31 January 1943

31 January 1943

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The Notorious "31 Women" Art Show of 1943

The art collector Peggy Guggenheim had just opened her avant-garde "Art of This Century" gallery on West 57 Street in the fall of 1942 when her friend Marcel Duchamp suggested that she mount an all-woman exhibition. Guggenheim loved the idea: the show would be radical not only because of its composition but because most of the paintings, drawings, and sculptures on view would be either abstract or Surrealist in style, as befitted Guggenheim's modernist taste.

Leonor Fini's "The Shepherdess of the Sphinxes"

Leonor Fini's contribution, a painting called "The Shepherdess of the Sphinxes," drew on classic Surrealist themes of sexuality and, in this case, female power: it depicted a scantily-clad, voluptuous shepherdess in a dream landscape filled with equally voluptuous sphinxes who seem to have been feasting on bones and flowers. (It's now at the Peggy Guggenheim Collection in Venice.) Surrealist Kay Sage's painting, "At the Appointed Time," depicted a more abstract nightmarish landscape dominated by an ominous vertical metallic pillar, a road leading nowhere, and slimy, snakelike forms crawling over two horizontal beams.

Newcomer Dorothea Tanning's "Birthday" showed a half-undressed young woman standing beside a seemingly infinite series of receding doors a birdlike monster lies at her feet. Tanning's work was chosen by the celebrated European Surrealist, Max Ernst, then married to Guggenheim she had assigned him the task of visiting the studios of promising female artists in order to choose likely candidates for the upcoming show. Ernst, a notorious womanizer, promptly left Guggenheim and moved in with the much younger Tanning.

Georgia O'Keeffe declined an invitation to participate in the show, saying that she refused to be categorized as a "woman painter." She could afford to be particular, having by this time attained substantial recognition on her own. Other female artists did not have this luxury -- several, like the sculptor Xenia Cage, labored under the shadows of their more famous husbands (in her case, the composer John Cage) others, like the painter Buffie Johnson, knew plenty about sex discrimination in the art world (Time magazine critic James Stern had bluntly refused her request that he review the show, observing that women should stick to having babies).

Those critics who did review "31 Women" greeted it with a mixture of grudging admiration and dismissive condescension. The New York Times reviewer, Edward Alden Jewell, damned the show with faint praise and a patronizing tone. First, he made fun of the unconventionally undulating walls and biomorphic furniture in Guggenheim's gallery then he mocked Louise Nevelson's "Column" ("you would call it sculpture, I guess," he wrote). But he did note that "the exhibition yields one captivating surprise after another."

"H.B.," the critic for Art Digest, wrote in a similar vein: "Now that women are becoming serious about Surrealism, there is no telling where it will all end. An example of them exposing their subconscious may be viewed with alarm at the Art of the Century headquarters during January."

The worst of the put-downs came from Henry McBride in the New York Sun: women Surrealists were actually better than men, he said, because after all, "Surrealism is about 70% hysterics, 20% literature, 5% good painting and 5% just saying boo to the innocent public. There are, as we all know, plenty of men among the New York neurotics but we also know that there are still more women among them. Considering the statistics the doctors hand out, and considering the percentages listed above, … it is obvious women ought to excel at Surrealism.”

A final critic, in Art News, likewise could not resist snarky asides, but also raised serious questions about the wisdom of mounting woman-only shows. "Division of the sexes, or rather segregation of the female of the species, is ordinarily a dubious policy for an art show," the anonymous R.F. wrote "but this time, however, there is no outbreak of watercolor or flower paintings. The women -- they could never be laughingly referred to as ladies -- present a chinkless armored front." Women artists in 1943 evidently were damned either way, whether for creating presumably unimportant watercolors and flowers, or for being Amazons.

The condescending rhetoric of the reviewers in 1943 is largely out-of-date today, but the problem of underrepresentation of women in major art collections remains. On a recent day (in January 2016), I counted the works by female artists in the Metropolitan Museum of Art's Modern and Contemporary Art galleries. There were 29 -- as opposed to 305 works by men. That's about 9.5 percent, up from the less-than-5 percent total reported by the advocacy group Guerrilla Girls in 1985. Still, it's not very many.

"31 Women" attracted attention in part because one of its artists was the popular vaudeville stripper Gypsy Rose Lee, who was also a writer and a denizen of bohemian cultural circles. Her contribution was a collage titled "Self-Portrait" (she was clothed). The more serious, full-time artists included the up-and-coming abstract sculptor Louise Nevelson and the Surrealists Frida Kahlo, Leonora Carrington, Leonor Fini, and Meret Oppenheim, whose work, a teacup and spoon covered in fur, had caused gasps when it was shown at the Museum of Modern Art's "Fantastic Art" exhibition seven years before.

Kahlo was already famous, in part because of her marriage to the painter Diego Rivera, who had refused to comply with John D. Rockefeller, Jr.'s demand in 1933 that Rivera remove an image of Vladimir Lenin from his mural at Rockefeller Center. (Rockefeller then had the mural destroyed.) Kahlo's contribution to "31 Women" was a pencil drawing, "Self-Portrait with Cropped Hair." Dressed severely in men's clothes, with her shorn hair on the floor around her, Kahlo's grim self-portrait was a response to Rivera's chronic infidelities.

