History of Chickasaw - History

History of Chickasaw - History


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Chickasaw

An Indian tribe now resident in Oklahoma.

(Monitor: t. 970; 1. 280'; b. 56': cpl. 138; a. 4 11" ate.)

The first Chickasaw was launched 10 February 1864 by Thomas G. Gaylord, St. Louis, Mo.; brought to Mound City, ill., 8 May; and commissioned 14 May 1864, Acting Master J. Fitzpatrick in command.

Between 14 May and 30 June 1864 Chickasaw operated on the Mississippi River. Sailing to New Orleans, she joined the West Gulf Blockading Squadron 9 July. While operating with the Squadron she participated in Admiral Farragut's victory the Battle of Mobile Bay (5 August 1864), during which she was struck by enemy shells 11 times, and the attacks on Forts Gaines (6 August) and Morgan (13 August). The monitor remained in the vicinity of Mobile Bay until 3 July 1865 when she sailed down river for New Orleans.

Upon her arrival at New Orleans 6 July 1865, Chickasaw was decommissioned and laid up. Between 15 June and 10 August 1869 she bore the name Sameon and then reverted to Chickasaw. She was sold at New Orleans 12 September 1874.


Chickasaw

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Chickasaw, North American Indian tribe of Muskogean linguistic stock who originally inhabited what is now northern Mississippi and Alabama. In their earlier history the Chickasaw and the Choctaw (q.v.) may have been a single tribe. Traditionally, the Chickasaw were a seminomadic people who patrolled the immense territory that they claimed for themselves and raided tribes far to the north like many conquering peoples, they integrated the remnants of these tribes into their culture.

Prior to the 1830s, Chickasaw dwellings were organized along streams and rivers rather than clustered in villages. Descent was traced through the maternal line. The supreme deity was associated with the sky, sun, and fire, and a harvest and new-fire rite similar to the Green Corn ceremony of the Creek was celebrated annually.

Probably the earliest contact between Europeans and the Chickasaw was Hernando de Soto’s expedition in 1540–41. In the 18th century the Chickasaw became involved in the power struggles between the British and French, siding with the British against the French and the Choctaw. They also gave refuge to the Natchez in their wars with the French. Relations with the United States began in 1786, when their northern territorial boundary was fixed at the Ohio River. In the 1830s they were forcibly removed to Indian Territory (present Oklahoma) where, with the Creek, Cherokee, Choctaw, and Seminole, they were among the Five Civilized Tribes. For three-quarters of a century each tribe had a land allotment and a quasi-autonomous government modeled on that of the United States. In preparation for Oklahoma statehood (1907), some of this land was allotted to individuals from the Five Civilized Tribes the rest was opened up to non-Native homesteaders, held in trust by the federal government, or allotted to freed slaves. Tribal governments were effectively dissolved in 1906 but have continued to exist in a limited form. Some Chickasaw now live on tribal landholdings that are informally called reservations.

Early estimates placed the tribe’s population at 3,000–4,000. At the time of their removal to Indian Territory they numbered about 5,000. Chickasaw descendants numbered more than 38,000 in the early 21st century.


About the Chickasaw People

With sophisticated townships, strong agricultural skills and evolved ruling systems with religion and laws, the Chickasaws were regarded as the &ldquoSpartans of the Lower Mississippi Valley.&rdquo We successfully traded with the French, the English and other American Indian tribes. Despite living a generally agrarian lifestyle, our ancestors were strong warriors who fought alongside the English in the French and Indian War. In fact, some historians say that the United States is an English-speaking country because of the Chickasaws&rsquo victory over the French in the battle for the lower Mississippi.

We were moved from our original homeland in present-day Mississippi, Alabama, Tennessee and Kentucky to new territory in Oklahoma on a route some refer to as the &ldquoTrail of Tears.&rdquo Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw and Seminole tribes also migrated along the Trail of Tears during the same time period. The Treaty of Doaksville, established in 1837, outlined that the Chickasaws and Choctaws were to share land in Indian Territory, located in present-day Oklahoma. In 1856, we separated from the Choctaws and formed our own government system, thus regaining full authority over our tribe and our people.

At Tishomingo, Indian Territory, our forefathers created a constitution and instituted executive, legislative and judicial segments of the government. Political leaders were selected according to votes from a popular election. When the Civil War began, Chickasaws allied with the Confederacy and fought in the revered Choctaw/Chickasaw Mounted Regiment. Despite the South&rsquos eventual downfall, our people showed resilience and returned to economic success as farmers and ranchers. Chickasaws are also credited with building some of the original schools, businesses and banks in Indian Territory. However, the 1887 Dawes Treaty weakened tribal structure for some time by eliminating communal land and creating individually owned farms.

