 1907 the Academy collaborated with Fifth Avenue High School, Allegheny Prep, and Pittsburgh Central High School to found the Western Pennsylvania Interscholastic Athletic League (WPIAL), which served to establish "a set of eligibility rules and regulations to ensure a level playing field for interscholastic athletic competition among the schools in western Pennsylvania."  Long-standing Academy headmaster William R. Crabbe played a central role in the WPIAL's foundation and served as its first president.
The Academy maintained its WPIAL association until 1924 when it withdrew its membership and collaborated with the University School of Cleveland, Ohio and Nichols School of Buffalo, New York to found the Tri-State Preparatory League. This league later added the Cranbrook School in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, Western Reserve Academy in Hudson, Ohio, The Kiski School in Saltsburg, Pennsylvania, and the Linsly School in Wheeling, West Virginia, and in the mid-1930s began calling itself the Inter-State Preparatory League (IPSL). After seventy years of competition for the annual "Championship Cup," Shady Side Academy withdrew from the "crumbling" IPSL in 1993. 
Since 1994 the Academy has been a member of the WPIAL, which contains hundreds of other public and private secondary schools in western Pennsylvania and serves as District 7 of the Pennsylvania Interscholastic Athletic Association (PIAA), a state-level athletic governing body. Although most teams now compete at the varsity level in the WPIAL and PIAA, a minority of programs maintain prep-level affiliations in smaller sport-specific Prep Leagues consisting of other regional independent schools. The boys' prep hockey team served in 1990 as a founding member of the Midwest Prep Hockey League, in which it competes at the Division I level. It also occasionally plays semi-professional hockey clubs in Germany and Italy, including ESV Kaufbeuren, SV Kaltern, and EV Landsberg.   The girls hockey team also competes at the prep level in the Women's Interscholastic Hockey League of the Mid-Atlantic.  The boys and girls squash teams, members of the Pittsburgh Squash Racquet Association,  are also prep-level teams composed of top-rated junior players. The boys lacrosse team participates, in addition to the WPIAL, in the Midwest Scholastic Lacrosse Association. Shady Side Academy teams also often compete on an informal basis with other local schools, including Sewickley Academy, Fox Chapel Area High School, Winchester Thurston School, and The Ellis School.
WPIAL and PIAA championships Edit
Since joining the PIAA, the Academy has won 12 state championships—two in boys' basketball (1995 and 2000), two in girls' golf (2008 and 2011), two in boys' swimming (2000 and 2011), two in girls' tennis (2007 and 2010), and two in boys' tennis (2003 and 2014)—along with numerous regional WPIAL championships in baseball, soccer, field hockey, tennis, swimming, football, and golf. The girls' tennis and field hockey teams won the WPIAL Championship titles in 2005, 2006, and 2007 for AAA and AA, respectively. The girls' tennis team went on to place second in the 2007 PIAA Championships and first in the 2008 PIAA Championships. Shady Side's Lauren Greco also won the PIAA and WPIAL AAA girls' tennis singles championships. The girls' tennis tein won the WPIAL and state championships in 2010, while Sara Perelman placed second individually. In 2010, the boys' swim team won the WPIAL championship for the 9th consecutive year (10th in 11 years). In addition, the wrestling team went on to place first in the PIAA Individual Championships of the 2007–2008 season, with both Dane Johnson placing first (his second time) and Roman San Doval placing first in the PIAA. They defended their state championship in wrestling with another championship in the 2008–2009 season, with Johnson winning his 3rd PIAA Championship and Matt Cunningham placing second in his weight class. Shady Side Academy wrestling is the first AA team in the WPIAL to have won the PIAA State Championship. The boys' tennis team won the WPIALs in 2010 and also placed second in states. Chris Mengel won the individual state championships as well in 2010.