Guerrilla Girls poster, 2015

Buffie Johnson was sufficiently incensed by the sexism of the Time critic who thought women should stick to having babies that she wrote an article on women artists of the past, and the often insurmountable hurdles they have faced. She could not find a publisher for it until 1997, when the Jackson Pollock-Lee Krasner House in East Hampton, Long Island, mounted a show commemorating "31 Women" and a second, 1945 all-woman exhibit at Guggenheim's gallery. The catalog that accompanied the Pollock-Krasner House show included Johnson's article.

Buffie Johnson's contribution to "31 Women" back in 1943, incidentally, was a painting called "Dejeuner sur mer," a seascape with two women clinging to a wreck.

* Other artists represented in "31 Women" were Djuna Barnes, Irene Rice Pereira, Hedda Sterne, Sophie Taeuber-Arp, Hazel McKinley, Pegeen Vail, Barbara Reis, Valentine Hugo, Jacqueline Lamba, Suzy Frelinghuysen, Esphyr Slobodkina, Maria Helena Vieira da Silva, Aline Meyer Liebman, Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven, Julia Thecla, Sonia Secula, Gretchen Schoeninger, Elizabeth Eyre de Lanux, Meraud Guevara, Anne Harvey, and Milena Pavlović Barili, who is not well-known around the world but is a hero in her native Serbia: several of her works were reproduced on Yugoslavian postage stamps.

A Gentle War 16th Jan - 31 Jan 1943

During his RAF posting at Predannack Airfield in Cornwall my father, Kenneth Crapp, kept a diary. The diary runs from October 27th 1942 — June 7th 1944 and the first 4 month extract is included below. It shows an unexpectedly tranquil aspect of war — quiet background work on a somewhat isolated airfield, where an interest in birds and nature was undoubtedly ‘a saving grace’.

Saturday, January 16th
Unsatisfactory morning, endeavouring to dismantle jointed aerial poles that refused to be dismantled. Finished early, went to cycle inspection, helped to clean out the hut for the weekly inspection — then to Ruan Minor to post the parcel and get a p/o for another chap.

On the way back I fell in with a man who spoke to me. I asked him why everyone seemed to be going his way at the time and he said that the hunt was meeting up by the chapel. ‘There might be 4 or 5 horses’, he said, ‘and the hounds from Bochyn’.

Then round the corner came three gentleman in bowlers and black jackets, very lordly on their hunters, and a pack of hounds, noses questing busily. My companion stopped when one of the riders spoke with him ‘Where are these foxes you have for us?’ he asked. And the man pointed to the moor beyond the fields.

On duty at the transmitting station this afternoon, I gathered some dry gorse wood and packed it in a box for our hut fires. Gorse is excellent wood for fire-lighting when it’s dead.

To my surprise, I found myself lighting the fire in the hut — although I had washed, and shouldn’t be sleeping there that evening. At Mrs Trezise’s this evening I was welcomed and although we were a little shy at first, the piano soon broke down our reserve. I found that long absence from the piano made my fingers stiff and this, with the unaccustomed audience, made me play badly. Fred played a Mendelssohn Duetto much better than I played some Schubert’s pieces that I know.

Sunday, January 17th
The man I relieved yesterday has gone sick, so I had to take over his watch. I as glad that I didn’t have to ride back to the camp in driving rain. At 1230 the rain stopped. On the way back at 10 to 5 I heard and saw a blackbird singing on a bush top.

I spent the evening reading ‘Ariel’, [a biography of Shelley by Andre Maurois], and in doing crossword puzzles. We fried sausages for supper, then spent a long time telling each other yarns and listening to others from those at the DF station.

Monday, January 18th
Clothing parade resulted in two new vests, new pants, new socks, and a new shirt. We bombed Berlin Saturday night and last night London was bombed. I know no details yet. A very mild day, cloudy at first, but sunny later in the afternoon, so that I wanted to sit out in the sun and I did.

In the Reading Room this morning I found the padre playing over some of the records I missed at the Circle last night. A bit of Tchaikovsky’s Piano Concerto — the one from which the Warsaw Concerto was pinched, he says.

The Reading Room is to be closed every evening from 7 to 9.30, so that the RAF Regiment may have education drama. I don’t begrudge them their classes, but it’s most unfair that we should be denied the use of this room during the hours when we most often wish to use it. I hope it won’t last long.

The siege of Leningrad raised, Millerovo captured — such are the latest Russian successes. With Fred Behagg I went to Ruan Minor Institute to see Deanna Durbin in ‘Mad About Music’. Hard chairs, small screen, poor loudspeaker, yet Deana triumphed again: I wished she sang more than she did.

I rode down to the transmitters in a night of soft moonlight and air like that of a June night.

Tuesday, January 19th
I am to stay on here for a while and be in a 3 watch system with the other 2. Better still — we can work a day off each, so I’ve wangled tomorrow.

Blackbirds sing frequently at dawn and dusk.

Wednesday, January 20th
With Fred Behagg caught the milk lorry to St Erth. Rode with St Ives men from Helston to St Erth — 3 of us in front with the driver. Matt Cocking said he’s related by marriage to Mrs Jacobs.

At Hayle there was a boat on the bar there she’d stay until the next big tide the cargo was being taken off.

Haircut at a shop the owner’s name was Trezise he thought Friday a foolish day for early closing, but efforts to alter it have failed.

‘Gone with the Wind’ at the Ritz, but Fred had seen it, so I went with him to see ‘My Gal Sal’ — a musical tale of the Naughty Nineties with the tuneful music of Paul Dresser.