After Oklahoma statehood in 1907, Chickasaw tribal elections were suspended and the U.S. president appointed a Chickasaw Governor to &ldquoclose out&rdquo tribal affairs. Faithful to his people, Governor Douglas H. Johnston worked diligently to preserve our rights to self-determination.

Congress passed legislation in 1970 that allowed the Chickasaw, Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw and Seminole tribes to elect their own principals. Since then, the Nation has created a new constitution and continues to grow and prosper. In 1971, after Congress restored the inherent right of the Chickasaw people to elect their own leaders, Overton James was freely elected as governor of the Chickasaw Nation.


Chickasaw History in Oklahoma

In 1832, President Andrew Jackson’s treaty commissioners surveyed Chickasaw lands in Alabama and Mississippi, and a sale price of $3 million for 6 million acres was agreed. It wasn’t until 1834, and the Treaty of Washington, that the sale went through.

The Treaty of Doaksville in 1837 saw Chickasaws lease the Choctaw tract for $530,000 and guaranteed representation for Chickasaws on the Choctaw Council.

Removal for the Chickasaws was not as devastating as it had been for other tribes, and approximately 80 percent of the pre-removal tribe, 4,914 Chickasaws and 1,156 slaves, completed the 1837 journey.

The removal caused such disruption that it took 15 years for the tribe to settle into its new lands. Since the tribe were outvoted on the Choctaw Council, it began to contrive its political autonomy.

Chickasaw leaders refined their constitution between the first draft, presented at general council at Boiling Springs in 1846, and the formal separation treaty finalized in Washington in 1855.

The new constitution was ratified by the tribe at Tishomingo in August 1856. It separated power between three branches a legislative council and judiciary were formed and the chief became the Chickasaw Nation’s elected governor.

The Chickasaw Nation was economically stable. Cattle were raised and Chickasaws sold the horses they had become famous for breeding. Chickasaw farmers also produced crops like corn and cotton, grown with the help of slaves.

The Chickasaw Nation declared independence in May 1861, prompted by the outbreak of the Civil War. Chickasaws were slave-owners and were still angry with the U.S. government about relocation and joined the Confederacy.

The war was costly for the Chickasaw people. The tribe was forced to renew its compact with the U.S. government in April 1866, to abolish slavery and allow railroads to be built through their land.

The Chickasaw Nation lost much of its economic and territorial independence after the Civil War, with white immigrants, especially cattle ranchers and railroad builders, exercising increasing authority in Indian Territory. The Curtis Act of 1898 was adopted by Congress, ending tribal sovereignty, abolishing tribal laws and encouraging the allotment of land. All tribal governments had to terminate activities by March 4, 1906.

The Choctaws, Chickasaws, Cherokees, Creeks and Seminoles petitioned for Indian Territory to become a separate Indian state in 1905, but the U.S government rejected their petition.

In 1907, Oklahoma became a State and by 1910, some 6,337 Chickasaws and 4,607 black Freedmen had been allotted land, undermining tribal cohesion and the traditional way of life.

In the 1960s, federal policy on Indians shifted toward self-determination and the Chickasaws began a new period of cultural activity. Overton James became the first elected Chickasaw governor in 1971, after the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968 made tribal election legal for the first time since 1904.

The Chickasaw Constitution of 1866 was resurrected in 1979, brought into line with the U.S. Constitution, ratified and then approved by the U.S government in 1983.

Economic and employment opportunities have been created by the Chickasaw Nation, who have used gaming revenues to expand Chickasaw tobacco shops, publishing and electricity businesses.

The Chickasaw Nation’s tribal headquarters in Ada also runs cultural programs for the revitalization of Chickasaw heritage and language.


History & Culture

Chickasaw Country is rich with Native American culture and Western history. You can spend days going through all of the spectacular, unique locations and museums.

The Chickasaw Cultural Center deserves a day to explore the rich history and culture of the Chickasaw Nation. Tishomingo also houses several locations special to the history of the Chickasaw people, including the Chickasaw Capitol Building.

For western history, the Chisholm Trail Heritage Center will take you back in time, and the Gene Autry Museum will remind you of simpler days and beloved movies.