How to buy a house in Shady Side
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A third harassment claim opened the floodgates
After Andrew Cuomo was hit with this second sexual harassment allegation, high-ranking Democrats — such as Senators Chuck Schumer and Kirsten Gillibrand and Representative Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez — called for an independent investigation into the claims (via The New York Times). Meanwhile, President Joe Biden's press secretary, Jen Psaki, called the allegations "serious," and added that "it was hard to read that story, as a woman."
But less than a week later, a third woman came forward with sexual harassment allegations of her own. Then-33-year-old Anna Ruch claimed that she hadn't met the embattled governor prior the fall of 2019. Cuomo reportedly said that she appeared "aggressive" after she removed his hand from her lower back at wedding reception they both attended, before putting his hands on Ruch's face and asking to kiss her, per The New York Times, which shared a photo of the incident. "I was so confused and shocked and embarrassed," Ruch said. "I turned my head away and didn't have words in that moment."
Cuomo issued a statement claiming that his behavior "[had] been misinterpreted as an unwanted flirtation," but added, "To the extent anyone felt that way, I am truly sorry about that." After this allegation, New York Attorney General Letitia James announced an investigation in the sexual misconduct claims against the embattled governor. "We are committed to an independent and thorough investigation of the facts," James said. Little did Cuomo know, the floodgates were about to swing wide open.
If you, or anyone you know, have been a victim of sexual harassment or sexual assault, help is available. Visit the Rape, Abuse & Incest National Network (RAINN) website or contact RAINN's National Helpline at 1-800-656-HOPE (4673).
Marcus Garvey’s Black Star Line
Before I go further into the story, I want to acknowledge two very important sources of information about the Black Star Line for me, as a non-expert. First is the really excellent blog post by Hannah Foster from 2014, found here. A second source the terrific biography by Judith Stein found in our Library called The World of Marcus Garvey: Race and Class in Modern Society (University of Louisiana Press, 1986). Where you see page numbers listed, those are from Stein’s book.
Broadside for the Black Star Line. (from the Collections of the Smithsonian Museum of African American History and Culture)
Getting it off the ground
Now all of you who know something about the transportation business will immediately grasp the problems Garvey was facing. One problem is capital, and how to get it. Captain George Brown, in Baltimore, had just enough cash to charter a steamboat from another Black entrepreneur to generate an income stream. He was an experienced mariner and also managed to keep his boats in repair at prices that did not endanger his business, which was another potential problem.
Marcus Garvey, on the other hand, hit upon another solution for capital in post-war New York: stocks. Blacks all around the country had amassed a certain amount of money from their labor during the war effort. Like everyone else, they viewed speculation as a means to get rich and were open to the idea of investing. Rather than court White institutions, Garvey’s innovation was to harness the resources of Black people, to buy one or more stocks for $5.00 apiece in the Black Star Line (p. 71). Here is an example of one sold to William J. Hill that is in the Museum’s archives.
A five-dollar share in Marcus Garvey’s Black Star Line, bought by William Julius Hill in 1921. (from MS0053, Securities Collection)
The price of even a cheap vessel for oceanic service at that time was somewhere between $150,000 and $500,000. That’s a lot of stock! But Garvey had a gift few possessed, the gift of soaring rhetoric, of a persuasive vision, and of a sense of missionary zeal. He was a magical speaker, by all accounts. He and UNIA chapter members managed to buy eventually 3 ships: Yarmouth (1887), Shady Side (1873), and Kanawha (1899). Yarmouth, the first, was to be renamed Frederick Douglass.
Dealing with the practicalities of owning ships
So Garvey and UNIA were making a go of getting the capital together! But then the second problem arose. Unlike George Brown, none of them knew anything about the business. They made, honestly, terrible business decisions. The vessels they bought were old and worn out. Yarmouth sprang a leak on its first outing and needed repair on its return. Garvey felt pressure to get the ship back out with a cargo of distilled liquor that he negotiated a price by the ton for. The experienced master of Yarmouth blew up at him, told him that the yard had not fitted her out for transporting liquor, and that his price per ton was ridiculously low for such a cargo. Garvey also had decided to allow an engineering firm to repair Yarmouth that essentially fleeced him. It was emblematic of the business problems the UNIA and Garvey faced.