At the YM we had roast lamb for dinner with two veg and apple tart — no coffee or bread and butter served now: not with midday meal. For tea — cottage pie.

Along the prom waves were dashing across the front: we had to run to escape.

At Helston, supper at the YM of sausage and chips and beans and a chat with Fred — a real Londoner. In a daylight raid in London, a school was hit and many children are dead and missing.

Kamersk captured by Russians I think the myth of German invincibility is slowly dying: sometimes it renews itself for a short while.

Thursday, January 21st
T1190 gives trouble. I am told to look at the relays, but they are all right. At last Mr A turns up and is also puzzled. Seagulls calling at 10pm.

Friday, January 22nd
Bicycle cleaned and I went to inspection. Flight took my word that it had been cleaned. Spent the evening, first in a shower, and then changing and packing up my laundry. It took 2.5 hours — much chatter.

Saturday, January 23rd
Another day off to my surprise and delight so have we worked our rota. I do not thrust the fact and official notice, but take steps to get the ‘bus from Mullion unseen. I get on at Campden House, where Mrs T and Fred and another lady are waiting. She is Mrs Park, my officer’s wife. She is elegant indeed. I put her bag on the bus for her and get in after her. Mr A is there and all my precautions are in vain. I cannot guess his thoughts at what he sees.

Because of him I avoid the Falmouth ‘bus and hitch-hike, getting to Falmouth a good while before the ‘bus.

Peg and John with Michael are coming — I have chosen the right day. They arrive at 2.45 and we meet them.

News that Tripoli is ours!

Crowds through the streets in the town. I search in vain for a greetings or Xmas card with the RAF crest on — they seem unobtainable.

Walt Disney’s ‘Bambi’ next week — what I miss by being so far from home!

Joys of camp life — on their beds in the dark lie two drunken youths: one is in bed and not feeling good: the other worries over him and over the partner in another hut later two more appear, also slightly canned. They take a long time to get to sleep and are noisy: one groans loudly ere he sleeps.

Sunday, January 24th
A lovely morning. Chicken for dinner at Mrs Trezise’s, followed by Xmas pudding wherein I find a sixpence. Mrs T serves the pudding following the course of the sun: wallpaper should also be done that way too.

Monday, January 25th
A great change to work back at the workshop — so much to do and so few to do it. Usually the day concludes with the duty run normally this is just taking an accumulator to the HF/DF station: often it’s used for all sorts of odd jobs as well. Then tonight on duty as well with two calls out, one from 1030 — 1130 and later from -0140 until 0420 — both really unnecessary calls for me, but I had to turn out.

Tuesday, January 26th
Meals have improved again — breakfast is usually good dinner better than it was and we now get cake and jam every day for tea.

We have to carry our sten guns around with us — but no ammunition! It’s crazy. Our gum boots are only to be worn in inclement weather — this does not mean normal rain. I never know when I shall find myself plodding across the boggy moors, where every mountain and hollow is full of water, so I disregard this order.

Not long ago, when we’re looking forward to better weather to come, a notice appears in D R O’s about bicycles ‘Bicycles must be properly oiled before the really inclement weather sets in!’

I got a good fire going in the hut tonight, then went to the Reading Room for a while. So to the NAAFI and back to the hut to enjoy the fire.

Wednesday, January 27th
A very interesting letter form Uncle Fred, full of interesting bird lore, his own observations. He says I’m very lucky to be stationed here on one of the migratory routes!

I struggle today to repair the poles carrying our telephone lines over a roadway a new top to the pole, new stays and then the effort to put it up, with only one man to help me. The traffic held us up a lot and eventually I had to leave it to go on the duty run. When I returned, I had to connect up a lot of small accs for charging — a fiddling job that took a long time and I had to put off my proposed trip to see the Trezise’s.

Another good fire in the hut and I stayed there reading ‘Memory Hold the Door’ and the Arabian Nights.

A good tale of the camp. On the COs inspection last Saturday, he himself visited the ablutions. The corporal in charge gave him an elaborate salute, stalked ahead of him to the entrance of the showers, stood there and loudly called ‘Attention’!

Thursday, January 28th
I feel hungrier as a result of a more active life and I’ve a lot less time to spare. At dinnertime I read yesterday’s papers and so I read of the ‘Unconditional Surrender’ meeting between Churchill and Roosevelt at Casablanca. The papers have been hinting at big news to come for several days.

On Tuesday, as we lay in bed, we talked of piles and we listened especially to Stan Webster’s experiences. ‘If they are big’ he said ‘one sometimes pops out like a gremlin out of a rabbit hole’.

The news is now on — Russians recapture Maikop oil wells. 8th Army pushes on towards Tunisia: RAF stage a short, heavy attack on Düsseldorf.

Friday, January 29th
At Campden House this evening I played the piano while Fred played the mandolin. I missed an ENSA film show by this visit. The film was ‘Mrs Miniver’ — a film which is drawing huge crowds wherever it’s shown.

Saturday, January 30th
To celebrate the tenth anniversary of the Nazis advent to power, Mosquitoes raided Berlin in daylight this morning, sending Goering scurrying for shelter and delaying his speech to the German armed forces by more than one hour. Another raid was carried out later, just before Goebbels was to broadcast Hitler’s proclamation. It is significant that Hitler did not speak.