There is no shortage of fine art, either. Exhibit C, located in Bricktown, Oklahoma City, is a beautiful gallery of contemporary Native American art, and you can take your favorite pieces home with you. The Goddard Center houses many beautiful art pieces, as well as educational classes.

Learn and grow during your time in Chickasaw Country with our many opportunities to enjoy history and culture.


Contents

The name Chickasaw, as noted by anthropologist John Swanton, belonged to a Chickasaw leader. [4] "Chickasaw" is the English spelling of Chikashsha (Muskogee pronunciation: [tʃikaʃːa] ), meaning "rebel" or "comes from Chicsa". Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto recorded them as Chicaza when his expedition came into contact with them in 1540 the Spanish were the first known Europeans to explore the North American Southeast. [5] [6]

The origin of the Chickasaw is uncertain 20th-century scholars, such as the archaeologist Patricia Galloway, theorize that the Chickasaw and Choctaw split into distinct peoples in the 17th century from the remains of Plaquemine culture and other groups whose ancestors had lived in the lower Mississippi Valley for thousands of years. [7] When Europeans first encountered them, the Chickasaw were living in villages in what is now northeastern Mississippi.

The Chickasaw are believed to have migrated into Mississippi from the west, as their oral history attests. [8] They and the Choctaw were once one people and migrated from west of the Mississippi River into present-day Mississippi in prehistoric times the Chickasaw and Choctaw split along the way. The Mississippian Ideological Interaction Sphere spanned the Eastern Woodlands. The Mississippian cultures emerged from previous moundbuilding societies by 880 CE. They built complex, dense villages supporting a stratified society, with centers throughout the Mississippi and Ohio River Valleys and their tributaries.

In the 15th century, proto-Chickasaw people left the Tombigbee Valley after the collapse of the Moundville chiefdom. They settled into the upper Yazoo and Pearl River valleys in present-day Mississippi. Historian Arrell Gibson and anthropologist John R. Swanton believed the Chickasaw Old Fields were in Madison County, Alabama. [9]

These people (the Choctaw) are the only nation from whom I could learn any idea of a traditional account of a first origin and that is their coming out of a hole in the ground, which they shew between their nation and the Chickasaws they tell us also that their neighbours were surprised at seeing a people rise at once out of the earth.

Another version of the Chickasaw creation story is that they arose at Nanih Waiya, a great earthwork mound built about 300 CE by Woodland peoples. It is also sacred to the Choctaw, who have a similar story about it. The mound was built about 1400 years before the coalescence of each of these peoples as ethnic groups.

The first European contact with the Chickasaw ancestors was in 1540 when Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto encountered them and stayed in one of their towns, most likely near present-day Tupelo, Mississippi. After various disagreements, the Chickasaw attacked the De Soto expedition in a nighttime raid, nearly destroying the force. The Spanish moved on quickly. [10]

The Chickasaw began to trade with the British after the colony of Carolina was founded in 1670. [11] With British-supplied guns, the Chickasaw raided their neighbors and enemies the Choctaw, capturing some members and selling them into Indian slavery to the British. When the Choctaw acquired guns from the French, power between the tribes became more equalized and the slave raids stopped.

Allied with the British, the Chickasaw were often at war with the French and the Choctaw in the 18th century, such as in the Battle of Ackia on May 26, 1736. Skirmishes continued until France ceded its claims to the region east of the Mississippi River after being defeated by the British in the Seven Years' War (called the French and Indian War in North America).

Following the American Revolutionary War, in 1793-94, Chickasaw fought as allies of the new United States under General Anthony Wayne against the Indians of the old Northwest Territory. The Shawnee and other, allied Northwest Indians were defeated in the Battle of Fallen Timbers on August 20, 1794.

A 19th-century historian, Horatio Cushman, wrote, "Neither the Choctaws nor Chicksaws ever engaged in war against the American people, but always stood as their faithful allies." Cushman believed the Chickasaw, along with the Choctaw, may have had origins in present-day Mexico and migrated north. [8] That theory does not have consensus archeological research, as noted above, has revealed the peoples had long histories in the Mississippi area and independently developed complex cultures.