A closer view of Yarmouth in the heavy traffic of New York Harbor. (from P0001.003, Photographs of Steamships, Motor Vessels and Ocean Liners) The screw schooner Yarmouth underway. Photo by William B. Taylor. (from P0001.003, Photographs of Steamships, Motor Vessels and Ocean Liners) Bow of the screw schooner Yarmouth, built the same year Marcus Garvey was born, 1887.
The side wheel steamer Shady Side
So UNIA decided to sell even more stock to buy more ships, to try to dig themselves out of the hole they were in. The owner of Shady Side, a Hudson River ferry, persuaded Garvey that she would be an excellent summer excursion boat from which he could make a huge profit (p. 94). So Garvey bought it, and operated it in the summer of 1920. Over the winter, however, whether from rot, from ice or from storm, she sank and her owners declared her a total loss. Black Star Line had to take the insurers to court for the $5,000 claim that they refused to pay.
The side wheel steamer Shady Side, wrecked with her stack toppled on the pilot house, in 1921. (from MS0091, Elwin Eldredge Collection) A view of the beautiful Shady Side underway. (from MS0091, Elwin Eldredge Collection) Steamer Shady Side passing beneath the Brooklyn Bridge in an undated stereograph. (from MS0091, Elwin Eldredge Collection)
Steam yacht Kanawha
UNIA also bought the Kanawha, a small yacht that Garvey said would be useful for the inter-Colonial trade in the Indies. However, the price he paid for the 375-ton vessel, about $60,000, was exorbitant. A merchant mariner friend warned Garvey that the boat’s operating expenses would exceed its purchase price. He also pointed to defective boilers and auxiliaries, but Garvey went ahead anyway (p. 96). A boiler explosion on her first trip as the Antonio Maceo killed a crewman. The Coast Guard towed her back to New York, never to sail again.
Steam Yacht Kanawha underway. Coincidentally, Booker T. Washington, whom Marcus Garvey greatly admired, was a frequent guest aboard Kanawha when industrialist Henry Huttleston Rogers owned her. (from MS0094, Collection on Samuel W. Stanton) A drawing of Steam Yacht Kanawha, built as a millionaire’s private yacht and renamed USS Piqua (SP-130) for service in World War I. Black Star Line bought it in 1920. (from MS0091, Elwin Eldredge Collection)
Garvey’s Dream of the Black Star Line Destroyed
To top it all off, UNIA had to siphon off the proceeds from the sale of stocks to fund the budget deficit caused by a failed restaurant venture (p. 89). The Black Star Line was, by 1922, practically bankrupt.
The court case: Garvey Vs. U.S.A.
All of these business problems and improprieties came out in a federal court case, Garvey v. U.S.A. Federal authorities arrested Garvey on Jan. 12, 1922, and a grand jury indicted him for mail fraud on Feb. 16 (p. 192). The indictment claimed that the UNIA’s mailer soliciting funds for a ship named Phyllis Wheatley was fraudulent, because they implied that Black Star Line already owned her. They did not own her, in fact. They were looking for a ship to buy they would name Phyllis Wheatley.
By this time, Garvey’s many enemies, both within the Black community and without, gave evidence against him. The FBI, who under J. Edgar Hoover wanted to frame Garvey’s political activism as a communist threat, had been looking for a deportable charge against him for years. They found this one. A jury found Marcus Garvey guilty in March of 1923. The judge in the case, whose fairness at the trial drew praise from black journalists, ended up imposing the maximum sentence after Garvey damned his entire ethnic group (the judge was Jewish) in public. Despite appeals, and with an official pardon from President Calvin Coolidge, Immigration authorities deported Marcus Garvey on Dec. 2, 1927 (p. 207).