At Campden House this evening I was regaled with a hot pasty and tea. Supper too, later, with coffee. I played, badly I feel, some light pieces by Schubert, and Fred had a go as well. Rough winds and heavy showers prevalent now.

Sunday, January 31st
January got a real farewell this year, a rollicking, roistering gale early in the day that tore off our chimney top, drove rain into buildings everywhere and developed gusts of 80mph.

Two jobs to do on duty, before it got too dark ….. and then I hurried to the Music Circle where the chief item was Brahms’ 2nd Symphony.

Russians yesterday captured Tikhoretsk railway junction — thereby increasing the peril of the German forces in the Caucasus.

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The Eastern Front, February–September 1943

The German counteroffensive of February 1943 threw back the Soviet forces that had been advancing toward the Dnepr River on the Izyum sector of the front, and by mid-March the Germans had retaken Kharkov and Belgorod and reestablished a front on the Donets River. Hitler also authorized the German forces to fall back, in March, from their advanced positions facing Moscow to a straighter line in front of Smolensk and Orël. Finally, there was the existence of the large Soviet bulge, or salient, around Kursk, between Orël and Belgorod, which extended for about 150 miles from north to south and protruded 100 miles into the German lines. This salient irresistibly tempted Hitler and Zeitzler into undertaking a new and extremely ambitious offensive instead of remaining content to hold their newly shortened front.

Hitler concentrated all efforts on this offensive without regard to the risk that an unsuccessful attack would leave him without reserves to maintain any subsequent defense of his long front. The Germans’ increasing difficulty in building up their forces with fresh drafts of men and equipment was reflected in the increased delay that year in opening the summer offensive. Three months’ pause followed the close of the winter campaign.

By contrast, the Red Army had improved much since 1942, both in quality and in quantity. The flow of new equipment had greatly increased, as had the number of new divisions, and its numerical superiority over the Germans was now about 4 to 1. Better still, its leadership had improved with experience: generals and junior commanders alike had become more skilled tacticians. That could already be discerned in the summer of 1943, when the Soviets waited to let the Germans lead off and commit themselves deeply to an offensive, and so stood well-poised to exploit the Germans’ loss of balance in lunging.

The German offensive against the Kursk salient was launched on July 5, 1943, and into it Hitler threw 20 infantry divisions and 17 armoured divisions having a total of about 3,000 tanks. But the German tank columns got entangled in the deep minefields that the Soviets had laid, forewarned by the long preparation of the offensive. The Germans advanced only 10–30 miles, and no large bag of Soviet prisoners was taken, since the Red Army had withdrawn their main forces from the salient before the German attack began. After a week of effort the German armoured divisions were seriously reduced by the well-prepared Soviet antitank defenses in the salient. On July 12, as the Germans began to pull out, the Soviets launched a counteroffensive upon the German positions in the salient and met with great success, taking Orël on August 5. By this time the Germans had lost 2,900 tanks and 70,000 men in the Battle of Kursk, which was the largest tank battle in history. The Soviets continued to advance steadily, taking Belgorod and then Kharkov. In September the Soviet advance was accelerated, and by the end of the month the Germans in the Ukraine had been driven back to the Dnepr.

This Day in Black History: Jan. 31, 1943

Broadway star and film actress Etta Moten Barnett sang at the birthday party for President Franklin D. Roosevelt on Jan. 31, 1943, becoming the first African-American to perform at the White House.

She performed "Remember My Forgotten Man,” which she also sang in the movie Gold Diggers of 1933 (1933), although she was not listed in the credits. A conaltro vocalist, she was best known for her starring role in the 1942 revival of Porgy and Bess on Broadway.

Barnett was born November 5, 1901, in Weimar, Texas. She married Claude Barnett, founder of the Associated Negro Press, in 1934. In her later years, Barnett was active in many community organizations including the National Council of Negro Women, the National Conference of Christians and Jews and the African American Institute. She passed away from pancreatic cancer on January 5, 2004, at age 102.

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Zhitomir-Berdichev German Operations West of Kiev 24 December 1943-31 January 1944 Volume 1

On 24 December 1943, the Red Army launched the first of a series of winter offensives against the German Army Group South under von Manstein, the overall object of which was to liberate western Ukraine from occupation. This first offensive was undertaken by forces of the 1st Ukrainian Front under General Vatutin, and struck the German 4.Panzerarmee commanded by General der Panzertruppen Raus. It is known to Soviet historians as the Zhitomir-Berdichev operation.In the space of three weeks, Vatutin's troops achieved a spectacular level of success, advancing over 100 kilometres on a wide front and pushing back the 4.Panzerarmee on every sector. They liberated Zhitomir and Berdichev as well as a number of other towns in the region, and by the middle of January, the 1st Ukrainian Front had achieved almost all of its initial objectives. By this time though, von Manstein had brought in the headquarters of the 1.Panzerarmee to help co-ordinate the defence, and the Germans began to stabilise their shattered front line with a series of counterattacks aimed at the over-extended position of many of the forward Soviet units. These counterattacks, conducted over the following three weeks, succeeded in creating a series of loosely-held pockets, inflicting considerable losses in men and material of the Red Army, and eventually restoring some form of cohesive defensive position. Nevertheless, the limited success von Manstein had achieved was only temporary. The combination of Russian assault and German counterattack had created the preconditions for the next two Soviet winter offensives the Korsun'-Shevchenkovskii operation and the Rovno-Lutsk operation.For the first time, here is a detailed and well-researched history of the important but neglected operation that was to be the beginning of the liberation of western Ukraine. Based on the unpublished records of the German 1st and 4th Panzer Armies, and supplemented by comprehensive mapping and order of battle data, this book provides an authoritative, detailed, day-by-day account of German operations as they developed in response to the Soviet offensive. It also gives a vivid insight into the planning and decision-making of the German Army field commands in conducting not only a mobile defence, but also a series of counterattacks which, in the final analysis, could do little more than provide a temporary respite in the face of the growing strength and skill of the Red Army.This history is being published in two separate volumes, which together will cover operations that took place between 24 December 1943 and 31 January 1944. This first volume describes events until 9 January 1944, during which period the German forces were pushed back forcibly under the weight of the Soviet offensive, and includes 140 detailed daily situation maps in colour to allow the reader to follow operations as they developed day by day. The second volume will cover the period from 10 to 31 January 1944 and will describe the series of counterattacks undertaken by the Germans as they tried desperately to stabilise a situation that had already slipped beyond their control.Together this two volume set comprises a ground-breaking survey which, in the breadth of its scope and the depth of its detail, is likely to set a new standard for future studies of operational combat on the Eastern Front.