In 1797, a general appraisal of the tribe and its territorial bounds was made by Abraham Bishop of New Haven, who wrote:

The Chickasaws are a nation of Indians who inhabit the country on the east side of the Mississippi, on the head branches of the Tombeckbe (sic), Mobille, and Yazoo rivers. Their country is an extensive plain, tolerably well watered from springs, and a pretty good soil. They have seven towns, and their number of fighting men is estimated at 575. [12]

United States relations Edit

George Washington (first U.S. President) and Henry Knox (first U.S. Secretary of War) proposed the cultural transformation of Native Americans. [13] Washington believed that Native Americans were equals, but that their society was inferior. He formulated a policy to encourage the "civilizing" process, and Thomas Jefferson continued it. [14] Historian Robert Remini wrote, "They presumed that once the Indians adopted the practice of private property, built homes, farmed, educated their children, and embraced Christianity, these Native Americans would win acceptance from white Americans." [15] Washington's six-point plan included impartial justice toward Indians regulated buying of Indian lands promotion of commerce promotion of experiments to civilize or improve Indian society presidential authority to give presents and punishing those who violated Indian rights. [16] The government-appointed Indian agents, such as Benjamin Hawkins, who became Superintendent of Indian Affairs for all the territory south of the Ohio River. He and other agents lived among the Indians to teach them, through example and instruction, how to live like whites. [13] Hawkins married a Muscogee Creek woman and lived with her people for decades. In the 19th century, the Chickasaw increasingly adopted European-American practices, as they established schools, adopted yeoman farming practices, converted to Christianity, and built homes in styles like their European-American neighbors.

Treaty of Hopewell (1786) Edit

The Chickasaw signed the Treaty of Hopewell in 1786. Article 11 of that treaty states: "The hatchet shall be forever buried, and the peace given by the United States of America, and friendship re-established between the said States on the one part, and the Chickasaw nation on the other part, shall be universal, and the contracting parties shall use their utmost endeavors to maintain the peace given as aforesaid, and friendship re-established." Benjamin Hawkins attended this signing.

Treaty of 1818 Edit

In 1818, leaders of the Chickasaw signed several treaties, including the Treaty of Tuscaloosa, which ceded all claims to land north of the southern border of Tennessee up to the Ohio River (the southern border of Indiana and the Illinois Territory). [17] This was known as the "Jackson Purchase." The Chickasaw were allowed to retain a four-square-mile reservation but were required to lease the land to European immigrants.

Colbert legacy (19th century) Edit

In the mid-18th century, an American-born trader of Scots and Chickasaw ancestry by the name of James Logan Colbert settled in the Muscle Shoals area of Mississippi. He lived there for the next 40 years, where he married three high-ranking Chickasaw women in succession. [18] Chickasaw chiefs and high-status women found such marriages of strategic benefit to the tribe, as it gave them advantages with traders over other groups. Colbert and his wives had numerous children, including seven sons: William, Jonathan, George, Levi, Samuel, Joseph, and Pittman (or James). Six survived to adulthood (Jonathan died young.)

The Chickasaw had a matrilineal system, in which children were considered born into the mother's clan and they gained their status in the tribe from her family. Property and hereditary leadership passed through the maternal line, and the mother's eldest brother was the main male mentor of the children, especially of boys. Because of the status of their mothers, for nearly a century, the Colbert-Chickasaw sons and their descendants provided critical leadership during the tribe's greatest challenges. They had the advantage of growing up bilingual.

Of these six sons, William "Chooshemataha" Colbert (named after James Logan's father, Chief/Major William d'Blainville "Piomingo" Colbert) served with General Andrew Jackson during the Creek Wars of 1813-14. He also had served during the Revolutionary wars and received a commission from President George Washington in 1786 along with his namesake grandfather. His brothers Levi ("Itawamba Mingo") and George Colbert ("Tootesmastube") also had military service in support of the United States. In addition, the two each served as interpreters and negotiators for chiefs of the tribe during the period of removal. Levi Colbert served as principal chief, which may have been a designation by the Americans, who did not understand the decentralized nature of the chiefs' council, based on the tribe reaching broad consensus for major decisions. An example is that more than 40 chiefs from the Chickasaw Council, representing clans and villages, signed a letter in November 1832 by Levi Colbert to President Andrew Jackson, complaining about treaty negotiations with his appointee General John Coffee. [19] After Levi's death in 1834, the Chickasaw people were forced upon the Trail of Tears. His brother, George Colbert, reluctantly succeeded him as chief and principal negotiator, because he was bilingual and bicultural. George "Tootesmastube" Colbert never reached the Chickasaw's "Oka Homa" (red waters) he died on Choctaw territory, Fort Towson, en route.