A Mariners’ Museum connection
An interesting coda to this saga is that in our collections is a folder of Black Star Line materials in the Elwin Eldredge Collection. Eldredge, who refers to himself as a “student of History of American Steam Navigation”, wrote a letter to the UNIA merely trying to find out what happened in all this to the Yarmouth. It was a ship he had sailed in many times, he writes. A letter came back on UNIA letterhead. You can read the contents of both these letters below.
A letter from Elwin M. Eldredge to the Universal Negro Improvement Association, dated 1926, asking for information about the screw schooner Yarmouth. (From MS0091, Elwin Eldredge Collection) Note the wonderful letterhead on this letter sent in response to Elwin Eldredge’s inquiry about the screw schooner Yarmouth. (from MS0091, Elwin Eldredge Collection)
The following historical account details how Shadyside was established and named:
“The area embracing Shadyside and immediate vicinity is extremely rich in historical lore, forming as it does part of the gateway to the Northwest Territory and assuming noteworthy significance and importance in the growth and development of our country.
In the early accounts of invasions by white men is recorded the trip of George Washington and his group of surveyors who came down the Ohio River to Fort Dille and crossed into Round Bottom, on the West Virginia side. A tablet erected by the Daughters of the American Revolution on State Route 7, north of Powhatan, commemorates this expedition by Washington and his men. It was at Fort Dille, opposite Moundsville, that the first settlement in this vicinity was established in 1793.
The land on which Shadyside is now located was first owned by John Hopkins, of New York, 172 years ago – 13 years after the signing of the Declaration of Independence.
In 1799, government surveyors came to Fort Henry – now Wheeling – to survey the rich lands in Eastern Ohio. In the party was David McElherren, a young Englishman who took for his pay 2200 acres of land lying along the river and extending from what is now South Bellaire to Wegee Creek.
McElherren laid out the town which was to grow into the present community of Shadyside and helped establish the Belmont county seat just over the northern corporation line in what today is Avondale.
The first court session of Belmont County was held November 24, 1801, with McElherren, Jacob Repshire, and David Lockwood on the bench and 23 men serving on the grand jury. The courthouse was Judge Repshire’s log cabin and the jail was the barn in the rear of his home.
Political lobbying for the removal of the county seat to Newellstown began in June 1803. By the simple expedient of changing the name of Newellstown to St. Clairsville, in honor of Governor St. Clair, the latter’s consent was gained and in 1804 all county records were transferred to St. Clairsville.
With the coming of white settlers in increasing numbers, the early history of this area became studded with familiar names borne by present-day inhabitants – Ambler, Cochran, Futhey, Grant, Heath, Hutchens, Rodefer, Sammons, and Smith, among others.
Shadyside acquired its own name quite unintentionally late in the nineteenth century after James Leisure purchased the Robert Hutchens farm. Leisure planted evergreen trees along the turnpike bordering his land and hung up a small whiteboard on which he painted the word “Shadyside.” In 1879, when the narrow-gauge railroad came through this valley, a small platform was laid opposite Leisure’s gateway. The train, thereafter, stopped at “Shadyside Station” and thus did a pioneer resident unwittingly name the town.
Shadyside is located in one of the country’s finest coal regions, with some of the nation’s largest mines being located nearby. Large deposits of salt, as well as concentrated brine, also underlie that part of Belmont County to the south of Shadyside.
The growth of Shadyside on all levels of community life has been especially pronounced during the past two decades. New school buildings, a new municipal building, a swimming pool, one new church edifice and another under construction, many additional private homes and new business establishments all stand as monuments to the progressiveness of a citizenry which has made Shadyside one of the most attractive residential areas in the Ohio Valley where the accent is heavy on gracious living.”
Excerpt taken from An Intimate Glimpse of Shadyside: Garden Spot of the Ohio Valley “Where Good Living Is A Habit” published by the Shadyside Board of Trade (1962)
The surprising history of ‘snowflake’ as a political insult
S nowflake has snowballed.