"Barratt does a superb job detailing the course and outcome of this important Soviet offensive from the German perspective. His careful and detailed study of German military records provides the essential basis for subsequent balanced accounts of how Field Marshal von Manstein conducted maneuver war against an essentially faceless but numerically superior enemy." David M. Glantz

31 January 1943 - History

Southwest and Western Pacific

All Areas 284,023 11,834,995 28,500,226 48,512,945 42,987,344 132,119,533

(a) Latin America tonnage is combined with North America tonnage in 1945.
(b) Central Africa and Middle East tonnage is combined with Mediterranean and North Africa beginning November 1944.
(c) South Pacific tonnage is combined with Central Pacific beginning August 1944.

Chart Showing Percentage of Total Cargo Shipped Each Year (based on data above)

Shipped to Overseas Destinations by Principal Army Ports: Dec. 1941 to Dec. 1945

Includes cargo shipped to Army commanders overseas on vessels operated by or allocated to the Army, on vessels operated by or allocated to the Navy, and on commercial vessels for the military forces or for civilian relief also lend-lease supplies shipped on vessels operated by or allocated so the Army. Figures do not include lend-lease supplies procured by the War Department and shipped on vessels not under Army control.

Measurement Tons of Forty Cubic Feet

Dec. 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945

Total Boston 160 600,612 1,959,969 3,953,680 2,967,359 9,481,780 New York 75,257 3,717,884 10,116,328 15,861,674 8,753,402 38,524,545 Philadelphia 346 4,541 743,729 2,772,146 2,431,408 5,952,170 Baltimore 0 51,290 1,028,166 2,811,494 2,974,692 6,865,643 Hampton Roads 7,277 337,900 3,020,069 5,464,725 4,125,763 12,955,734 Charleston 5,543 386,242 672,139 1,092,313 1,518,851 3,675,088 New Orleans 41,058 972,863 883,486 2,002,136 4,055,943 7,954,767 Los Angeles 2,423 485,346 1,495,561 3,293,091 3,887,943 9,164,364 San Francisco 101,645 3,486,401 5,555,283 7,711,629 8,173,801 25,028,759 Seattle 50,314 1,791,916 3,025,496 3,550,057 4,098,900 12,516,683 Total all ports 284,023 11,834,995 28,500,226 45,512,945 42,987,344 132,119,533

The ports shown are the eight at which the Army operated ports of embarkation and the two (Philadelphia and Baltimore) at which the Army operated cargo ports. While the greater part of the cargo was loaded directly at these ports, some was loaded also at officially designated subports and at other ports located near and supervised by the principal ports. Of the unnamed ports, the larger tonnages were Loaded at Searsport, Maine (470,000 Measurement Tons, a subport of Boston Prince Rupert, British Columbia (950,000 Measurement Tons.), a subport of Seattle and Portland, Oregon (1,800.000 Measurement Tons, a subport of San Francisco through August 1944 and a subport of Seattle thereafter. The cargo included is the same as above.

Shipped by Water by Services within the Armed Forces: Dec. 1941 to Dec. 1945

Includes cargo shipped to Army commanders overseas on vessels operated by or allocated to the Army, on vessels operated by or allocated to the Navy, and on commercial vessels for the military forces or for civilian relief also lend-lease supplies shipped on vessels operated by or allocated so the Army. Figures do not include lend-lease supplies procured by the War Department and shipped on vessels not under Army control.

Measurement Tons of Forty Cubic Feet

Dec. 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 Total Army Air Forces 40,929 1,163,639 4,147,644 9,067,968 5,287,561 19,707,741 Chemical Warfare Service 1,513 52,636 313,888 519,452 188,693 1,076,182 Corps of Engineers 84,638 2,525,795 4,542,403 6,531,115 5,476,319 19,160,270 Medical Department 2,237 137,064 259,407 440,012 304,368 1,143,088 Ordnance Department 13,906 1,552,370 7,840,785 12,494,933 8,847,774 30,749,768 Quartermaster Corps 113,338 5,349,574 6,621,593 12,080,088 13,329,330 37,493,923 Signal Corps 6,617 182,062 568,509 980,768 804,998 2,542,954 Transportation Corps (a) (a) 844,564 1,309,061 1,123,953 3,277,578 Army, Miscellaneous (b) 11,920 738,804 2,870,279 4,446,134 7,102,113 15,169,250 Navy (c) 8,925 133,051 491,154 643,414 522,235 1,798,779 All Services 284,023 11,834,995 28,500,226 48,512,945 42,987,344 132,119,533

(a)Transportation Corps materiel included with "Miscellaneous" through 1942.
(b)Includes lend-lease and civilian relief supplies shipped on vessels operated by or allocated to the Army, Coast Artillery Corps shipments, troop baggage, household goods and other personal property of military personnel changing stations, Army Exchange and Special Services shipments, and some other items.
(c)Includes naval supplies shipped on vessels operated by or allocated to the Army. The Navy also transported Army materiel on vessels operated by or allocated to it.