Treaty of Pontotoc Creek and Removal (1832-1837) Edit

In 1832 after the state of Mississippi declared its jurisdiction over the Chickasaw Indians, outlawing tribal self-governance, Chickasaw chiefs assembled at the national council house on October 20, 1832 and signed the Treaty of Pontotoc Creek, ceding their remaining Mississippi territory to the U.S. and agreeing to find land and relocate west of the Mississippi River. Between 1832 and 1837, the Chickasaw would make further negotiations and arrangements for their removal. [20]

Unlike other tribes who received land grants in exchange for ceding territory, the Chickasaw held out for financial compensation: they were to receive $3 million U.S. dollars from the United States for their lands east of the Mississippi River. [21] In 1836 after a bitter five-year debate within the tribe, the Chickasaw had reached an agreement to purchase land in Indian Territory from the previously removed Choctaw. They paid the Choctaw $530,000 for the westernmost part of their land. The first group of Chickasaw moved in 1837. For nearly 30 years, the US did not pay the Chickasaw the $3 million it owed them for their historic territory in the Southeast.

The Chickasaw gathered at Memphis, Tennessee, on July 4, 1837, with all of their portable assets: belongings, livestock, and enslaved African Americans. Three thousand and one Chickasaw crossed the Mississippi River, following routes established by the Choctaw and Creek. [21] During the journey, often called the Trail of Tears by all the Southeast tribes that had to make it, more than 500 Chickasaw died of dysentery and smallpox.

When the Chickasaw reached Indian Territory, the United States began to administer to them through the Choctaw Nation, and later merged them for administrative reasons. The Chickasaw wrote their own constitution in the 1850s, an effort contributed to by Holmes Colbert.

After several decades of mistrust between the two peoples, in the twentieth century, the Chickasaw re-established their independent government. They are federally recognized as the Chickasaw Nation. The government is headquartered in Ada, Oklahoma.

American Civil War (1861) Edit

The Chickasaw Nation was the first of the Five Civilized Tribes to become allies of the Confederate States of America. [22] In addition, they resented the United States government, which had forced them off their lands and failed to protect them against the Plains tribes in the West. In 1861, as tensions rose related to the sectional conflict, the US Army abandoned Fort Washita, leaving the Chickasaw Nation defenseless against the Plains tribes. Confederate officials recruited the American Indian tribes with suggestions of an Indian state if they were victorious in the Civil War.

The Chickasaw passed a resolution allying with the Confederacy, which was signed by Governor Cyrus Harris on May 25, 1861.

Up to this time, our protection was in the United States troops stationed at Fort Washita, under the command of Colonel Emory. But he, as soon as the Confederate troops had entered our country, at once abandoned us and the Fort and, to make his flight more expeditious and his escape more sure, employed Black Beaver, a Shawnee Indian, under a promise to him of

five thousand dollars, to pilot him and his troops out of the Indian country safely without a collision with the Texas Confederates which Black Beaver accomplished. By this act the United States abandoned the Choctaws and Chickasaws. . .

Then, there being- no other alternative by which to save their country and property, they, as the less of the two evils that confronted them, went with the Southern Confederacy.

At the beginning of the American Civil War, Albert Pike was appointed as Confederate envoy to Native Americans. In this capacity, he negotiated several treaties, including the Treaty with Choctaws and Chickasaws in July 1861. The treaty covered sixty-four terms, covering many subjects such as Choctaw and Chickasaw nation sovereignty, Confederate States of America citizenship possibilities and an entitled delegate in the House of Representatives of the Confederate States of America. [23] Because the Chickasaw sided with the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War, they had to forfeit some of their land afterward. In addition, the US renegotiated their treaty, insisting on their emancipation of slaves and offering citizenship to those who wanted to stay in the Chickasaw Nation. If they returned to the United States, they would have US citizenship. [21]

This was the first time in history the Chickasaws have ever made war against an English speaking people.

Government Edit

The Chickasaws were first combined with the Choctaw Nation and their area was called the Chickasaw District. Although originally the western boundary of the Choctaw Nation extended to the 100th meridian, virtually no Chickasaw lived west of the Cross Timbers. The area was subject to continual raiding by the Indians on the Southern Plains. The United States eventually leased the area between the 100th and 98th meridians for the use of the Plains tribes. The area was referred to as the "Leased District". [24]