Before last year, snowflake-as-slang lingered on the fringes of the lexicon. It was a largely non-partisan slight &mdash a mean, though not hateful, dig at millennials perceived to have an outsize sense of their own individuality and, by extension, importance. Helicopter parented to the hilt, millennials supposedly graduated from college (into a dismal economy with unprecedented mountains of student debt) too coddled for this cruel world, ill-equipped to face life&rsquos indignities with dignity.
But as 2016 dawned, snowflake made its way to the mainstream and, in the process, evolved into something more vicious. The insult expanded to encompass not just the young but liberals of all ages it became the epithet of choice for right-wingers to fling at anyone who could be accused of being too easily offended, too in need of &ldquosafe spaces,&rdquo too fragile.
You can see this linguistic evolution play out on Urban Dictionary: The 2008 definition of snowflake was &ldquoa person who think they are OMGUNIQUE!, but is, in fact, just like everyone else.&rdquo That was redefined in May of 2016 as &ldquoan overly sensitive person, incapable of dealing with any opinions that differ from their own. These people can often be seen congregating in &lsquosafe zones&rsquo on college campuses.&rdquo A more aggressive definition went up the following month: &ldquoAn entitled millenial SJW-tard who runs to her &ldquosafe space&rdquo to play with stress toys and coloring books when she gets &lsquotriggered&rdquo by various innocuous &ldquomicrosaggressions&rsquo [sic].&rdquo
Devastated by Brexit? Snowflake. Protesting the election of Donald J. Trump? Precious snowflake. Asking to take down a statue of a racist on your campus? Classic Generation Snowflake. Sexual assault survivors requesting trigger warnings on texts that include graphic rape scenes? Special snowflakes. Last November, snowflake was deemed one of Collins English Dictionary&rsquos words of the year. That same month, the L.A. Times included snowflake in &ldquoa guide to the language of the &lsquoalt-right.&rsquo&rdquo The Guardian called it &ldquothe defining insult of 2016.&rdquo
&ldquoI think it&rsquos gone beyond slang,&rdquo said Jonathon Green, slang lexicographer and author of several dictionaries of slang. &ldquoIt&rsquos a very specific, very politicized insult.&rdquo
The rise of the insult, Green continued, &ldquois something, actually, that&rsquos bigger than snowflake. In the aftermath of Trump and Brexit, there has swelled up this vocabulary of vilification. There&rsquos always been one &mdash my world, slang, is one of the great proponents and coiners of it &mdash but it seems to me that these kind of very vicious, really, because they&rsquore not meant with a laugh, these quite vicious insults have sprung up specifically within these two political areas, these explosions, that happened last year&hellip This kind of very hard insult has come out of it. It just reflects the fact that there are huge and very strongly felt divisions in both our societies.&rdquo
As insults go, it&rsquos hard to think of one that so clearly conveys so many flaws at once: Fragility and self-importance, weakness and self-delusion.
Its power, Green said, comes largely from that duality. Snowflake &ldquoworks in two ways. It melts under the heat, it has no backbone, no spine, no guts, no spirit, anything. It just fades away as soon as people are nasty to it. And the other side is the special side of it. Every little snowflake is different and has its own identity.&rdquo
And think of what happens to a snowflake once you get your hands on it. It dissolves right in your palm.
E ffective slang possesses the same quality as a well-crafted pop song: It gets stuck in your head, whether you like it or not.
So it helps that the sound of &ldquosnowflake&rdquo is appealing, said Ben Yagoda, an author and language expert who wrote about the rise of the term for the Chronicle of Higher Education&rsquos Lingua Franca blog. Snowflake opens soft and closes with a hard &ldquok&rdquo kicker. &ldquoThere&rsquos this idea in comedy that words with a &lsquok&rsquo &rsquoare funny&hellip and it has impact to it.&rdquo Snowflake also clicks nicely with &ldquospecial&rdquo &mdash and, for formal occasions, sparkly &mdash which &ldquorhetorically, has the alliteration going for it.&rdquo
&ldquoButtercup,&rdquo another favorite of the anti-liberal set, has that hard &ldquok,&rdquo too, as does &ldquocupcake,&rdquo notably used by Megyn Kelly in her memoir, Settle for More, in describing her son, a &ldquowalking cupcake&rdquo in his mother&rsquos eyes, not to be confused with &ldquothe cupcakes on our nation&rsquos campuses who need safe spaces.&rdquo But &ldquosnowflake has more things going for it,&rdquo said Yagoda. Cupcake and buttercup do have the smack of the feminine about them &mdash like the safe-for-work way of calling someone a cuck, an &ldquoalt-right&rdquo burn that originated in pornography&mdash but snowflake carries with it &ldquothat idea of being unique and precious,&rdquo said Yagoda.