31 January 1943 - History


"Hourglass Division"

(Updated 1-28-10)

The 7th Infantry Division, the "Bayonet," was a light division formerly stationed at Fort Ord, California. Known at the end of the Cold War as "light fighters," this division has a storied history from WWII and Korea to Operation Just Cause, the invasion of Panama.

The shoulder sleeve insignia was first adopted in October of 1918. It originated from the use of two sevens, one inverted and one upright, to create an hourglass symbol. As a result, the 7th Division was also known as the "hourglass division." A bayonet was added to the distinctive unit insignia as a result of the Division's participation in the Korean War and symbolizes the fighting spirit of the 7th Infantry.

The 7th Infantry Division was originally formed for service during World War I. It was activated into the regular army on December 6, 1917 at Camp Wheeler, Georgia and after training arrived in France in October of 1918, approximately a month before the armistice was signed. Although the 7th Infantry Division as a whole did not see action, many of its subordinate units did. After 33 days in combat, the division suffered 1,988 casualties that included 204 killed in action. The 7th Infantry Division returned to the United States in late 1919 and was gradually demobilized at Camp Meade, Maryland. The Division was deactivated on September 22, 1921.

In the buildup for World War II, a cadre was sent to Camp Ord, California to reactivate the 7th Infantry Division on July 1, 1940. The Division was formed around the 17th, 32nd, and 53rd Infantry Regiments and was commanded by Major General Joseph Stilwell. Many of the new soldiers in the Division were draftees, called up in the US Army's first peacetime draft in history.

After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the 7th Infantry Division was sent to Camp San Luis Obispo to continue training. The 159th Infantry, recently mobilized from the California National Guard, replaced the 53rd Infantry Regiment. From April of 1940 until January 1, 1943, the Division was designated the 7th Motorized Division and the unit trained in California's Mojave Desert. It was thought that the Division would head to North Africa. However, the motor vehicles went away, and the unit was redesignated the 7th Infantry Division once again. Amphibious training began under the tutelage of the Feet Marine Force and General Holland Smith. The 7th Division was now destined for the Pacific Theater.

The Hourglass Division first saw combat in WWII in the Aleutian Islands. On May 11, 1943, lead by the 17th Infantry Regiment, elements of the Division landed on Attu Island where Japanese forces were established. The 7th Infantry Division destroyed all Japanese resistance on the island by May 29th after defending against a suicidal "Bonzai" charge. Approximately 2,351 Japanese were killed, leaving only 28 to be taken prisoner. The 7th Infantry Division lost 600 soldiers killed in action. The 159th Infantry Regiment remained on Attu to secure the island and was replaced by the 184th Infantry Regiment. In August of 1943 the 7th Infantry landed on Kiska Island only to find that the Japanese forces there had secretly withdrawn. The Hourglass Division was then redeployed to the Hawaiian Islands for more training.

The 7th ID was now assigned to the Marine's V Amphibious Corps along with the 4th Marine Division. Their next stop was Kwajalein Atoll, landing on January 30, 1944. The purpose of Operation Flintlock was to remove all Japanese forces from this group of 47 islands in the Pacific. The 7th Infantry Division landed on the main island of Kwajalein while the Marines moved on to outlying islands. By February 4th the island was under the control of the Hourglass soldiers. The 7th Infantry Division suffered 176 killed in action and 767 wounded.

Elements of the 7th Infantry Division also participated in Operation Catchpole to capture Engebi in the Eniwetok Atoll on February 18, 1944. The islands of that atoll were secured in only a week. Afterwards, all elements of the Division were back in Hawaii for refit and training in preparation for the assault on the Philippine Islands. While there, the Hourglass Division was reviewed by General Douglas MacArthur and President Franklin Roosevelt in June of 1944.

The 7th Infantry Division was now assigned to XXIV Corps of the Sixth Army. On October 20, 1944 the Hourglass Division made an assault landing at Dulag, on Leyte in the Philippine Islands. Initially there was only light resistance. However, on October 26th the enemy launched a large, but uncoordinated counter attack against the Sixth Army. High casualties were suffered in fierce jungle fighting, but the 17th Infantry Regiment took Dagami on October 29th. The 7th Infantry Division then moved to the west coast of the island on November 25th, attacking north to Ormoc and securing Valencia on December 25, 1944. Operations to secure Leyte continued until February of 1945. The 7th Infantry Division was then removed from the Sixth Army, which went on to attack Luzon and continue the Philippine Campaign. The Hourglass Division would begin training for their next stop through the Pacific, the Japanese island of Okinawa.