Treaties Edit

Treaty Year Signed with Where Main Purpose Ceded Land
Treaty with the Chickasaw [25] 1786 United States Hopwell, SC Peace and Protection provided by the U.S. and Define boundaries N/A
Treaty with the Chickasaw [26] 1801 United States Chickasaw Nation Right to make wagon road through the Chickasaw Nation, Acknowledge the protection provided by the U.S. (Not Available yet)
Treaty with the Chickasaw [27] 1805 United States Chickasaw Nation Eliminate debt to U.S. merchants and traders (Not Available yet)
Treaty of with the Chickasaw [28] 1816 United States Chickasaw Nation Cede land, provide allowances, and tracts reserved to Chickasaw Nation (Not Available yet)
Treaty of with the Chickasaw [29] 1818 United States Chickasaw Nation Cede land, payments for land cession, and Define boundaries (Not Available yet)
Treaty of Franklin [30] (un-ratified) 1830 United States Chickasaw Nation, See Hiram Masonic Lodge No. 7 [31] Cede lands east of the Mississippi River and provide protection for the 'weak' tribe (Not Available yet)
Treaty of Pontotoc [32] 1832 United States Chickasaw Nation Removal and Monetary gain from the sale of land 6,422,400 acres (25,991 km 2 ). [21]

Post–Civil War Edit

Because the Chickasaw allied with the Confederacy, after the Civil War the United States government required the nation to make a new peace treaty in 1866. It included the provision that they emancipate the enslaved African Americans and provide full citizenship to those who wanted to stay in the Chickasaw Nation.

These people and their descendants became known as the Chickasaw Freedmen. Descendants of the Freedmen continue to live in Oklahoma. Today, the Choctaw-Chickasaw Freedmen Association of Oklahoma represents the interests of freedmen descendants in both of these tribes. [33]

But the Chickasaw Nation never granted citizenship to the Chickasaw freedmen. [34] The only way that African Americans could become citizens at that time was to have one or more Chickasaw parents or to petition for citizenship and go through the process available to other non-Natives, even if they were of known partial Chickasaw descent in an earlier generation. Because the Chickasaw Nation did not provide citizenship to their freedmen after the Civil War (it would have been akin to formal adoption of individuals into the tribe), they were penalized by the U.S. Government. It took more than half of their territory, with no compensation. They lost territory that had been negotiated in treaties in exchange for their use after removal from the Southeast. [ citation needed ]

The Chaloklowa Chickasaw Indian People, made up of descendants of Chickasaw who did not leave the Southeast, were recognized as a "state-recognized group" in 2005 by South Carolina. They are headquartered in Hemingway, South Carolina. [35] In 2003, they unsuccessfully petitioned the US Department of the Interior Bureau of Indian Affairs to try to gain federal recognition as an Indian tribe. [36]

Culture Edit

The suffix -mingo (Chickasaw: minko) is used to identify a chief. For example, Tishomingo was the name of a famous Chickasaw chief. The towns of Tishomingo in Mississippi and Oklahoma were named for him, as was Tishomingo County in Mississippi. South Carolina's Black Mingo Creek was named after a colonial Chickasaw chief, who controlled the lands around it as a hunting ground. Sometimes the suffix is spelled minko, but this most often occurs in older literary references.

In 2010, the tribe opened the Chickasaw Cultural Center in Sulphur, Oklahoma. It includes the Chikasha Inchokka’ Traditional Village, Honor Garden, Sky and Water pavilion, and several in-depth exhibits about the diverse culture of the Chickasaw. [37]


It is very evident that the Chickasaw Indians were similar to the culture and lifestyle of the Choctaws because they spoke a very identical language, sometimes it is hard to spot the difference between the languages that they have spoken. They also gave importance to the matrilineal focus in their society. This matrilineal focus means that they only traced their genealogy through their mother’s bloodline.


In the History of Chickasaw Indian Tribe, This shows the importance that they gave to the women in their communities, as what the Choctaws also do. Their political system was also decentralized in order to give way to the other villages to have their respective chiefs and leaders. The sun is also revered as the ultimate expression of the power that is present in nature. For them, it is what creates and sustains the life on Earth.


Chickasaw History

The history of the Chickasaw Nation in its present location began in 1855, when the tribe was separated from the Choctaw Nation and re-formed its own government. Before that time, the Chickasaw Nation occupied original homelands in what are now the states of Mississippi, Kentucky, Tennessee and Alabama. The earliest recorded history of the Chickasaw Nation began in 1540, when Hernando de Soto encountered the tribe on his travels throughout the southeastern portion of the continent. Under President Andrew Jackson, the Chickasaw Nation was moved to its present location, but as part of the Choctaw Nation. This move took place during the late 1830s. The people were dissatisfied with being part of the Choctaw Nation and, by treaty with the Choctaws and the United States, severed their relations with the Choctaw Nation and formed their own government. The boundaries of the Chickasaw Nation were established by treaty, and continue to be recognized by the United States.