&ldquoIt&rsquos a great word for bullying,&rdquo Yagoda added. &ldquoBullies&rsquo historically favorite word is &lsquocrybaby,&rsquo and nothing is probably more likely to elicit a bullied person crying than to be called a crybaby. That pulls the trigger.&rdquo Snowflake is another self-fulfilling prophesy. If being called a snowflake offends you, well, of course it does. You&rsquore a snowflake.
&ldquoAnd finally, it sort of hits home because I think, deep down, everybody is a snowflake,&rdquo Yagoda said. &ldquoEverybody is special and a bit sensitive to being insulted or mocked or defeated or whatever. Good bullies understand that the most effective insults are the ones that hit home.&rdquo
E mily Brewster, lexicographer and associate editor at Merriam-Webster, found what she believes is the earliest use of snowflake as an epithet: Early 1860s in Missouri, as the Civil War began and citizens battled over whether or not slavery should continue within the state. &ldquoA snowflake was a person who was opposed to the abolition of slavery,&rdquo Brewster said. &ldquoThey were called snowflakes because it said they valued white people over black people.&rdquo
The other two bits of Missouri slang from that political moment &mdash the &ldquoclaybank,&rdquo a group that wanted gradual transition from slavery to freedom plus compensation for slave owners, and the &ldquocharcoals,&rdquo also known as &ldquobrown radicals,&rdquo who pushed for immediate emancipation and for black people to be able to enlist in the armed forces &mdash didn&rsquot stick. And for a long time, neither did snowflake. It was about a century before snowflake slang made its way back into the vernacular, when it was used to describe &ldquoa white person or a black person who was perceived as acting too much like a white person,&rdquo according to Green&rsquos Dictionary of Slang.
&ldquoSnowball&rdquo was also used as a term for a black person, Green said, as far back as the 1780s Bartlett&rsquos Dictionary of Americanisms from 1848 defines snowball as &ldquoa jeering appellation for a negro.&rdquo For a time, snowflake and snowball were used interchangeably in this manner. &ldquoIt&rsquos this thing about, &lsquoha, ha, ha, here&rsquos a black person, let&rsquos call him something white,&rsquo&rdquo said Green. And even as snowflake and snowball were used in technically non-racial contexts, like as slang for cocaine, &ldquoit&rsquos [still] to do with the whiteness.&rdquo
The earliest documented appearance of snowflake with its current gist comes from Chuck Palahniuk&rsquos Fight Club, published in 1996 (emphasis added):
&ldquoYou are not special. You&rsquore not a beautiful and unique snowflake. You&rsquore the same decaying organic matter as everything else. We&rsquore all part of the same compost heap. We&rsquore all singing, all dancing crap of the world.&rdquo
The quote was included in the 1999 film adaptation of the same name, in the dulcet tones of a Brad Pitt voiceover:
Fellow dude-novelist Bret Easton Ellis picked up on the theme in an episode of his podcast last August, in a riff that asked (rhetorically, one assumes), &ldquolittle snowflake justice warriors&hellip when did you all become grandmothers and society matrons, clutching your pearls in horror at someone who has an opinion about something, a way of expressing themselves that&rsquos not the mirror image of yours, you sniveling little weak-ass narcissists?&rdquo
W ho is the snowflakiest snowflake of all? Maybe it&rsquos not the most delicate, politically-correct progressive. Maybe the call is coming from inside the house. Maybe it&rsquos President-elect Trump.