For the landing on Okinawa, the 7th Infantry Division was again assigned to the XXIV Corps, now of the Tenth Army. On April 1, 1945, the 7th Infantry Division landed south on Okinawa along with the 96th Infantry Division, and the 1st, and 6th Marine Divisions. The Okinawa Campaign would eventually have 250,000 troops on the island. The Japanese had removed their armor and artillery off the beach and set up defenses in the hills of Shuri. The XXIV Corps destroyed these forces after 51 days of battle over harsh terrain and in inconsiderate weather. After 39 more days of combat, the 7th Infantry Division was moved into reserve after having suffered heavy casualties. The Hourglass Division was soon moved back into the line and fought until the end of the Battle of Okinawa on June 21, 1945. The 7th ID had experienced 89 days of combat on Okinawa and lost 1,116 killed in action and approximately 6,000 wounded. However, it is estimated that the 7th Infantry Division killed at least 25,000 Japanese soldiers and took 4,584 prisoners.

During WWII, the Hourglass soldiers spent 208 days in combat and suffered 8,135 casualties. The 7th Infantry Division won three Medals of Honor, 26 Distinguished Service Crosses, 1 Distinguished Service Medal, 982 Silver Star Medals, and 3,853 Bronze Star Medals. The Division received nine Distinguished Unit Citations and four campaign streamers.

After the Japanese surrender, the 7th Infantry Division was moved to Korea to accept the surrender of Japanese forces there. After the war, the Bayonets remained as occupation forces in Japan and as security forces in South Korea. During this period, the US Army went through a massive reduction in strength, falling from a wartime high of 89 divisions to only 10 active duty divisions by 1950. The 7th Infantry Division was one of only four drastically under strength and under trained divisions on occupation duty in Japan when the North Koreans invaded South Korea on June 25, 1950.

At the beginning of the Korean War, the 7th Infantry Division was further reduced in strength when the Division provided reinforcements for the 25th Infantry Division and the 1st Cavalry Division who were sent directly to South Korea. Over the next two months the Bayonet Division was brought up to strength with replacements from the US, over 8,600 South Korean soldiers, and the attachment of a battalion of Ethiopians as part of United Nations forces.

The 7th Infantry Division and the 1st Marine Division made up the landing force for the famous Inchon Landing, code named Operation Chromite. Supported by the 3rd Infantry Division in reserve the landing began on September 7, 1950 under the command of the X Corps. The operation took the North Koreans completely by surprise and the X Corps immediately moved on to retake the South Korean capital of Seoul. Seoul was captured on September 26th, and the 7th Infantry Division soon linked with American forces moving north from the breakout of the Pusan Perimeter. The Inchon operation cost the Division 106 killed, 411 wounded, and 57 missing. Casualties of South Korean soldiers with the Division numbered 43 killed and 102 wounded. The X Corps was removed through the ports at Inchon and Pusan to prepare for another amphibious landing further north.

With the North Korean army broken and on the run, the 7th Infantry Division made an unopposed landing at Iwon on October 31, 1950 with orders to move north to the Yalu river with the rest of the X Corps. Through cold, early winter weather, like that only known to a soldier who has been to the Korean Peninsula, the 17th Infantry Regiment made it to Hyesanjin on the Yalu on November 20th. This made the 17th, and as a result the 7th ID, the first American unit to reach the Manchurian border with Communist China.

Chinese Communist Forces (CCF) entered the war on November 27, 1950, storming across the border to attack the Eighth Army in the west and X Corps in the east. Twelve Chinese divisions now assaulted the spread out regiments of the Bayonets and the rest of X Corps. United Nations forces could not stand up to the onslaught and a retreat was ordered. The 7th ID repulsed repeated attacks as they moved to the port of Hungnam during December of 1950. Three battalions of the division, known as Task Force Faith were trapped by the CCF during the withdrawal. These battalions were wiped out during what became known as the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. During the retreat from the Yalu, the 7th Infantry Division lost 2,657 killed and 354 wounded.

The 7th Infantry Division was back on the front lines during January of 1951 as part of the United Nations offensive to push back the CCF and North Koreans. The Division was now part of the IX Corps and saw action almost continuously until June when it was moved to the rear for rest and refit. The first since coming to the Korean Peninsula. The Bayonets returned to the line in October, now entering the "stalemate" phase of the war. The 7th ID defended a "static line" with the rest of United Nations forces until the armistice. It was only known as "static" because although the enemy was kept above the 38th parallel, very few gains in territory were made. Still, the Bayonets participated in multiple recognizable actions like the Battle for Heartbreak Ridge, the Battle for Old Baldy, the assault on the Triangle Hill complex as part of Operation Showdown, and the famous Battle at Pork Chop Hill.

The Korean War Armistice was signed on July 27, 1953. During the Korean War, the Bayonets were in combat for a total of 850 days. They suffered 15,126 casualties, including 3,905 killed in action and 10,858 wounded. The 7th Infantry Division remained on the DMZ, it's headquarters at Camp Casey, South Korea until 1971. On April 2, 1971 the Division was deactivated at Fort Lewis, Washington.

The 7th Infantry Division was reactivated at Fort Ord, California in October of 1974. The Bayonets did not deploy to Vietnam. They were held as a contingency force for South America. On October 1, 1985 the Division was redesignated as the 7th Infantry Division (Light) and organized as a light infantry division. It was the first US division specifically designed as such. During the Cold War the "Light Fighters" trained at Fort Ord, Camp Roberts, Fort Hunter Liggett and Fort Irwin. The 7th ID now had battalions from the 21st, 27th, and 9th Infantry Regiments.