Suggested Sources on History and Culture:

The Chickasaws, by Dr. Arrell M. Gibson. This book provides historical information from traditional origins of the tribe until Oklahoma statehood in 1907.

Adair's History of the American Indian, by James Adair. Adair was a minister who lived among the Chickasaws and Choctaws in the middle of the 18th century. The book provides insight into tribal history, cultures and traditions.


CHICKASAW SCHOOLS.

In their original homeland in present Mississippi, beginning in 1799 Chickasaw Nation citizens first experienced English-language education through missionaries. The most significant of those efforts began in 1819 as a result of the Indian Civilization Fund Act, which invited Protestant missionaries to teach religion if they also taught secular subjects.

Under that legislation the Cumberland Presbyterian Association founded a school for Chickasaw children, Charity Hall, in 1820, and the South Carolina-Georgia Synod established Monroe, a demonstration farm school, in 1822. The boarding school/demonstration farm model was a forerunner of the "manual labor academy," a model of education considered inappropriate for white children but deemed appropriate for women, African Americans, and American Indians.

Chickasaws, however, found this model to be effective, as agriculture was a significant part of their nation's economic base, and even appropriated funds to build three more schools: Tokshish, Martyn, and Caney Creek. The objective of these schools was "to train the head, heart, and hand" of Chickasaw children. Consequently, the course of study included religious, academic, and domestic or industrial components. The Chickasaw people viewed education as essential to their continuing success in negotiations with the United States government. Nevertheless, Congress passed the Indian Removal Act in 1830, and in 1837 the Chickasaw people were forcibly relocated to the Indian Territory (present Oklahoma).

The Chickasaws determinedly rebuilt their nation. Knowing that education was crucial to their ultimate survival, in their first written laws in 1844 they founded a tribal academy, the Chickasaw Manual Labor Academy for boys. They soon opened four other boarding schools, for both males and females. Those schools were the Wapanucka Institute for girls (1852), the Bloomfield Academy for girls (1852), the Collins Institute (Colbert, 1854), and the Burney Institute for girls (1859). Remarkably, those schools were established by the Chickasaw Nation twenty years before the opening of the first federally operated off-reservation boarding school.

The Chickasaws partnered with Protestant denominations in their endeavors. Although the tribe supplied most of the funds, the missionary board controlled the schools' operation and hired the teachers from New England colleges and academies. The curriculum at the best-known Chickasaw boarding school, Bloomfield Academy, had academic, social, domestic, and religious components. Basic academic education was offered, as well as instruction in "social graces" such as drawing, painting, and vocal music. The domestic curriculum included instruction in sewing, cooking, and housework, which were considered an important part of the acculturation or "civilization" process. Missionaries emphasized the religious curriculum, consisting primarily of scripture memorization, as they strove to replace Chickasaw traditions with Christian teachings. The students were not allowed to speak the Chickasaw language at school, and in the case of many mixed-blood families, at home. Because of the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861 the boarding schools were closed.

After the war the Chickasaws reopened them in 1876 and maintained complete control until Oklahoma statehood in 1907. That period was regarded as the golden age of the Chickasaw boarding schools. During those years Chickasaw leaders changed the institutions' curricula. At Bloomfield, for example, religious training was minimal. Bloomfield's academic curriculum was considered equivalent to that of a junior college. In addition, students were instructed in social courses such as art, music, elocution, theater, and dancing. Domestic education was notably absent. Bloomfield enjoyed such a good reputation that the school was termed "the Bryn Mawr of the West." Bloomfield graduates were known as "the Bloomfield Blossoms." The course of study was designed to educate students to become leaders, to participate in both Indian and white communities, and to help Chickasaws transcend significant social and economic boundaries.

The U.S. government took control of the schools with the passage of the Curtis Act in 1898. At the turn of the century the Chickasaw Nation operated thirteen day schools, four academies, and an orphans' home. By Oklahoma statehood in 1907 the government had laid the groundwork for a state educational system by using the schools of the Five Tribes as models. Government officials shut down the Chickasaws' school system. Only Bloomfield Academy, the pride of the Chickasaws, remained in operation until 1949, but out of their control.

Bibliography

H. Warren Button and Eugene F. Provenzo, History of Education and Culture in America (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1983).

Sarah J. Carr, "Bloomfield Academy and Its Founder," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 2 (December 1924).

Arrell M. Gibson, The Chickasaws (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1971).