He is, after all, a man who has yet to display an ability to laugh at himself. He is offended by, seemingly, everything anyone has ever said about him that is not sufficiently glowing. He is a man who cannot even bear the (really rather soft) satire slung his way by Saturday Night Live.
This we&rsquore-not-snowflakes-you&rsquore-the-snowflake take started catching on in the weeks after the election. And perhaps that is a signal of the end of snowflake&rsquos reign as the mockery of the moment. It doesn&rsquot appear that snowflake, like other politically-charged insults of the 2016 election cycle, will be adopted by its target as a badge of honor and enjoy a second run. (See also: deplorable, nasty women, failing pile of garbage.) Liberals aren&rsquot selling snowflake sweatshirts and donating the proceeds to progressive causes. At least, not yet.
&ldquoI think in this day and age, the half-life of these vogue terms is short,&rdquo said Yagoda. &ldquoI predict that it has had its day and people are already onto the next thing.&rdquo The speed with which words and catchphrases come and go, Yagoda said, has accelerated with the rise of social media and the 24-hour news cycle, which have created &ldquoa perceived and real need to be fresh and new and hip.&rdquo
That snowflake is a specific type of word &mdash a name-calling insult &mdash only supports Yagoda&rsquos certainty that it will fall out of favor before long. &ldquoIf you look at the history of slang, probably next to words for sex and bodily functions, that might be the category with the biggest turnover.&rdquo
Brewster disagreed. &ldquoI don&rsquot see it fading out anytime soon. As long as there is this idea that some people require special treatment. It is so easily lobbed at anybody who complains about being criticized or not having access to things they need.&rdquo
&ldquoWill it last or not?&rdquo Green, slang lexicographer, asked. He cited one of the most enduring profanities in the English language: &ldquoThe word fuck, why did it last? It was better than the alternative.&rdquo
They're banned in Sweden
Mars is an international giant, but they've run into their share of lawsuits and conflict. The Local SE did a quick recap on their rocky relationship with another candy company in Sweden, one-time partner Mondelez International. Mondelez partnered with Mars in the 1950s, and the two launched a line of candies called M. For decades, everything was pretty much status quo.
Fast forward a bit, and the two agreed Mars wouldn't bring M&M's into Finland, Norway, or Sweden because it would just be competition. The agreement wasn't renewed, and M&M's showed up in Sweden in 2009. Two years later they were in court on grounds of trademark infringement, and according to the BBC, in 2016 courts ruled the lower case version of m&m was too close to the Marabou M for comfort. Mars protested, but Sweden took it so seriously they banned sale of M&M's until the product was given a complete overhaul.
In some ways, Fieri is actually a really good. Guy
After the devastation of the Santa Rosa wildfires, Fieri rolled up the sleeves of his bedazzled chef's jacket and went to work. Fieri lives in Sonoma County, Calif. which felt the brunt of the disaster, so this situation hit particularly close to home. Partnering with the Salvation Army, Fieri mobilized a crew to start feeding neighbors displaced by the flames.
"This isn't a PR stunt," he told KQED. "You don't see my banners up. I'm not promoting anything. I'm just here cooking. This is feeding people. People need help, and I'm here to help. That's it."
Fieri's response to the wildfires — which fortunately for him, spared his home — isn't the first time he's dabbled in philanthropy. In fact, Fieri has such a charitable history, comedian Shane Torres even incorporated it into his act. (Heads up: the clip in that link includes some NSFW language.) "[Fieri] started a company where he hires everybody," Torres says. "He pays more than minimum wage. He gives health benefits. He has a non-profit where he gives pretzel-making machines to inner city schools so they fundraise . he has worked with Special Olympics athletes, and on top of all of that, he officiated a gay wedding."
Even if only some of those claims check out, surely that gives Fieri a pass on his decision to still rock bleach blonde spikes and bowling shirts 15 years too late, right?