In December of 1989, the 7th Infantry Division participated in Operation Just Cause, the invasion of the Central American nation of Panama. The 7th Light Infantry Division was joined by the 82nd Airborne Division, the 75th Rangers, Marines and other US forces totaling some 27,684 personnel and over 300 aircraft. On December 20th, elements of the 7th ID landed in the northern areas of Colon Province, securing the Coco Solo naval Station, Fort Espinar, France Field, and Colon. The symbolic end of the operation was the surrender of Panamanian Dictator Manuel Noriega on January 3, 1990. Most US units began to return to their American bases on January 12th, however several units, including the 5th Battalion, 21st Infantry (Light) of the 7th Light Infantry Division stayed in Panama until later in the spring to train the new Panamanian Police Forces.

One final mission for the 7th Infantry Division was helping to restore order to the Los Angeles basin during the riots in 1992. Their deployment was called Operation Garden Plot, whose objective was to patrol the streets of Los Angeles and act as crowd control, supporting the Los Angeles Police Department and the California National Guard. In 1991 the Base Realignment and Closure Commission recommended the closing of Fort Ord due to the high cost of living in the coastal California area. By 1994 the 7th ID had moved to Fort Lewis, Washington. As part of the post-Cold War reduction of forces, the 7th Infantry Division (Light) was deactivated on June 16, 1994 at Fort Lewis.

Since the end of the Cold War, the US Army has considered new options for integrating the components of the Active Army, National Guard, and Army Reserve. To facilitate the training and readiness of National Guard units, two active duty division headquarters were activated. The 7th ID was one of these, reactivated on June 4, 1999 at Fort Carson, Colorado. While the active division headquarters concept worked admirably, a new component called Division West under First Army was activated to control the training of reserve units in 21 states. This made the need for the active component headquarters obsolete and the 7th Infantry Division headquarters was deactivated for the final time on August 22, 2006.

The 7th Infantry Division was identified as the highest priority inactive division in the US Army Center of Military History's lineage scheme due to its numerous accolades and long history. All of the Bayonets' flags and heraldic items are located in the National Infantry Museum at Fort Benning, Georgia.

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Churchill's Fight Against Indian Independence

Why would the British government behave with such inhumane disregard for life? Indian scholars today believe that it stemmed in large part from the antipathy of Prime Minister Winston Churchill, generally considered one of the heroes of World War II. Even as other British officials like Secretary of State for India, Leopold Amery and Sir Archibald Wavell, India's new viceroy, sought to get food to the hungry--Churchill blocked their efforts.

A fervent imperialist, Churchill knew that India--Britain's "Crown Jewel"--was moving toward independence, and he hated the Indian people for it. During a War Cabinet meeting, he said that the famine was the Indians' fault because they "breed like rabbits," adding "I hate Indians. They are a beastly people with a beastly religion." Informed of the rising death toll, Churchill quipped that he only regretted that Mohandas Gandhi was not among the dead.

The Bengal Famine ended in 1944, thanks to a bumper rice crop. As of this writing, the British government has yet to apologize for its role in the suffering.

31 January 1943 - History

Although toleration was give to Christianity in 311CE by Constantine I, Christianity did not become the legal religion of the Roman Empire until the reign of Theodosius I (379-395). At that point not only was Christianity made the official religion of the Empire, but other religions were declared illegal.

Theodosian Code XVI.1.2

It is our desire that all the various nation which are subject to our clemency and moderation, should continue to the profession of that religion which was delivered to the Romans by the divine Apostle Peter, as it has been preserved by faithful tradition and which is now professed by the Pontiff Damasus and by Peter, Bishop of Alexandria, a man of apostolic holiness. According to the apostolic teaching and the doctrine of the Gospel, let us believe in the one diety of the father, Son and Holy Spirit, in equal majesty and in a holy Trinity. We authorize the followers of this law to assume the title Catholic Christians but as for the others, since in out judgment they are foolish madmen, we decree that the shall be branded with the ignominious name of heretics, and shall not presume to give their conventicles the name of churches. They will suffer in the first place the chastisement of divine condemnation an the second the punishment of out authority, in accordance with the will of heaven shall decide to inflict.

from Henry Bettenson, ed., Documents of the Christian Church, (London: Oxford University Press, 1943), p. 31 [Short extract used under fair-use provsions]

This text is part of the Internet Medieval Source Book. The Sourcebook is a collection of public domain and copy-permitted texts related to medieval and Byzantine history.

Unless otherwise indicated the specific electronic form of the document is copyright. Permission is granted for electronic copying, distribution in print form for educational purposes and personal use. If you do reduplicate the document, indicate the source. No permission is granted for commercial use.

Paul Halsall June 1997
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The Internet History Sourcebooks Project is located at the History Department of Fordham University, New York. The Internet Medieval Sourcebook, and other medieval components of the project, are located at the Fordham University Center for Medieval Studies.The IHSP recognizes the contribution of Fordham University, the Fordham University History Department, and the Fordham Center for Medieval Studies in providing web space and server support for the project. The IHSP is a project independent of Fordham University. Although the IHSP seeks to follow all applicable copyright law, Fordham University is not the institutional owner, and is not liable as the result of any legal action.

© Site Concept and Design: Paul Halsall created 26 Jan 1996: latest revision 20 January 2021 [CV]

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