Joe C. Jackson, "Survey of Education in Eastern Oklahoma from 1907 to 1915," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 29 (Summer 1951).

Irene B. Mitchell, "Bloomfield Academy," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 49 (Winter 1971–72).

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Citation

The following (as per The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition) is the preferred citation for articles:
Amanda J. Cobb, &ldquoChickasaw Schools,&rdquo The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, https://www.okhistory.org/publications/enc/entry.php?entry=CH034.

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History of Chickasaw - History

A Bond with Tradition

“Built on the ideas, imagination and creativity of Chickasaws from all walks of life, this center incorporates nature, history, heritage and life ways to tell the ongoing story of the Chickasaw people. We invite you to join us as we celebrate the vision, resilience and spirit of the men, women and children of the Chickasaw Nation.” Governor Bill Anoatubby

The Chickasaw Cultural Center

The Chickasaw Cultural Center offers a world of opportunity to learn and connect with First American history. Watch the story of the Chickasaw people unfold before your eyes through powerful performances, reenactments, demonstrations, collections and exhibits at one of the largest and most extensive tribal cultural centers in the United States. Share in our passion, walk through our past and look to our future &ndash all in one unforgettable experience.

The Chickasaw Cultural Center

The Chickasaw Cultural Center offers a world of opportunity to learn and connect with First American history. Watch the story of the Chickasaw people unfold before your eyes through powerful performances, reenactments, demonstrations, collections and exhibits at one of the largest and most extensive tribal cultural centers in the United States. Share in our passion, walk through our past and look to our future &ndash all in one unforgettable experience.

Campus Grounds

Combining natural architectural elements and breathtaking scenery, our 184-acre campus offers no shortage of activities and adventures suited to visitors of all ages.

Campus Grounds

Combining natural architectural elements and breathtaking scenery, our 184-acre campus offers no shortage of activities and adventures suited to visitors of all ages.

Chikasha Poya Exhibit Center

The innovative Chikasha Poya Exhibit Center is home to displays and interactive experiences designed to educate through lessons, exhibits, treasured stories and interactive technology.

Chikasha Poya Exhibit Center

The innovative Chikasha Poya Exhibit Center is home to displays and interactive experiences designed to educate through lessons, exhibits, treasured stories and interactive technology.

Holisso: The Center for the Study of Chickasaw History and Culture

The Holisso: The Center for the Study of Chickasaw History and Culture features an extensive scholarly library and a collection of historical documents and anecdotes passed from generation to generation.

Holisso: The Center for the Study of Chickasaw History and Culture

The Holisso: The Center for the Study of Chickasaw History and Culture features an extensive scholarly library and a collection of historical documents and anecdotes passed from generation to generation.

Anoli' Theater

The Anoli' Theater is a state-of-the-art venue complete with a giant, four-story movie screen and a new, 2k high-definition digital projector. The theater primarily serves as a venue for showcasing American Indian history through film, but it also hosts a variety of special events and presentations.

Anoli' Theater

The Anoli' Theater is a state-of-the-art venue complete with a giant, four-story movie screen and a new, 2k high-definition digital projector. The theater primarily serves as a venue for showcasing American Indian history through film, but it also hosts a variety of special events and presentations.

Shopping

The Aaimpaꞌ Café and Aachompaꞌ Gift Shops will delight your senses with delicious Chickasaw fare and beautiful goods from Chickasaw Nation artisans.

Shopping

The Aaimpaꞌ Café and Aachompaꞌ Gift Shops will delight your senses with delicious Chickasaw fare and beautiful goods from Chickasaw Nation artisans.

Chikasha Inchokka' Traditional Village

Step into the past at the Chikasha Inchokka' Traditional Village, featuring authentic architecture, gardens and a variety of interactive lessons and demonstrations of Chickasaw culture.

Chikasha Inchokka' Traditional Village

Step into the past at the Chikasha Inchokka' Traditional Village, featuring authentic architecture, gardens and a variety of interactive lessons and demonstrations of Chickasaw culture.

Fine Art Galleries

Explore the history and culture of the expressive Chickasaw people by perusing the Aapisa' Art Gallery and Aaittafama' Room. Both beautiful spaces feature rotating artwork and exhibits for visitors of the Center to view.

Fine Art Galleries

Explore the history and culture of the expressive Chickasaw people by perusing the Aapisa' Art Gallery and Aaittafama' Room. Both beautiful spaces feature rotating artwork and exhibits for visitors of the Center to view.


Watch the video: Chickasaw Tribe Documentary